Pubmed du 10/03/19

dimanche 10 mars 2019

1. Dunsmore JC, Ashley RA, Zhou Y, Swain DM, Factor RS, Broomell AP, Waldron JC, Bell MA, Scarpa A. Marching to the beat of your own drum ? : A proof-of-concept study assessing physiological linkage in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Biol Psychol ;2019 (Mar 6)

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by difficulty in dynamically adjusting behavior to interact effectively with others, or social reciprocity. Synchronization of physiological responses between interacting partners, or physiological linkage (PL), is thought to provide a foundation for social reciprocity. In previous work we developed a new technique to measure PL using dynamic linear time series modeling to assess cardiac interbeat interval (IBI) linkage in typically developing same-sex unacquainted dyads (Scarpa et al., 2017). The current article describes a proof-of-concept study with three dyads of young adults with ASD interacting with same-sex unacquainted typically developing (TD) partners. This pilot data is applied to propose potential benefits of using this technique to quantify and assess PL in individuals with ASD, both for basic research and for intervention science. Discussion focuses on applications of this measure to potentially advance knowledge of the biology-behavior link in ASD.

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2. Fontil L, Sladeczek IE, Gittens J, Kubishyn N, Habib K. From early intervention to elementary school : A survey of transition support practices for children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Dev Disabil ;2019 (Mar 6) ;88:30-41.

BACKGROUND : Early school transitions can be difficult for children, however, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience greater difficulty making the transition into school. Transition support practices, such as transition meetings, can facilitate successful school beginnings. AIMS : The aim of the present study was to determine what type and amount of transition support practices early intervention (EI) service providers were implementing to support the transition to school of children with ASDs. Barriers and facilitators to transition planning were also evaluated. METHODS AND PROCEDURES : Surveys were completed by program directors of 164 EI service providers across Canada. Program directors reported on transition support practices in use, as well as program level characteristics. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS : Overall, Canadian EI providers reported using a high frequency of high-quality, individualized transition supports for children with ASD. Major barriers included a lack of government support and elementary school engagement. Specialized transition training and offering ASD-specific services were related to an increase in transition supports. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS : The present study highlights areas for improvement in transition support practice and policy. Namely, increased government support could lead to increased levels of elementary school engagement, which has important implications for children’s long- and short-term educational outcomes.

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3. Ganglmayer K, Schuwerk T, Sodian B, Paulus M. Do Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Condition Anticipate Others’ Actions as Goal-Directed ? A Predictive Coding Perspective. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Mar 8)

An action’s end state can be anticipated by considering the agent’s goal, or simply by projecting the movement trajectory. Theories suggest that individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC) have difficulties anticipating other’s goal-directed actions, caused by an impairment using prior information. We examined whether children, adolescents and adults with and without ASC visually anticipate another’s action based on its goal or movement trajectory by presenting participants an agent repeatedly taking different paths to reach the same of two targets. The ASC group anticipated the goal and not just the movement pattern, but needed more time to perform goal-directed anticipations. Results are in line with predictive coding accounts, claiming that the use of prior information is impaired in ASC.

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4. Hansen SN, Schendel DE, Francis RW, Windham GC, Bresnahan M, Levine SZ, Reichenberg A, Gissler M, Kodesh A, Bai D, Yip BHK, Leonard H, Sandin S, Buxbaum JD, Hultman C, Sourander A, Glasson EJ, Wong K, Oberg R, Parner ET. Recurrence Risk of Autism in Siblings and Cousins : A Multi-National, Population-Based Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2019 (Mar 6)

OBJECTIVE : Familial recurrence risk is an important population-level measure of the combined genetic and shared familial liability of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Objectives were to estimate ASD recurrence risk among siblings and cousins by varying degree of relatedness and by sex. METHOD : Population-based cohort study of 1998-2007 livebirths from California, Denmark, Finland, Israel, Sweden and Western Australia followed through 2011-2015. Subjects were monitored for an ASD diagnosis in their older siblings or cousins (exposure) and for their own ASD diagnosis (outcome). The relative recurrence risk was estimated for different sibling- and cousin-pairs, for each site separately and combined, and by sex. RESULTS : During follow-up, 29,998 cases of ASD were observed among the 2,551,918 births used to estimate recurrence in ASD and 33,769 cases of childhood autism (CA) were observed among the 6,110,942 births used to estimate CA recurrence. Compared to the risk in unaffected families, we observed an 8.4-fold increase in the risk of ASD following an older sibling with ASD and an 17.4-fold increase in the risk of CA following an older sibling with CA. A 2-fold increase in the risk for cousin recurrence was observed for both disorders. We also found a significant difference in sibling ASD recurrence risk by sex. CONCLUSION : Our estimates of relative recurrence risks for ASD and CA will assist clinicians and families in understanding autism risk in the context of other families in their population. The observed variation by sex underlines the need to deepen our understanding of factors influencing ASD familial risk.

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5. Kwon MK, Moore A, Barnes CC, Cha D, Pierce K. Typical Levels of Eye-Region Fixation in Toddlers With ASD Across Multiple Contexts. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2019 (Mar 6)

OBJECTIVE : Unusual eye contact is a common clinical feature in ASD, yet eye tracking studies that quantify eye fixation reveal inconsistent results, possibly due to small sample sizes, varied stimuli, and considerable heterogeneity of eye-region fixation even within typical development. Goals were to examine : (1) eye-region fixation levels in a large, very young cohort ; (2) the degree to which the presence of speech, hand gestures, and a geometric distractor influence eye-region fixation ; and (3) possible developmental changes across time. METHOD : In Experiment 1, 385 toddlers (143 with ASD ; 242 non-ASD, 11 to 47 months) watched an actress engaging in child-directed speech with hand gestures against a plain background. Ninety-one toddlers participated again approximately 8 months later. In Experiment 2, another 231 toddlers (74 with ASD ; 157 non-ASD, 12 to 47 months) watched the same video, but with embedded geometric distractors. Total fixation duration within facial and body (e.g., eyes, hands), and geometric distractor regions (Experiment 2 only) while the actress was speaking or silent, with or without gesturing was examined as were relationships with clinical traits. RESULTS : Overall, across both experiments and both cross-sectional and longitudinal samples, eye-region fixation duration did not differ between toddlers with and without ASD, although fixation towards the face overall was reduced in toddlers with ASD. This reduction became more apparent with the presence of geometric distractors (Experiment 2) as indexed by a geometric preference score, and this score was associated with autism severity. CONCLUSION : Within the context of viewing child-friendly vignettes, reduced eye-region fixation does not reliably characterize toddlers with ASD. An index of competition between faces and external distractors might be a more robust measure.

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6. Wiggins LD, Rice CE, Barger B, Soke GN, Lee LC, Moody E, Edmondson-Pretzel R, Levy SE. DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder maximizes diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in preschool children. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ;2019 (Mar 8)

PURPOSE : The criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were revised in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of DSM-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and DSM-5 definitions of ASD in a community-based sample of preschool children. METHODS : Children between 2 and 5 years of age were enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development-Phase 2 (SEED2) and received a comprehensive developmental evaluation. The clinician(s) who evaluated the child completed two diagnostic checklists that indicated the presence and severity of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Definitions for DSM-5 ASD, DSM-IV-TR autistic disorder, and DSM-IV-TR Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) were created from the diagnostic checklists. RESULTS : 773 children met SEED2 criteria for ASD and 288 met criteria for another developmental disorder (DD). Agreement between DSM-5 and DSM-IV-TR definitions of ASD were good for autistic disorder (0.78) and moderate for PDD-NOS (0.57 and 0.59). Children who met DSM-IV-TR autistic disorder but not DSM-5 ASD (n = 71) were more likely to have mild ASD symptoms, or symptoms accounted for by another disorder. Children who met PDD-NOS but not DSM-5 ASD (n = 66), or vice versa (n = 120) were less likely to have intellectual disability and more likely to be female. Sensitivity and specificity were best balanced with DSM-5 ASD criteria (0.95 and 0.78, respectively). CONCLUSIONS : The DSM-5 definition of ASD maximizes diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in the SEED2 sample. These findings support the DSM-5 conceptualization of ASD in preschool children.

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