Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - 5-3 - Septembre 2018

mardi 18 septembre 2018

1. Crespi BJ. The Paradox of Copy Number Variants in ASD and Schizophrenia : False Facts or False Hypotheses ?. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2018 (September 01) ;5(3):199-207.

A series of recent papers has demonstrated “mirror extreme” variation in measures of brain size, between individuals with deletions compared to duplications, for copy number variation loci. For most loci, ASD-associated CNVs involve larger brain sizes, and schizophrenia-associated CNVs involve smaller brain sizes, the same patterns also found for idiopathic cases of ASD and schizophrenia. However, some CNVs have been linked with both disorders. Taken together, these findings appear paradoxical and require explanation. One possibility is that the paradoxical CNV data represents, to some degree, false positive diagnoses. A second possibility is that the paradox is based on false premises. I review current evidence salient to the two hypotheses, and suggest future studies to test them in a definitive way.

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2. Ghanouni P, Zwicker JG. Electrophysiological Responses to Emotional Facial Expressions in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder : a Systematic Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2018 (September 01) ;5(3):208-226.

Studies on processing of emotional faces in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown mixed findings. The goal of this systematic review was to investigate brain electrical responses to emotional facial expressions in individuals with ASD. We conducted a literature search of nine databases and grey literature sources up to Jan 2017, resulting in 943 studies. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria, with quality assessments varying from three to six out of 10. This systematic review demonstrates that individuals with ASD show a lack of sensitivity to different emotional expressions, especially fear, compared to their peers. Atypical brain responses in processing emotional faces may reflect the abnormalities in visual perception and information processing that are present early in life.

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3. Stiller A, Mößle T. Media Use Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder : a Systematic Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2018 (September 01) ;5(3):227-246.

Screen media has become an intrinsic feature in the daily lives of children and youths with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This systematic review provides a current overview concerning the significance of screen media in the lives of children and youths with ASD. For the years 2005 to 2016, we identified 47 studies covering media use among children and youths with ASD. These studies concordantly showed screen media as being a preferred leisure activity for children and youths with ASD, and reported mixed evidence compared to children without ASD. Further research on content, functionality, problematic media use, other leisure time activities, and quality of life is recommended.

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4. Gilroy SP, Kaplan BA, Leader G. A Systematic Review of Applied Behavioral Economics in Assessments and Treatments for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2018 (September 01) ;5(3):247-259.

Treatments for individuals with developmental disabilities regularly include assessments of individual choice and preference. These procedures assist in the development, design, and maintenance of effective, evidence-based practices. Despite widespread use, these assessments may or may not accurately identify reinforcers that will be effective in treatments. Procedures and analyses from the area of behavioral economics have been proposed to address this potential source of error, although these procedures are observed relatively infrequently in the current literature. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the elements of behavioral economics that have and have not been incorporated into assessments or treatments for individuals with disabilities. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology was utilized (Prospero : #CRD42017069859) to systematically search the literature and the Scopus, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink databases were included. Studies were included if their procedures used behavioral economics and if those procedures were used with individuals with developmental disabilities. Twenty-two studies were identified and the results of this review indicated that only a limited range of behavioral economic procedures have been translated into assessments and treatments for individuals with developmental disabilities. This review discusses the degrees to which these procedures have been extended to this population and outlines additional research and replication to further aide in the translation of these procedures into applied practice.

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5. Dababnah S, Ghosh S, Campion K, Hussein D, Downton KD. Autism Interventions in India : a Systematic Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2018 (September 01) ;5(3):260-267.

Little is known about services for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in India. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify studies of ASD interventions in India. Among the 13 articles meeting review criteria, nearly all described efforts to culturally adapt interventions and/or outcome measures for Indian participants. Generally small and urban study samples limited generalizability of findings. Few studies targeted young children, and none focused on older adolescents and/or adults. All studies described improvements in target child and/or caregiver outcomes. However, the majority used qualitative, single-subject, or one-group designs, and several did not adequately describe their research designs or analytic methods. More research is needed to test and scale up culturally relevant ASD interventions for Indian populations.

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6. Lee GK, Chun J, Hama H, Carter EW. Review of Transition and Vocational Interventions for Youth and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2018 (September 01) ;5(3):268-284.

The persistence of disappointing employment outcomes for youth and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicates the importance of efforts to prepare them for the workplace. We conducted a systematic review of intervention/follow-up intervention studies on employment skills and outcomes for youth and adults with ASD. We reviewed 39 studies in terms of their participant characteristics, research methodologies, intervention features, and employment outcomes. These studies highlight practices and programs that promote vocational skill acquisition, improve employment outcomes, and provide collateral benefits (e.g., mental health, confidence, time management). It is unclear, however, which individuals with ASD are likely to benefit most from particular interventions. We offer implications for practice and research to improve employment experiences of youth and adults with ASD.

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7. Habib K, Montreuil T, Bertone A. Social Learning Through Structured Exercise for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2018 (September 01) ;5(3):285-293.

Increased participation in structured exercise (SE) routines has positive effects on physiological, cognitive, and social development (SD) for students of all ages and abilities. SE offers unique opportunities for social learning in a non-academic context. SE allows students to practice vital social skills such as observation, imitation, and self-regulation. Unfortunately, SD during SE is often overshadowed by more commonly known physiological benefits. Researchers of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are encouraged by SE findings which offer alternative methods for learning social skills the students struggle to develop. Examining the social impact of increased SE for these students bolsters the value of SE findings beyond physiological effects, illuminating the complex, often overlooked positive relationship between SD and exercise for students with ASD.

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8. Akamoglu Y, Meadan H. Parent-Implemented Language and Communication Interventions for Children with Developmental Delays and Disabilities : a Scoping Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2018 (September 01) ;5(3):294-309.

The purpose of this article was to review and examine the empirical literature on parent implemented naturalistic language interventions aimed at supporting language development of young children with disabilities. A scoping review of 21 parent-implemented naturalistic language intervention studies published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted to (a) identify and report the types of naturalistic strategies used in research studies, (b) identify the characteristics of study participants, and (c) collate and summarize the effects of parent implemented intervention studies. All 21 studies reported positive outcomes for parents and children and indicated that parents could implement naturalistic strategies with their young children. Results of parent-implemented language interventions are discussed. Limitations of the present review as well as the current literature are identified. Implications for research and practice are addressed following the literature review.

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