Pubmed du 07/04/19

dimanche 7 avril 2019

1. Guo BQ, Li HB, Zhai DS, Ding SB. Maternal multivitamin supplementation is associated with a reduced risk of autism spectrum disorder in children : a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition research (New York, NY). 2019.

Several studies have explored the link of antenatal multivitamin supplementation with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring, but the findings are inconsistent. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the actual association between maternal multivitamin supplementation during the prenatal period and the risk of ASD in children. PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched up to August 26, 2018. The random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled results. The adjusted risk ratios (RRs) were used as the common measure of association among studies. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted. A total of 5 articles (9 independent trials ; 231 163 children encompassing 4459 cases) were included. The results of overall analysis showed that the likelihood of ASD in offspring whose mothers used multivitamin supplements during the prenatal period was significantly reduced compared with that in offspring of mothers without such supplementation (RR, 0.62 ; 95% CI, 0.45-0.86 ; P=.003). Additionally, the primary outcome of the meta-analysis was quite robust after being verified by sensitivity analyses and no publication bias was found. Furthermore, the findings of overall analysis were generally consistent with those of subgroup analyses. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a protective association between maternal multivitamin supplementation during the prenatal period and the subsequent risk of ASD in children. Further investigation is needed and should address the constituent(s) contributing to the protective effect of multivitamin on ASD risk and the underlying molecular mechanisms.

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2. Kordulewska NK, Kostyra E, Chwala B, Moszynska M, Cieslinska A, Fiedorowicz E, Jarmolowska B. A novel concept of immunological and allergy interactions in autism spectrum disorders : Molecular, anti-inflammatory effect of osthole. International immunopharmacology. 2019 ; 72 : 1-11.

BACKGROUND : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by Diagnosis and Statistic Manual 5 (DSM-5) as persistent social interaction and communication deficient across multiple contexts. Various immunological findings have been reported in children with ASD, and co-existing allergic problems have been recorded in children diagnosed with ASD. Osthole, the effective component of Chinese traditional medicine, is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. This study assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of osthole on the histamine-induced inflammatory responses in PBMC cells. METHODS : Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC’s) from children with : (1) ASD group with co-existing allergies/asthma (n=29) ; (2) ASD group without allergy/asthma (n=29) ; (3) Allergy group (n=30) and from typically developing age-matched control subjects (n=28) were stimulated with either histamine, FXF, osthole or mixture of this substances. mRNA COX-2 gene expression, COX-2 production and inhibitory effect of tested substances on COX-2 were assessed after stimulation. RESULTS : Children with ASD may show either an innate proinflammatory response or increased activity of COX-2 which could display more impaired behavioral profile than children with non-inflamed. This study indicated that COX-2 may be involved in pathogenesis of ASD and/or allergy, and osthole could be used to decrease the effects of COX-2 in inflammation and ASD development. High incidence of allergy in ASD patients may indicate immune dysregulation that could be of relevance to the pathophysiology, symptomatology or neuroimmunology of ASD. CONCLUSIONS : This study shows that fexofenadine (FXF - antihistamine drug) and osthole exhibit selective COX-2 enzyme inhibitory activity. The selective COX-2 activity of osthole may explain further the anti-inflammatory properties of osthole in relieving congestion in allergic rhinitis, and as distinctive effects between FXF and osthole were observed, individual antihistamines may have different modes of action via the COX enzyme system.

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3. Kossioni AE, Ioannidou K, Kalyva D, Marchini L, Hartshorn J, Kaufman L, Smith B, Barlow PB. Translation and validation of the Greek version of an ageism scale for dental students (ASDS_Gr). Gerodontology. 2019.

OBJECTIVES : To describe the validation of a new 27-item ageism scale for dental students in Greece. BACKGROUND : A new ageism scale for dental students has been developed by American and European Gerodontology educators and was preliminary validated in the United States. METHODS : The scale was translated into Greek and administered to 8th- and 10th-semester dental students in Athens. Principal components analysis was used to explore the internal structure of the measure ; internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ; corrected item-total correlations were calculated to decide which low contributing items should be removed from the scale ; and discriminant validity was tested investigating variation in relation to demographic and educational factors. RESULTS : A total of 152 students responded to the questionnaire. The Principal component analysis offered a 15-item scale distributed into four factors that accounted for 56.4%, of the total variance, produced stronger factor loadings, a comparable amount of overall component variance and logical sets of components. The four factors produced were values/ethics about older people (four items, alpha = 0.71), patient compliance (four items, alpha = 0.72), barriers to dental care (four items, alpha = 0.57) and dentist-older patient interaction (three items, alpha = 0.64). Discriminant validity revealed statistically significant differences in factors and items related to semester of studies, gender and family’s permanent residence. CONCLUSION : The preliminary validation of the Greek version of the ageing scale for dental students revealed a 15-item questionnaire that demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability and could be further tested in larger samples.

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4. Meza RD, Beidas RS, Ehrhart MG, Mandell DS, Dorsey S, Frederick L, Oh C, Locke J. Discrepancies and Agreement in Perceptions of Implementation Leadership : Associations with Dosage of School-Based Evidence-Based Practices for Children with Autism. Administration and policy in mental health. 2019.

Studies demonstrate that discrepancies among leader-follower perceptions of leadership are related to organizational processes that may impact evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation. However, it is unknown whether discrepancies in leadership perceptions also predict EBP use. This study examined the association of principal-staff alignment and discrepancy in perceptions of implementation leadership with the dosage of three Autism-focused school-based EBPs, Discrete Trial Training, Pivotal Response Training (PRT), and Visual Schedules. PRT dosage was higher when principals under-rated their implementation leadership and when it was agreed upon that implementation leadership was low. Findings have implications for leaders support of EBPs implemented in school-based settings.

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5. Mimura K, Oga T, Sasaki T, Nakagaki K, Sato C, Sumida K, Hoshino K, Saito K, Miyawaki I, Suhara T, Aoki I, Minamimoto T, Ichinohe N. Abnormal axon guidance signals and reduced interhemispheric connection via anterior commissure in neonates of marmoset ASD model. Neuroimage. 2019.

In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), disrupted functional and structural connectivity in the social brain has been suggested as the core biological mechanism underlying the social recognition deficits of this neurodevelopmental disorder. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic and neurostructural abnormalities at birth in a non-human primate model of ASD, the common marmoset with maternal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), which has been reported to display social recognition deficit in adulthood. Using a comprehensive gene expression analysis, we found that 20 genes were significantly downregulated in VPA-exposed neonates. Of these, Frizzled3 (FZD3) and PIK3CA were identified in an axon guidance signaling pathway. FZD3 is essential for the normal development of the anterior commissure (AC) and corpus callosum (CC) ; hence, we performed diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging with a 7-Tesla scanner to measure the midsagittal sizes of these structures. We found that the AC size in VPA-exposed neonates was significantly smaller than that in age-matched controls, while the CC size did not differ. These results suggest that downregulation of the genes related to axon guidance and decreased AC size in neonatal primates may be linked to social brain dysfunctions that can happen later in life.

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6. Pellecchia M, Marcus SC, Spaulding C, Seidman M, Xie M, Rump K, Reisinger EM, Mandell DS. Randomized Trial of a Computer-Assisted Intervention for Children With Autism in Schools. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019.

OBJECTIVE : Computer-assisted interventions (CAI) are popular for educating children with autism, but their effectiveness is not well-established. We evaluated the effectiveness of one CAI designed to improve children’s language, cognitive, and academic skills, TeachTown : Basics, in a large urban school district. METHOD : Teachers (n = 59) in autism support classrooms and their consented students in kindergarten through second grade (n = 154) were randomized to TeachTown : Basics or waitlist control. Child outcome was measured at baseline and after one academic year using the Bracken Basic Concepts Scale - Receptive & Expressive versions, and the Differential Ability Scales, 2(nd) Edition. Random effects regression models that included clustering of time within students and students within classrooms were used to test whether the change over time in each outcome differed between groups. RESULTS : There were no statistically significant differences in outcomes for children who received TeachTown : Basics or treatment as usual. Increased time spent using TeachTown : Basics was associated with worse receptive language outcomes for children in the experimental group after one academic year, however there was no association between minutes spent using TeachTown and changes in expressive language or DAS-II score. CONCLUSION : Despite growing enthusiasm for CAI in autism treatment, our findings indicate that CAI may not be effective at improving language and cognitive outcomes for children with ASD. The decision to implement CAI in schools should be carefully balanced with the evidence for effectiveness of these programs. Schools may be better served by investing in treatment strategies with established evidence.

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7. Tromans S, Diehl B, Kiani R. Association of temporal lobe epilepsy with gambling disorder in a patient with mild intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Seizure. 2019 ; 69 : 17-9.

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