Pubmed du 12/05/19

dimanche 12 mai 2019

1. Coban N, Gokcen C, Akbayram S, Calisgan B. Evaluation of Platelet Parameters in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : Elongated Collagen-Adenosine Diphosphate and Collagen-Epinephrine Closure Times. Autism Res ;2019 (May 11)

Changes related to the serotonin system play a key role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although we know that platelets are associated with the serotonin system, their relation to ASD has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate platelet parameters in children with ASD. Forty patients with ASD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. A complete blood count was done to measure parameters relating to platelet morphology. Moreover, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were evaluated. Lastly, platelet functions were assessed with a platelet functions analyzer 100 (PFA-100) device by measuring collagen-ADP and collagen-epinephrine (EPI) closure times. There was not a significant difference between the groups in terms of platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width, plateletcrit, PT, or aPTT parameters for ASD patients when compared to the control group (P > 0.05). However, MPV in severe ASD, as quantified by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, was found to be significantly lower when compared to mild to moderate ASD (P = 0.047). Moreover, in terms of platelet functions, the elongation in collagen-ADP and collagen-EPI closure times were significantly higher for the ASD group (P = 0.044). These results may suggest an impairment in platelet functions rather than in platelet morphology for children with ASD. Considering these results, further investigation of thrombocyte functions in the ASD may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of ASD and to the development of our limited knowledge of this disorder. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Serotonin is a chemical that is found in brain as wells as in blood cells that function in blood clotting in the human body. There are problems related to serotonin in brains of people who have autism. Thus, blood clotting cells may also be affected in people who have autism. In this study, we compare blood clotting functions of children with autism with that of healthy controls.

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2. Gasser BA, Kurz J, Dick B, Mohaupt MG. Steroid Metabolites Support Evidence of Autism as a Spectrum. Behav Sci (Basel) ;2019 (May 9) ;9(5)

Objectives : It is common nowadays to refer to autism as a spectrum. Increased evidence of the involvement of steroid metabolites has been shown by the presence of stronger alterations in Kanner’s syndrome compared with Asperger syndrome. Methods : 24 h urine samples were collected from 20 boys with Asperger syndrome, 21 boys with Kanner’s syndrome, and identically sized control groups, each matched for age, weight, and height for comprehensive steroid hormone metabolite analysis via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results : Higher levels of most steroid metabolites were detected in boys with Kanner’s syndrome and Asperger syndrome compared to their matched controls. These differences were more pronounced in affected individuals with Kanner’s syndrome versus Asperger syndrome. Furthermore, a specific and unique pattern of alteration of androsterone, etiocholanolone, progesterone, tetrahydrocortisone, and tetrahydrocortisol was identified in boys with Kanner’s syndrome and Asperger syndrome. Interestingly, in both matched samples, only androsterone, etiocholanolone, progesterone, tetrahydrocortisone, tetrahydrocortisol, and 5a-tetrahydrocortisol groups were positively correlated. In the Asperger syndrome group, all metabolites showed a positive correlation. In the Kanner’s syndrome group, 5-a tetrahydrocortisol with androsterone showed a positive correlation. Conclusions : Due to differences in the level of alteration, the premise that Asperger syndrome is on the mild side of the autism spectrum and that Kanner’s syndrome is on the severe side is supported, but alteration patterns yield different phenotypic expressions.

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3. Gyawali S, Patra BN. Autism Spectrum Disorder : Trends in research exploring etiopathogenesis. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ;2019 (May 11)

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition in which affected individuals have difficulties while interacting and communicating socially, and repetitive behaviors. It has a multi-factorial etiology. Various risk factors including genetic and environmental influences have been explored while trying to understand its causation. As older evidence was suggestive of a high heritability, a majority of research focused on finding the underlying genetic causes of autism. Due to these efforts, there have been advances in the knowledge of some of the genetic factors associated with autism. But a recent trend also shows an increasing interest in exploration of various potential environmental triggers. These efforts have brought us closer to understanding the elusive disorder more so than ever before. The current paper discusses the recent trends in research exploring the etiopathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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4. Hickey EJ, Nix RL, Hartley SL. Family Emotional Climate and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (May 10)

Little research has examined family emotional climate in the context of having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of the current study was to determine how the emotional quality of family subsystems (parent-child and parent couple relationships, for both mothers and fathers) combine to create various classes of family emotional climate and to identify predictors of class membership in 148 families of children with ASD. The emotional quality of family subsystems was assessed using Five Minute Speech Samples from mothers and fathers. In total, 148 families of children with ASD (86% male) aged 6-13 years were included in analyses. About one-third of parents did not have a college degree and more than two-thirds were of non-Hispanic White origin. Latent class analysis revealed that 43% of the sample was characterized by high levels of warmth and low levels of criticism in both the parent-child and parent couple relationships ; 12% of the sample was characterized by low warmth and high criticism in both sets of relationships ; and the rest of the sample was divided among three additional classes of emotional climate characterized by different configurations of warmth and criticism across both sets of relationships. Parent level of broader autism phenotype and child emotional and behavioral problems were associated with emotional climate class membership. Implications for interventions are discussed.

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5. Pezzimenti F, Han GT, Vasa RA, Gotham K. Depression in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ;2019 (Jul) ;28(3):397-409.

Depression is both common and impactful in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is swiftly growing in recognition as a major public health concern within the autism community. This article is intended to provide a brief overview of the prevalence, impact, presentation, and risk factors associated with cooccurring depression in children and adolescents with ASD. Clinical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of depression in the ASD population are offered in line with the small existing evidence base.

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6. Tripi G, Roux S, Matranga D, Maniscalco L, Glorioso P, Bonnet-Brilhault F, Roccella M. Cranio-Facial Characteristics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). J Clin Med ;2019 (May 9) ;8(5)

Background : Cranio-facial anomalies frequently occur in neurodevelopmental disorders because both face and brain are derived from neuroectoderm. The identification of differences in the facial phenotype of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may reflect alterations in embryologic brain development in children with ASD. Methods : we evaluated 33 caucasian children with ASD using a 2D computerized photogrammetry. Anthropometric euclidean measurements and landmarks located on the soft tissue of the face and head, were based on five cranio-facial indexes. Relationships between anthropometric z-scores and participant characteristics (i.e., age, Global IQ, severity of autistic symptoms measured using the CARS checklist) were assessed. Results : Cephalic index z-score differed significantly from 0 in our ASD group (p = 0.019). Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between Facial Index z-score and CARS score (p = 0.003) ; conversely, a positive correlation was found between Interchantal Index z-score and CARS score (p = 0.028). Conclusion : our measurements shows a dolichocephalic head shape which is not correlated with autism severity. Importantly, two craniofacial markers were significantly correlated with autism severity : increased orbital hyperthelorism and decrease of height of the facial midline. These data support previous findings of craniofacial anomalies in autism spectrum disorder suggesting an "ASD facial phenotype" that could be used to improve ASD diagnoses.

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