Pubmed du 19/05/19

dimanche 19 mai 2019

1. Living with Fragile X syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2019.

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2. Berends D, Dissanayake C, Lawson LP. Differences in Cognition and Behaviour in Multiplex and Simplex Autism : Does Prior Experience Raising a Child with Autism Matter ?. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Previous research has found multiplex (MPX) children have an advantage in cognition compared to simplex (SPX) children. However, MPX parent’s previous experience with older diagnosed siblings has not been considered. We used a large database sample to investigate the MPX advantage and contribution of birth order. Children from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) were stratified into first- (MPX(1), n = 152) and second-affected MPX (MPX(2), n = 143), SPX (n = 111), and only-child SPX (SPX(OC), n = 23) groups. Both MPX groups had higher cognitive scores compared to SPX groups, with no differences between MPX(1) and MPX(2) groups. No differences were found for autism symptoms or adaptive behaviour. These results suggest parent experience due to birth order is an unlikely contributor to the MPX cognitive advantage.

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3. Fok M, Bal VH. Differences in profiles of emotional behavioral problems across instruments in verbal versus minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res. 2019.

There has been increasing attention to the assessment of minimally verbal (MV) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research has begun to examine the relationship between verbal abilities and emotional and behavioral problems (EBP). The current study compared parent-reported EBP in children of differing language levels on two instruments commonly used in ASD research and clinical practice, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). The study consisted of 1,937 6-18 years old children with ASD from the Simons Simplex Collection. Children were divided into three language groups, by ADOS module (Module 1 = MV, 2 = phrase speech (PS), and 3 = verbally fluent (VF)) and then compared on CBCL and ABC subscales. The ABC and CBCL showed different patterns of elevations across the language groups. MV children were reported to have more impairment than VF children on the ABC irritability, lethargy, and hyperactivity scales. Children with less language (MV and PS) exhibited less impairment on the CBCL internalizing domain than VF children, but did not differ on the externalizing domain. Post hoc comparisons showed that internalizing differences were driven by fewer children with less language exhibiting clinically elevated anxious/depressed scores compared to VF children. The present study underscores the significance of considering language when assessing EBP. Results have implications for the psychiatric screening of children with ASD, particularly those with language impairments. Researchers should exercise caution when applying EBP instruments designed for use with different populations and purposes to broad samples of children. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Some emotional and behavioral problem (EBP) scales include items that may be inappropriate for children with ASD and limited language. The present study found that there was a tendency for children with language impairment to have lower internalizing scores on the Child Behavior Checklist, but higher scores lethargy and irritability scores on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, relative to verbally fluent children. This suggests that each of these instruments may underestimate EBPs in certain subsets of children.

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4. Fusar-Poli L, Brondino N, Rocchetti M, Petrosino B, Arillotta D, Damiani S, Provenzani U, Petrosino C, Aguglia E, Politi P. Prevalence and predictors of psychotropic medication use in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder in Italy : A cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Res. 2019 ; 276 : 203-9.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of life-long neurodevelopmental conditions with a prevalence of 1.5% in developed countries. Beside core symptomatology, ASD people are frequently affected by psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral problems. To date, only risperidone and aripiprazole have been approved for the pharmacological treatment of ASD-associated irritability in children and adolescents, while no guidelines exist for adults. The present cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and predictors of psychotropic medication use in 195 autistic subjects, aged between 14 and 58, treated in two Italian tertiary care centers. 58.5% of the sample were taking at least one medication ; one third of the sample were on polypharmacotherapy. Antipsychotics were prescribed to 40% of the sample. Nearly 30% of the sample were on anticonvulsants/mood stabilizers. Both antidepressants and benzodiazepines were prescribed to approximately 16% of the subjects. IQ, epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities were regarded as independent predictors of both mono- and polypharmacotherapy, while severity of repetitive behaviors predicted only polypharmacotherapy. Our data highlighted that medications prescribed to adolescents and adults with ASD are heterogeneous and often rely only on clinicians’ experience. Future research should investigate the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs in this specific population, to promote the development of appropriate treatment guidelines.

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5. Harvey PD, Deckler E, Jones MT, Jarskog LF, Penn DL, Pinkham AE. Autism symptoms, depression, and active social avoidance in schizophrenia : Association with self-reports and informant assessments of everyday functioning. Journal of psychiatric research. 2019 ; 115 : 36-42.

Autistic traits are a feature of schizophrenia and has been found to impair social functioning and social cognition. Other influences on social outcomes in schizophrenia include depression and social avoidance. However, challenges in self-assessment of abilities and functioning (i.e., introspective accuracy) and self-assessment bias also contribute to disability. Depression has been studied for its association with introspective accuracy and bias, but autistic traits have not. Participants were 177 patients with schizophrenia who self-reported their everyday functioning and social cognitive ability as well as their depression. All were rated with the PANSS and a separate rater generated all-sources ratings of everyday functioning and social cognitive ability. Correlations between self-reported everyday functioning and social cognitive ability, ratings of everyday functioning and social cognitive ability, and the discrepancies between those ratings were examined for correlations with depression, autistic features and social avoidance. Accuracy was defined by the absolute value of the difference between self-reports and all-sources ratings and bias was defined by the direction of discrepancy (positive vs. negative). There was a statistically significant difference between sources on every measure. Bias was not directional on average, but patients with the lowest levels of depression overestimated their abilities on every measure and those with the highest depression underestimated. Autistic traits were associated with impairments in everyday functioning and underestimation of those impairments, while social avoidance was associated with impaired social functioning and accurate self-assessment. Features of schizophrenia have differential implications for impaired functioning and self-assessment, with autistic features and low levels of depression associated with consistent self-assessment biases.

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6. Howells K, Sivaratnam C, May T, Lindor E, McGillivray J, Rinehart N. Efficacy of Group-Based Organised Physical Activity Participation for Social Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

The aim of this novel review and meta-analysis was to clarify the effects of group-based organised physical activity (OPA) for social and communicative outcomes in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Searches yielded 4347 articles. Eleven were identified for review and seven for meta-analysis. Pooled statistical results revealed a non-significant effect for communication (k = 4 ; g = 0.13, CI [- 0.12, 0.38], p = .13) and a significant small-medium improvement in overall social functioning (k = 6 ; g = 0.45, CI [0.19, 0.72], p = .001). Despite acknowledged limitations, these findings are important in the context of a growing clinical and consumer-driven demand for research that determines the role of OPA as a non-medical and inclusive treatment for children with ASD.

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7. Ma W, Sai L, Tay C, Du Y, Jiang J, Ding XP. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder’s Lying is Correlated with Their Working Memory But Not Theory of Mind. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

The present study examined the role of executive function in lying for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit children’s self-protective lies and the Hide-and-seek task was used to elicit children’s self-benefiting lies. Results showed that children with ASD told fewer lies in the two deception tasks compared to children with intellectual disability (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. Furthermore, children with ASD’s lying were positively correlated with their working memory, but not with their theory of mind. These findings demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying deception for children with ASD are distinct from that of TD children.

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8. Tei S, Fujino J, Itahashi T, Aoki Y, Ohta H, Kubota M, Hashimoto RI, Nakamura M, Kato N, Takahashi H. Egocentric biases and atypical generosity in autistic individuals. Autism Res. 2019.

Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) often experience difficulty and confusion in acknowledging others’ perspectives and arguably exhibit egocentricity. However, whether this egocentricity necessarily results in selfish behavior during social situations remains a matter of debate. To study this relationship, we used computerized visuospatial perspective-taking task (VPT) and social-discounting task (SDT), derived from cognitive psychology and behavioral economics, and examined egocentric and other-oriented judgments in participants with ASCs (mean age 29.0 +/- 4.2 years) and a group of matched typically developing (TD) controls (30.8 +/- 8.5). The response time in VPT showed altered perspective-taking in the ASCs group compared with the TD group that involved in enhanced self-other intrusion and condition-insensitive response. Regardless of self/other perspective judgments, responses were relatively slower and consistent in duration in the ASCs group compared with the TD group. Social discounting was attenuated rather than steep discounting in the ASCs group. Their discounting was comparatively more consistent, irrespective of the task condition (i.e., self-other closeness-level). In effect, ASCs group exhibited more generous decisions than the TD group in this task. Finally, those with more egocentric perspective intrusion in VPT paradoxically showed more generous behaviors in SDT in the ASCs group. Our findings suggest that having ASCs does not always exhibit selfish behavior during interpersonal communication. Reduced flexibility in distinguishing self/other perspective and shifting decision-rules might account for this unique relationship between egocentricity and apparently generous behaviors. These results extend the recent suggestion that more careful attention should be paid to the idea of egocentricity in individuals with ASCs. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : We aimed to examine whether seeing the world from another person’s point of view and being generous toward other people are related in autistic and nonautistic people. We used a visual perspective-taking task and a social task in which individuals made decisions about how to divide a sum of money with others. Our results suggest that being autistic does not always make someone bad at seeing the world from another’s viewpoint, and that autistic people may make fairer social decisions toward unfamiliar people because of lower bias.

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