Pubmed du 08/02/19

vendredi 8 février 2019

1. Alnazly EK, Abojedi A. Psychological distress and perceived burden in caregivers of persons with autism spectrum disorder. Perspectives in psychiatric care. 2019.

PURPOSE : To investigate psychological distress among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and the associated sociodemographic factors influencing parents’ distress. DESIGN AND METHODS : A cross-sectional design with a sample of 123 Jordanian parents providing care to children with autism spectrum disorder was used. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale, the Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were utilized for data collection. FINDINGS : Parents reported moderate levels of burden, negative life changes, and borderline depression and anxiety. The perceived burden related to caregiving task difficulty positively correlated with that related to time spent on tasks and negatively correlated with caregivers’ caregiving-related outcomes. The perceived burden of caregiving tasks was negatively correlated with depression and anxiety and anxiety levels were positively correlated with depression (P < 0.001). PRACTICE IMPLICATION : Healthcare providers, advanced practice nurses, and policy makers should be aware of the burden, anxiety, and depression experienced by caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

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2. Aran A, Eylon M, Harel M, Polianski L, Nemirovski A, Tepper S, Schnapp A, Cassuto H, Wattad N, Tam J. Lower circulating endocannabinoid levels in children with autism spectrum disorder. Mol Autism. 2019 ; 10 : 2.

Background : The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major regulator of synaptic plasticity and neuromodulation. Alterations of the ECS have been demonstrated in several animal models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In some of these models, activating the ECS rescued the social deficits. Evidence for dysregulations of the ECS in human ASD are emerging, but comprehensive assessments and correlations with disease characteristics have not been reported yet. Methods : Serum levels of the main endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA or anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and their related endogenous compounds, arachidonic acid (AA), N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), and N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in 93 children with ASD (age = 13.1 +/- 4.1, range 6-21 ; 79% boys) and 93 age- and gender-matched neurotypical children (age = 11.8 +/- 4.3, range 5.5-21 ; 79% boys). Results were associated with gender and use of medications, and were correlated with age, BMI, and adaptive functioning of ASD participants as reflected by scores of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II (VABS-II), and Social Responsiveness Scale-II (SRS-2). Results : Children with ASD had lower levels (pmol/mL, mean +/- SEM) of AEA (0.722 +/- 0.045 vs. 1.252 +/- 0.072, P < 0.0001, effect size 0.91), OEA (17.3 +/- 0.80 vs. 27.8 +/- 1.44, P < 0.0001, effect size 0.94), and PEA (4.93 +/- 0.32 vs. 7.15 +/- 0.37, P < 0.0001, effect size 0.65), but not AA and 2-AG. Serum levels of AEA, OEA, and PEA were not significantly associated or correlated with age, gender, BMI, medications, and adaptive functioning of ASD participants. In children with ASD, but not in the control group, younger age and lower BMI tended to correlate with lower AEA levels. However, these correlations were not statistically significant after a correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions : We found lower serum levels of AEA, PEA, and OEA in children with ASD. Further studies are needed to determine whether circulating endocannabinoid levels can be used as stratification biomarkers that identify clinically significant subgroups within the autism spectrum and if they reflect lower endocannabinoid "tone" in the brain, as found in animal models of ASD.

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3. Davila-Ortiz de Montellano DJ, Jara-Prado A, Rodriguez-Violante M, Camacho-Molina A, Carnevale A, Fresan-Orellana A, Camarena-Medellin B, Sanchez-Garcia D, Sotelo J. Low diagnostic accuracy of fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome diagnostic criteria in late onset ataxia. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society. 2019.

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4. Doshi P, Tilford JM, Ounpraseuth S, Kuo DZ, Payakachat N. Correction to : Do Insurance Mandates Affect Racial Disparities in Outcomes for Children with Autism ?. Maternal and child health journal. 2019.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the analysis of the Tables 4 and 5.

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5. Dunfield KA, Best LJ, Kelley EA, Kuhlmeier VA. Motivating Moral Behavior : Helping, Sharing, and Comforting in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Front Psychol. 2019 ; 10 : 25.

This exploratory study examined the role of social-cognitive development in the production of moral behavior. Specifically, we explored the propensity of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to engage in helping, sharing, and comforting acts, addressing two specific questions : (1) Compared to their typically developing (TD) peers, how do young children with ASD perform on three prosocial tasks that require the recognition of different kinds of need (instrumental, material, and emotional), and (2) are children with ASD adept at distinguishing situations in which an adult needs assistance from perceptually similar situations in which the need is absent ? Children with ASD demonstrated low levels of helping and sharing but provided comfort at levels consistent with their TD peers. Children with ASD also tended to differentiate situations where a need was present from situations in which it was absent. Together, these results provided an initial demonstration that young children with ASD have the ability to take another’s perspective and represent their internal need states. However, when the cost of engaging in prosocial behavior is high (e.g., helping and sharing), children with ASD may be less inclined to engage in the behavior, suggesting that both the capacity to recognize another’s need and the motivation to act on behalf of another appear to play important roles in the production of prosocial behavior. Further, differential responding on the helping, sharing, and comforting tasks lend support to current proposals that the domain of moral behavior is comprised of a variety of distinct subtypes of prosocial behavior.

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6. Kim G, Carrico C, Ivey C, Wunsch PB. Impact of sensory adapted dental environment on children with developmental disabilities. Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry. 2019.

AIMS : This was a pilot study assessing the impact of a sensory adapted dental environment (SADE) on children with developmental disabilities (DD) receiving routine dental care. METHODS : A crossover study of 22 children with DD, aged 6 through 21, was conducted at a University Pediatric Dental clinic. Each participant was randomized to a sequence of two dental cleanings on a 3- to 4-month recall schedule, one with a regular dental environment (RDE) and one with SADE. Outcomes included physiological measures (heart rate and oxygen saturation) and cooperation (Frankl scores). RESULTS : Study subjects completed 36 visits. None of the physiological measures differed at either time point between the two treatment settings. The Frankl scores were significantly higher with SADE setting than RDE (P = 0.0368). Forty-six percent of parents strongly agreed that they would prefer the SADE for their child’s next visit. CONCLUSION : SADE may be associated with improved behavior in children with DD.

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7. Taylor JL, Smith DaWalt L, Marvin AR, Law JK, Lipkin P. Sex differences in employment and supports for adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2019 : 1362361319827417.

This study explored sex differences in employment, reasons for unemployment, benefits, and supports among a large, international sample of adults with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 443 adults with autism spectrum disorder (60% female ; 74% residing in the United States) who consented to be part of an autism research registry and completed an Internet survey. Outcome variables included current employment status, number of hours working, number of jobs in the past 5 years, reasons for unemployment, as well as the number of benefits received and the amount of financial support currently being received from families of origin. Using multiple regression models, we found that males and females were working at similar rates. Females were more likely than males to say that their unemployment was a result of choosing to withdraw from the labor market. Similar percentages of males and females reported receiving some form of benefits or family support, but of those receiving benefits/family support, males received more than females. These results are consistent with other studies finding subtle, but potentially important sex differences in life-course outcomes of individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

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8. Yamashiro A, Vouloumanos A. Are linguistic and social-pragmatic abilities separable in neurotypical infants and infants later diagnosed with ASD ?. Developmental psychology. 2019.

Adult humans process communicative interactions by recognizing that information is being communicated through speech (linguistic ability) and simultaneously evaluating how to respond appropriately (social-pragmatic ability). These abilities may originate in infancy. Infants understand how speech communicates in social interactions, helping them learn language and how to interact with others. Infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who show deficits in social-pragmatic abilities, differ in how they attend to the linguistic and social-pragmatic information in their environment. Despite their interdependence, experimental measures of language and social-pragmatic attention are often studied in isolation in infancy. Thus, the extent to which language and social-pragmatic abilities are related constructs remains unknown. Understanding how related or separable language and social-pragmatic abilities are in infancy may reveal whether these abilities are supported by distinguishable developmental mechanisms. This study uses a single communicative scene to examine whether real-time linguistic and social-pragmatic attention are separable in neurotypical infants and infants later diagnosed with ASD, and whether attending to linguistic and social-pragmatic information separately predicts later language and social-pragmatic abilities 1 year later. For neurotypical 12-month-olds and 12-month-olds later diagnosed with ASD, linguistic attention was not correlated with concurrent social-pragmatic attention. Furthermore, infants’ real-time attention to the linguistic and social-pragmatic aspects of the scene at 12 months predicted and distinguished language and social-pragmatic abilities at 24 months. Language and social-pragmatic attention during communication are thus separable in infancy and may follow distinguishable developmental trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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