Pubmed du 22/05/19

jeudi 23 mai 2019

1. Anthony BJ, Robertson HA, Verbalis A, Myrick Y, Troxel M, Seese S, Anthony LG. Increasing autism acceptance : The impact of the Sesame Street "See Amazing in All Children" initiative. Autism. 2019 : 1362361319847927.

To promote knowledge and acceptance of autism, Sesame Workshop created an online initiative : See Amazing in All Children. This nationwide evaluation of See Amazing assessed whether it increased knowledge and acceptance, promoted community inclusion, reduced parenting strain, and enhanced parenting competence. Survey responses were collected online from parents of children (age 6) with and without autism before (N = 1010), 1 week after (N = 510), and, for parents of autistic children, 1 month after (N = 182) they viewed the See Amazing materials. Following exposure, parents of non-autistic children showed small but significant increases in knowledge of autism and, like parents of autistic children, greater acceptance of autistic children. Parents of autistic children reported less strain, increased parenting competence, and more hope about involving their child in their community. That the See Amazing materials invoked positive changes in the general parent community and in parents of autistic children suggests that See Amazing materials have the potential to be an effective resource to increase acceptance and community inclusion, although limitations of self-selection, dropout rate, and lack of control group constrain interpretation. Implications include support for targeting acceptance as a step beyond awareness campaigns, though actual behavior change is a subject for future research.

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2. Bharathi G, Jayaramayya K, Balasubramanian V, Vellingiri B. The potential role of rhythmic entrainment and music therapy intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of exercise rehabilitation. 2019 ; 15(2) : 180-6.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and interpersonal communication disabilities and repetitive motor activities. A deficit in social interaction may be due to motor and synchronization disabilities in individuals with ASD. These disabilities serve as a hindrance for the progression of day-to-day life. ASD individuals are known to have variations in the neural network contributing to changes in their oral-motor activity. As the brain has experience-dependent structural plasticity, these changes in the neural network can probably be reversed with appropriate treatment Music playing a universal role in human life has been studied for its therapeutic potential in rehabilitation of ASD individuals. Music and rhythm have shown a significant potential in improving the oral-motor activities of people affected by ASD. Music based interventions are being used for children diagnosed with ASDs to improve their social communication and motor skills. This article represents the possible role of rhythmic cueing for sensorimotor regulation in ASD individuals. This can serve as a base for further research for the impact of musical therapy on coordination and oral-motor synchronization of individuals diagnosed with ASD.

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3. Crandall MC, McDaniel J, Watson LR, Yoder PJ. The Relation Between Early Parent Verb Input and Later Expressive Verb Vocabulary in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR. 2019 : 1-11.

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate if higher quantity, diversity, and grammatical informativeness of verb phrases in parent follow-in utterances (i.e., utterances that mapped onto child attentional leads) were significantly related to later expressive verb vocabulary in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method We examined these associations in a sample of 31 toddlers with ASD and their parents in a longitudinal correlational study. Key aspects of parents’ verb input were measured in 2 video-recorded 15-min parent-child free-play sessions. Child expressive verb vocabulary was measured using parent report. Results An aggregate variable composed of the quantity, diversity, and grammatical informativeness of parent verb input in follow-in utterances across the 2 parent-child sessions strongly and positively predicted later child expressive verb vocabulary, total R (2) = .25, even when early child expressive verb vocabulary was controlled, R (2) change = .17. Parent follow-in utterances without verbs were not significantly related to later child expressive verb vocabulary, R (2) = .001. Conclusions These correlational findings are initial steps toward developing a knowledge base for how strong verb vocabulary skills might be facilitated in children with ASD.

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4. Jay K, Mitra A, Harding T, Matthes D, Van Ness B. Identification of a de novo FOXP1 mutation and incidental discovery of inherited genetic variants contributing to a case of autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy. Molecular genetics & genomic medicine. 2019 : e751.

BACKGROUND : Autism spectrum disorder is commonly co-diagnosed intellectual disability, language disorder, anxiety, and epilepsy, however, symptom management is difficult due to the complex genetic nature of ASD. METHODS : We present a next-generation sequencing-based case study with both de novo and inherited genetic variants and highlight the impact of structural variants on post-translational regulation of protein expression. Since management of symptoms has classically been through pharmaceutical therapies, a pharmacogenomics screen was also utilized to determine possible drug/gene interactions. RESULTS : A de novo variant was identified within the FOXP1 3’ untranslated regulatory region using exome sequencing. Additionally, inherited variants that likely contribute to the current and potential future traits were identified within the COMT, SLC6A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 genes. CONCLUSION : This study aims to elucidate how a collection of variant genotypes could potentially impact neural development resulting in a unique phenotype including ASD and epilepsy. Each gene’s contribution to neural development is assessed, and the interplay of these genotypes is discussed. The results highlight the utility of exome sequencing in conjunction with pharmacogenomics screening when evaluating possible causes of and therapeutic treatments for ASD-related symptoms.

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5. Jozkowski AC, Wilson KP, Chasson GS, Crabtree L. Proof of concept study of the development of a survey protocol for adults with ASD participating in community-based programs. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. 2019 ; 83(2) : 152-74.

There is limited research regarding the effectiveness of community-based services for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as they transition out of school and enter a more autonomous life stage. This study utilized a two-phase, mixed methods design to determine the feasibility and participant acceptability of a protocol developed to standardize an assessment of program effectiveness for young adults with ASD at a community-based center. Field notes, participant interviews, and clinical observations were combined with descriptive analysis of participant survey responses. This study offers insights into the process of effective outcomes measurement for young adults with ASD participating in community-based programs. Administration of the study’s protocol is feasible ; however, alternative methods of data collection should continue to be explored. Furthermore, research in the form of a pilot study is needed to further determine the protocol’s facility for assessing program outcomes in young adults with ASD.

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6. Kinlin LM, Vresk L, Friedman JN. Vision loss in a child with autism spectrum disorder. Paediatrics & child health. 2019 ; 24(3) : 148-50.

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7. Lee KS, Chung SJ, Thomas HR, Park J, Kim SH. Exploring diagnostic validity of the autism diagnostic observation schedule-2 in South Korean toddlers and preschoolers. Autism Res. 2019.

This study aims to provide the initial validity of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2) Toddler Module and Module 1-2 for South Korean toddlers and preschoolers. Based on 143 children, the ASD group (n = 68) showed significantly higher ADOS-2 item and algorithm total scores as well as social affect and repetitive and restricted behaviors domain scores compared with children with nonspectrum (NS ; n = 42) disorders and typically developing (TD ; n = 33) children. Using lower algorithm cutoffs, sensitivities were excellent for the ASD versus NS/TD comparisons, ranging from 94% to 100% across different Modules. Specificities varied more, ranging from 82% to 100%. Internal consistency was strong with high item-total correlations (r of 0.6-0.9) and Cronbach’s Alphas (all above 0.7). Results demonstrated promising, initial evidence for the validity of the ADOS-2 for South Korean toddlers and preschoolers from 1 to 4 years of age. The ADOS-2 could be implemented, with minimal adaptations, in research and clinical settings in South Korea. This study is one of the first steps toward validating the ADOS-2 in other Eastern countries that are in great need for a valid instrument for the detection of ASD. Autism Res 2019, 1-11. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Results of this study demonstrated promising, initial evidence for the validity of a gold standard measure for the diagnosis of autism, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2), for South Korean toddlers and preschoolers. The ADOS-2 could be implemented, with minimal adaptations, in research and clinical settings in South Korea. This study is one of the first steps toward validating the ADOS-2 in other Eastern countries that are in great need of a valid instrument for the detection of ASD.

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8. Leung CNW, Chan RWS, Yeung MYC, Tsui HCH. Applicability and Effectiveness of Social Competence Group Intervention on Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Chinese Context : A Community-Based Study with Self- and Parent-Report. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Social competence training for adults with ASD were limited in comparison to intervention for children or adolescents. CBT-CSCA is a culturally-sensitive social competence training specially developed for adolescents in Hong Kong. With its demonstrated effectiveness, the current study outlined the adaptions of its adult version, CBT-CSCA (Adult) and examined its treatment effectiveness. Thirty-six adults (aged 18-29 years, with a FSIQ above 80) completed the intervention. Significant improvements were shown in overall social competence, from both self- and parent-report, and negative mood. Participants also reported satisfactory knowledge gain and confidence in applying content learnt after each session. The study provided evidence support to the applicability and effectiveness of social competence training for adults with ASD in the Chinese culture.

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9. Penner M, Anagnostou E, Andoni LY, Ungar WJ. Environmental scan of Canadian and UK policies for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic assessment. Paediatrics & child health. 2019 ; 24(3) : e125-e34.

Objectives : Many jurisdictions across Canada and internationally are grappling with providing diagnostic and intervention services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective was to compare Canadian and United Kingdom (UK) policies governing ASD diagnosis. Methods : The policy scan extended from January 2000 to December 2017. Canadian federal, provincial/territorial, and UK government publications related to ASD diagnosis were retrieved from official websites by searching for ASD and related terms. Retrieved documents were filtered for relevance, with all relevant documents undergoing full text review. Data extracted included personnel and testing requirements for diagnosis, wait times, and eligibility for ASD services and funding. Results : The included jurisdictions varied substantially in their approach to ASD diagnosis and eligibility for intervention. Nine of the 13 provinces/territories restrict which clinicians can diagnose ASD by requiring certain documentation for service eligibility. Three provinces require multi-disciplinary team assessment (British Columbia [BC], Quebec, and Nova Scotia [NS]). Three provinces (BC, NS, and Prince Edward Island [PEI]) require specific diagnostic tests for diagnosis. Only two provinces, BC and NS, have target wait times for assessment. Jurisdictions differed in whether they allowed children with a provisional diagnosis of ASD to access services. At a national level, the UK provides more clinical guidance for ASD diagnosis, which can be attributed to its centralized system of national healthcare delivery. Conclusions : ASD diagnostic assessment policies vary across Canada, and between Canada and the UK. Further evidence supporting ASD diagnostic practices is needed to streamline the journey from identification to intervention.

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10. Wijnhoven LA, Niels-Kessels H, Creemers DH, Vermulst AA, Otten R, Engels RC. Prevalence of comorbid depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in children with autism spectrum disorder and elevated anxiety symptoms. Journal of child and adolescent mental health. 2019 : 1-8.

OBJECTIVE : Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have comorbid depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. The aim of this study was to examine levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in a sample of children with ASD, normal cognitive functioning and elevated anxiety. METHODS : In total, 93 children aged 8-16 years with ASD and with normal cognitive functioning and (sub)clinical anxiety symptoms participated in the present study. Both parents and children filled in questionnaires to measure the level of depressive symptoms. Moreover, children reported their level of suicidal ideation. RESULTS : More than 35% of the children with ASD reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms while, according to parents, even more than 75% of these children showed clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Girls reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than boys. Moreover, 32.2% of the children with ASD and anxiety had suicidal thoughts and 2.2% of the children showed active suicidal ideation. No gender differences were found in suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS : The findings indicated that children with ASD, normal cognitive functioning and anxiety symptoms have an increased prevalence of clinical depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Therefore, depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation should be assessed when working with anxious children with ASD.

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