Pubmed du 10/05/19

vendredi 10 mai 2019

1. Alshaban F, Aldosari M, Al-Shammari H, El-Hag S, Ghazal I, Tolefat M, Ali M, Kamal M, Abdel Aati N, Abeidah M, Saad AH, Dekair L, Al Khasawneh M, Ramsay K, Fombonne E. Prevalence and correlates of autism spectrum disorder in Qatar : a national study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ;2019 (May 8)

BACKGROUND : Few epidemiological data on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exist for Arabic countries. We conducted the first survey of ASD in Qatar, a population with high consanguinity level. METHODS : This cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2015 to 2018 in Qatar school-age children (N = 176,960) from national and immigrant families. Children diagnosed with ASD were identified through medical centers and special needs schools. Records were abstracted and supplemented by parental interviews. Additionally, children attending 93 schools were screened ; ASD case status was confirmed in random samples of screen-positive and screen-negative children. Prevalence was estimated after taking into account different sampling fractions and participation rates at each survey phase. RESULTS : One thousand three hundred and ninety-three children already diagnosed with ASD were identified. Among 9,074 school survey participants, 760 screen-negative children and 163 screen-positive children were evaluated ; 17 were confirmed to have ASD including five children newly diagnosed. Prevalence was 1.14% (95% CI : 0.89-1.46) among 6- to 11-year-olds. ASD was reported in full siblings/extended relatives in 5.9% (95% CI : 0.042-0.080)/11.8% (95% CI : 0.095-0.146) families. First-degree consanguinity in Qatari cases (45%) was comparable to known population levels. Among 844 ASD cases (mean age : 7.2 years ; 81% male), most children experienced language delay (words : 75.1% ; phrase speech : 91.4%), and 19.4% reported developmental regression. At the time of the survey, persisting deficits in expressive language (19.4%) and peer interactions (14.0%) were reported in conjunction with behavioral problems (ADHD : 30.2% ; anxiety : 11.0%). In multivariate logistic regression, ASD severity was associated with parental consanguinity, gestational diabetes, delay in walking, and developmental regression. CONCLUSIONS : ASD prevalence in Qatar is consistent with recent international studies. The methods employed in this study should help designing comparable surveys in the region. We estimated that 187,000 youths under age 20 have ASD in Gulf countries. This figure should assist in planning health and educational services for a young, fast-growing population.

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2. Bloy L, Shwayder K, Blaskey L, Roberts TPL, Embick D. A Spectrotemporal Correlate of Language Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (May 8)

This study introduces an objective neurophysiological marker of language ability, the integral of event-related desynchronization in the 5-20 Hz band during 0.2-1 seconds post auditory stimulation with interleaved word/non-word tokens. This measure correlates with clinical assessment of language function in both ASD and neurotypical pediatric populations. The measure does not appear related to general cognitive ability nor autism symptom severity (beyond degree of language impairment). We suggest that this oscillatory brain activity indexes lexical search and thus increases with increased search in the mental lexicon. While specificity for language impairment in ASD remains to be determined, such an objective index has potential utility in low functioning individuals with ASD and young children during language acquisition.

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3. Bong G, Kim JH, Hong Y, Yoon NH, Sunwoo H, Jang JY, Oh M, Lee KS, Jung S, Yoo HJ. The Feasibility and Validity of Autism Spectrum Disorder Screening Instrument : Behavior Development Screening for Toddlers (BeDevel)-A Pilot Study. Autism Res ;2019 (May 10)

Although early screening is critical for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in order to receive early intervention and improve function later in life, screening is often delayed. Limitations of existing screening instruments, and the need for a culturally appropriate early screening tool in Korean children, led us to develop Behavior Development Screening for Toddlers (BeDevel). The BeDevel assessment consists of two parts : BeDevel-Interview, a structured interview measure for parents/primary caregivers ; and BeDevel-Play, a play-based semi-structured observational measure in children. To examine the feasibility and validity of BeDevel, 155 children (N = 75 ASD, N = 55 typical development, N = 25 developmentally delayed) aged 18-42 months (M = 31.54 months, SD = 7.60) were examined through parent-reported screening questionnaires, BeDevel, and standard diagnostic assessments. When BeDevel items were analyzed using Cohen’s kappa statistics, most items in BeDevel-Interview and all items in BeDevel-Play were reasonably consistent with diagnoses. We identified primary items, which were significantly interacted with actual diagnosis in the chi-squared test (P < 0.05, range = 0.000-0.032). Using cutoff numbers of items determined using the receiver operating characteristics curve, BeDevel showed satisfactory levels of sensitivity (83.33%-100%), specificity (81.25%-100%), positive predictive values (80.65%-100%), and negative predictive values (83.87%-100%), as well as high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.866-959). The agreement between BeDevel and most other screening/diagnostic instruments was moderate (k = 0.419-1.000). These results suggest that BeDevel can be a useful instrument for early screening of ASD. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Although early screening is critical for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in order to receive early intervention and improve function later in life, screening is often delayed. Limitations of existing screening instruments and the need for a culturally appropriate early screening tool in Korean children led us to develop Behavior Development Screening for Toddlers (BeDevel). The BeDevel assessment consists of two parts : BeDevel-Interview, a structured interview measure for parents/primary caregivers ; and BeDevel-Play, a play-based, semi-structured observational measure in children. In order to test the feasibility and validity of BeDevel, we analyzed preliminary data of total 155 children aged 18-42 months, examined through parent-reported screening questionnaires, BeDevel, and standard diagnostic assessments. When individual items were analyzed, responses of all BeDevel-Interview items and of most BeDevel-Play items well matched actual diagnoses, and we identified primary items, which were particularly useful in differentiating between the ASD group and the non-ASD group. With the optimal screening criteria determined, the BeDevel was able to identify individuals with a diagnosis of ASD and those without it, all at satisfactory levels. Lastly, BeDevel items were closely related as a set, and the BeDevel screening results were reasonably consistent with the results of most other screening/diagnostic instruments. These results suggest that BeDevel can be a useful instrument for early screening of ASD.

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4. Dawson-Squibb JJ, Davids EL, Harrison-Johnson A, Molony MA, de Vries PJ. Parent Education and Training for autism spectrum disorders : Scoping the evidence. Autism ;2019 (May 9):1362361319841739.

Empowering families of children with autism spectrum disorder through education and training is best practice. A wide range of Parent Education and Training programmes are delivered around the globe, but there is limited knowledge about the characteristics of these programmes, or about the research methods and outcomes used to evaluate them, particularly in countries outside the United States. We, therefore, performed a scoping review of all peer-reviewed Parent Education and Training publications outside the United States. A search was conducted between March and May 2017. Four reviewers extracted data and performed a mixed-methods quality appraisal of publications. Thirty-seven publications representing 32 unique programmes were identified. Publications described a highly diverse range of Parent Education and Training programmes across 20 countries and all continents except South America. The majority were group-based, but varied significantly in goals, modalities and duration. The majority of studies (86.4%) reported positive outcomes in relation to the core study objectives and only two studies reported some negative findings. Quality appraisal rated only 27% of studies to have met all the methodological quality criteria. Implementation factors such as manualisation, fidelity and cost were commented on infrequently. In spite of the clear need for Parent Education and Training programmes, our findings show that the research evidence-base in autism spectrum disorder outside the United States is relatively small, non-representative and in need of methodological quality improvements.

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5. Forgeot d’Arc B, Mottron L, Elsabbagh M, Jacquemont S. Tinkering with the vasopressin pathway in autism. Sci Transl Med ;2019 (May 8) ;11(491)

Two clinical trials targeting the vasopressin pathway in autism highlight continuing challenges in outcome measures and statistical power.

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6. Hickey EJ, Nix RL, Hartley SL. Family Emotional Climate and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (May 10)

Little research has examined family emotional climate in the context of having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of the current study was to determine how the emotional quality of family subsystems (parent-child and parent couple relationships, for both mothers and fathers) combine to create various classes of family emotional climate and to identify predictors of class membership in 148 families of children with ASD. The emotional quality of family subsystems was assessed using Five Minute Speech Samples from mothers and fathers. In total, 148 families of children with ASD (86% male) aged 6-13 years were included in analyses. About one-third of parents did not have a college degree and more than two-thirds were of non-Hispanic White origin. Latent class analysis revealed that 43% of the sample was characterized by high levels of warmth and low levels of criticism in both the parent-child and parent couple relationships ; 12% of the sample was characterized by low warmth and high criticism in both sets of relationships ; and the rest of the sample was divided among three additional classes of emotional climate characterized by different configurations of warmth and criticism across both sets of relationships. Parent level of broader autism phenotype and child emotional and behavioral problems were associated with emotional climate class membership. Implications for interventions are discussed.

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7. Krol ME, Krol M. A novel machine learning analysis of eye-tracking data reveals suboptimal visual information extraction from facial stimuli in individuals with autism. Neuropsychologia ;2019 (May 6)

We propose a new method of quantifying the utility of visual information extracted from facial stimuli for emotion recognition. The stimuli are convolved with a Gaussian fixation distribution estimate, revealing more information in those facial regions the participant fixated on. Feeding this convolution to a machine-learning emotion recognition algorithm yields an error measure (between actual and predicted emotions) reflecting the quality of extracted information. We recorded the eye-movements of 21 participants with autism and 23 age-, sex- and IQ-matched typically developing participants performing three facial analysis tasks : free-viewing, emotion recognition, and brow-mouth width comparison. In the emotion recognition task, fixations of participants with autism were positioned on lower areas of the faces and were less focused on the eyes compared to the typically developing group. Additionally, the utility of information extracted by them in the emotion recognition task was lower. Thus, the emotion recognition deficit typical in autism can be at least partly traced to the earliest stage of face processing, i.e. to the extraction of visual information via eye-fixations.

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8. Liu XY, Xiao YK, Hwang E, Haeng JJ, Yi TH. Anti-photoaging and Anti-melanogenesis Properties of Ginsenoside C-Y, a Ginsenoside Rb2 Metabolite from American Ginseng PDD-ginsenoside. Photochem Photobiol ;2019 (May 10)

Ginsenosides are compounds responsible for the primary pharmacological effects of American ginseng. Compound-Y (C-Y) is a minor ginsenoside and a metabolite of Panax ginseng. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of ginsenoside UVB-irradiated NHDFs and its potential for use as an anti-hyperpigmentation agent through ginsenoside C-Y as a functional food and cosmetic ingredient. Ginsenoside C-Y is a natural antioxidant isolated from the American ginseng PDD-ginsenoside. Our data showed that ginsenoside C-Y block UVB-exposed ROS, restrict MMP-1 production, and promote procollagen type I synthesis. Interestingly, ginsenoside C-Y suppresses UVB-exposed VEGF, and TNF-alpha secretion, could be related with NFAT signal path. Ginsenoside C-Y has exhibited photoaging effects by increasing TGF-beta1 level, fortifying Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and restricting AP-1 and MAPK phosphorylation. Assessment of the melanogenic response indicated that ginsenoside C-Y inhibited melanin secretion and tyrosinase activity and decreased melanin content in melan-a and zebrafish embryos. These results suggest that ginsenoside C-Y can be used as a potential botanical agent to protect premature skin from UVB-induced photodamage and prevent skin hyperpigmentation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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9. Plesa Skwerer D, Brukilacchio B, Chu A, Eggleston B, Meyer S, Tager-Flusberg H. Do minimally verbal and verbally fluent individuals with autism spectrum disorder differ in their viewing patterns of dynamic social scenes ?. Autism ;2019 (May 9):1362361319845563.

Attending preferentially to social information in the environment is important in developing socio-communicative skills and language. Research using eye tracking to explore how individuals with autism spectrum disorder deploy visual attention has increased exponentially in the past decade ; however, studies have typically not included minimally verbal participants. In this study, we compared 37 minimally verbal children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder with 34 age-matched verbally fluent individuals with autism spectrum disorder in how they viewed a brief video in which a young woman, surrounded by interesting objects, engages the viewer, and later reacts with expected or unexpected gaze-shifts toward the objects. While both groups spent comparable amounts of time looking at different parts of the scene and looked longer at the person than at the objects, the minimally verbal autism spectrum disorder group spent significantly less time looking at the person’s face during the episodes where gaze following-a precursor of joint attention-was critical for interpreting her behavior. Proportional looking-time toward key areas of interest in some episodes correlated with receptive language measures. These findings underscore the connections between social attention and the development of communicative abilities in autism spectrum disorder.

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10. Schafer EC, Gopal KV, Mathews L, Thompson S, Kaiser K, McCullough S, Jones J, Castillo P, Canale E, Hutcheson A. Effects of Auditory Training and Remote Microphone Technology on the Behavioral Performance of Children and Young Adults Who Have Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Am Acad Audiol ;2019 (Apr 30)

BACKGROUND : Individuals who have a normal pure-tone audiogram but are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit poorer speech recognition and auditory processing when compared with neurotypical peers with normal pure-tone audiograms. PURPOSE : The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of a 12-week auditory processing training (APT) program that was designed to address the deleterious effects of background noise and auditory processing deficits that are common among individuals diagnosed with ASD. RESEARCH DESIGN : A repeated measures design was used. STUDY SAMPLE : The sample consisted of 15 high-functioning children and young adults who had a formal diagnosis of ASD and who were recruited from local clinics and school districts. INTERVENTION : Participants completed the 12-week APT program consisting of computerized dichotic training, one-on-one therapist-directed auditory training, and the use of remote microphone (RM) technology at home and in the classroom. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS : Participants completed a comprehensive test battery to assess general auditory processing skills, speech recognition in noise, acceptance of background noise, spatial processing, binaural integration abilities, self-perceived difficulties, and observed behaviors. Testing was conducted before (n = 15), immediately after (n = 15), and 12 weeks after (n = 7) the completion of the APT program. Paired t-tests, repeated measures analysis of variance, or nonparametric tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS : On average, the APT program significantly enhanced general auditory processing abilities, including binaural integration and subjective listening abilities in the classroom. When the RM was used, significantly improved speech recognition and improved acceptance of background noise was measured relative to a condition with no technology. CONCLUSIONS : Following the APT program, the participants exhibited the greatest improvements in testing that required binaural integration and auditory working memory. The use of the RM technology was able to address the deleterious effects of noise on speech recognition in noise and acceptance of noise levels.

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11. Schnabel A, Youssef GJ, Hallford DJ, Hartley EJ, McGillivray JA, Stewart M, Forbes D, Austin DW. Psychopathology in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder : A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence. Autism ;2019 (May 9):1362361319844636.

Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder appear to experience high levels of psychological distress, yet little is known about the prevalence of psychological disorders in this population. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the proportion of these parents who experience clinically significant psychopathology. Articles reporting proportions of psychological disorders in a sample of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder were located. The initial search returned 25,988 articles. Thirty-one studies with a total sample of 9208 parents were included in the final review. The median meta-analytic proportions were 31% (95% confidence interval = [24%, 38%]) for depressive disorders, 33% (95% confidence interval = [20%, 48%]) for anxiety disorders, 10% (95% confidence interval = [1%, 41%]) for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 4% (95% confidence interval = [0%, 22%]) for personality disorders, 2% (95% confidence interval = [1%, 4%]) for alcohol and substance use disorders and 1% (95% confidence interval = [0%, 5%]) for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Significant heterogeneity was detected in these categories. Further research is needed to gain more insight into variables that may moderate parental psychopathology. This review and meta-analysis is the first to provide prevalence estimates of psychological disorders in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

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12. Strugnell A, Leonard H, Epstein A, Downs J. Using directed-content analysis to identify a framework for understanding quality of life in adults with Rett syndrome. Disabil Rehabil ;2019 (May 10):1-8.

PURPOSE : Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder mainly affecting females and is caused by a mutation in the MECP2 gene. Recent research identified the domains of quality of life (QOL) important for children with RTT but there has been no investigation of domains important for adults. This qualitative study explored QOL in adults with RTT and compared domains with those previously identified for children. METHODS : The sample comprised parents and/or primary caregivers of 20 adults, aged 18-38 years, who were registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to investigate aspects of life that were observed to be satisfying or challenging. Data were analyzed using directed content analysis, based on existing QOL domains for children with RTT that related to health and wellbeing, daily activities, and community immersion and services. RESULTS : Each of the domains identified for children with RTT was represented in the adult dataset, with no new domains emerging. CONCLUSION : This is the first study to identify QOL domains important for adults with RTT. Health and therapy needs are ongoing during adulthood but services may be limited. Findings will guide choice of an appropriate QOL measure for this group. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Knowing the important domains of quality of life enables clinicians and service providers to systematically review and address key management issues. Despite a high level of dependency and sometimes poor health, parent caregivers perceive potential for strong quality of life in adulthood. Services that maintain functional skills and health throughout the lifespan are valued for their support of quality of life in adults with Rett syndrome.

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13. Uezato A, Toyofuku A, Umezaki Y, Nishikawa T. Oral dysesthesia associated with autistic traits : a retrospective chart review. Eur J Oral Sci ;2019 (May 9)

Oral dysesthesia denotes a condition characterized by abnormal sensations in oral regions without a somatic basis, and is often seen in people with autistic traits, including those with autism spectrum disorder. This study aimed to examine the association between the symptoms of oral dysesthesia and the degree of autistic traits. A retrospective chart review was performed on 44 patients with oral dysesthesia, and associations among the subscales of the Oral Dysesthesia Rating Scale (Oral DRS), Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire (GSQ) were investigated. A Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant, positive correlation between AQ scores and the A3 (squeezing or pulling) subscale of the Oral DRS (r = 0.37), but there were no significant correlations between the AQ and other subscale scores. There was a significant correlation between the AQ and GSQ score, but no correlation was detected between the GSQ and A3 scores or any other Oral DRS subscale scores. In conclusion, an abnormal squeezing or pulling sensation in oral regions without a somatic basis was associated with autistic traits and could be highlighted as a specific abnormality in sensory processing in autism spectrum disorder.

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14. Wan B, Wang Z, Jung M, Lu Y, He H, Chen Q, Jin Y. Effects of the Co-occurrence of Anxiety and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Intrinsic Functional Network Centrality among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res ;2019 (May 10)

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with a high co-occurrence of anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it remains unclear how the co-occurrence of anxiety and ADHD in children with ASD alters whole-brain functional networks. Here, we aimed to examine anxiety- and ADHD-related brain network centrality in children with ASD separately and their relationships with ASD symptoms. Clinical anxiety and ADHD levels in children with ASD, aged 6-13 years old, were assessed. Participants were categorized into four groups : ASD only (n = 28), ASD + anxiety (n = 19), ASD + ADHD (n = 25), and ASD + both anxiety and ADHD (n = 28). Subsequently, we compared voxel-wise network degree centrality (DC) among the four groups. We found that : (a) compared with ASD only, children with ASD + anxiety showed higher DC in the left middle temporal gyrus, right lingual gyrus, and left cuneus, and lower DC in the right precuneus ; (b) children with ASD + ADHD presented higher DC in the right calcarine and left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) compared with ASD only ; (c) children with ASD + both displayed higher DC in the right calcarine and lower centrality in the right middle occipital gyrus compared with ASD only ; and (d) across all children with ASD, there was a positive correlation between DC of the right calcarine with nonverbal behavior scores, and DC of the left SFG was negatively correlated with social scores. Our findings suggest that the right calcarine, left SFG, and default mode network nodes play important roles in the co-occurrence of anxiety and ADHD among children with ASD. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : The co-occurrence of anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to influence the brain function of children with ASD. In order to gain a better understanding of this, the present study compared degree centrality, the amount of effective brain functional connectivity that reflects the characteristics of brain networks, among four groups : ASD only, ASD + anxiety, ASD + ADHD, and ASD + both anxiety and ADHD. We found that some areas located in the language processing network and primary visual cortex were associated with the co-occurrence of ADHD, and some other areas located in the default mode network were associated with the co-occurrence of both anxiety and ADHD. These findings provide more knowledge about the neural basis underlying behavioral changes related to the co-occurrence of anxiety and ADHD in children with ASD.

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15. Zachor DA, Ben-Itzchak E. From Toddlerhood to Adolescence : Which Characteristics Among Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predict Adolescent Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptom Severity ? A Long-Term Follow-Up Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (May 8)

High rates of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity have been described in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study searched for predictors at toddlerhood of the severity of ADHD symptoms at adolescence. The study included 65 participants, (mean age = 13:8 year), diagnosed with ASD at toddlerhood. Participants underwent a comprehensive assessment of cognitive ability, adaptive skills and autism severity at toddlerhood and adolescence. More severe restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) in toddlerhood predicted the severity of Inattention symptoms. In addition, more severe RRB and lower adaptive skills in the toddler years significantly predicted the severity of Hyperactivity/Impulsivity symptoms. Adolescents with elevated ADHD symptoms diagnosed at toddlerhood with ASD showed lower cognitive and adaptive skills and more severe autism symptoms.

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