Pubmed du 31/05/19

vendredi 31 mai 2019

1. Alsayedhassan B, Lee J, Banda DR, Kim Y, Griffin-Shirley N. Practitioners’ perceptions of the picture exchange communication system for children with autism. Disabil Rehabil ;2019 (May 30):1-6.

Backgound : Autism spectrum disorder impacts social-communication. Picture Exchange Communication System is one of the methods to improve communication skills in individuals with autism. In spite of numerous studies on the effectiveness of Picture Exchange Communication System, no studies were conducted to examine the perceptions of practitioners who used the strategy. Method : An online survey was conducted with 120 practitioners (44 teachers and 76 therapists ; 80.8% 20-49 years old ; 80.8% graduate education) who used the Picture Exchange Communication System with children with autism. Using rating scales, practitioners reported their knowledge of Picture Exchange Communication System and their perceptions about importance, benefits, and barriers of utilizing Picture Exchange Communication System. Results : Practitioners reported they were confident when implementing Picture Exchange Communication System and considered integrating Picture Exchange Communication System at school to be important. Also, the practitioners indicated that Picture Exchange Communication System was easy to use and effective to develop communication skills in children with autism. However, they found that using Picture Exchange Communication System was time consuming. Conclusion : It is important to hear the viewpoints of practitioners concerning the use of Picture Exchange Communication System for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This study found Picture Exchange Communication System is a useful strategy but has some barriers concerning its use. Future research is needed to confirm the current findings with a larger sample. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Many students with autism spectrum disorder are non-verbal and may benefit from augmentative and alternative communication methods. Picture Exchange Communication System, one of the augmentative and alternative communication methods, has been widely used by professionals and parents to improve communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorder who are non-verbal or have complex communication needs. Practitioners indicated that Picture Exchange Communication System was easy to use and effective to develop communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder. However, they found that it is time consuming. Practitioners need ongoing support when implementing the Picture Exchange Communication System.

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2. Asiminas A, Jackson AD, Louros SR, Till SM, Spano T, Dando O, Bear MF, Chattarji S, Hardingham GE, Osterweil EK, Wyllie DJA, Wood ER, Kind PC. Sustained correction of associative learning deficits after brief, early treatment in a rat model of Fragile X Syndrome. Sci Transl Med ;2019 (May 29) ;11(494)

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common monogenic forms of autism and intellectual disability. Preclinical studies in animal models have highlighted the potential of pharmaceutical intervention strategies for alleviating the symptoms of FXS. However, whether treatment strategies can be tailored to developmental time windows that define the emergence of particular phenotypes is unknown. Similarly, whether a brief, early intervention can have long-lasting beneficial effects, even after treatment cessation, is also unknown. To address these questions, we first examined the developmental profile for the acquisition of associative learning in a rat model of FXS. Associative memory was tested using a range of behavioral paradigms that rely on an animal’s innate tendency to explore novelty. Fmr1 knockout (KO) rats showed a developmental delay in their acquisition of object-place recognition and did not demonstrate object-place-context recognition paradigm at any age tested (up to 23 weeks of age). Treatment of Fmr1 KO rats with lovastatin between 5 and 9 weeks of age, during the normal developmental period that this associative memory capability is established, prevents the emergence of deficits but has no effect in wild-type animals. Moreover, we observe no regression of cognitive performance in the FXS rats over several months after treatment. This restoration of the normal developmental trajectory of cognitive function is associated with the sustained rescue of both synaptic plasticity and altered protein synthesis. The findings provide proof of concept that the impaired emergence of the cognitive repertoire in neurodevelopmental disorders may be prevented by brief, early pharmacological intervention.

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3. Bozkurt G, Uysal G, Duzkaya DS. Examination of care burden and stress coping styles of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Pediatr Nurs ;2019 (May 27) ;47:142-147.

OBJECTIVE : The study was conducted to examine the caregiver burden and stress coping styles of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). DESIGN AND METHODS : This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with parents of 131 children with ASD who were enrolled in a private education practice center in Istanbul between August 2015 and August 2016. The data were collected using a questionnaire prepared by the researchers, and the "Caregiver Strain Index" and "Ways of Coping Questionnaire." RESULTS : The mean age of the children in the sample group was 4.83+/-0.99years ; 63.4% were boys. Nearly 40% (38.2%) were diagnosed as having ASD at the age of 2years. It was determined that the parents of children with ASD had a higher burden of care (CSI mean score : 7.68+/-4.30). The caregiver burden was significantly higher (p<0.05) for parents of one child as compared to parents with more children, and parents with daughters compared to parents with sons. In addition, the mothers were found to have higher scores of ’submissive approach’ and ’seeking social support’ than fathers. CONCLUSION : Parents of children with ASD had a higher caregiver burden. Scores of approach types of self-confident, helpless, optimistic, and seeking social support were significant predictors of caregiver burden. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS : Nurses are encouraged to take a more active role to improve the health of children with autism and families should contribute to mitigating the burden care of parents by informing families about social support systems.

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4. Brondino N, Fusar-Poli L, Miceli E, Di Stefano M, Damiani S, Rocchetti M, Politi P. Prevalence of Medical Comorbidities in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Gen Intern Med ;2019 (May 29)

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5. Gayathri KS, Tiwari S. Adaptation and Validation of Parental Behavioral Scale for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to Kannada. Indian J Psychol Med ;2019 (May-Jun) ;41(3):266-270.

Background : Assessment of parenting behaviors in parents of children with autism is crucial in the assessment and treatment processes. Efficient tools and instruments with known psychometric properties are needed to assess parenting behaviors in parents of children with autism. Given the lack of such tools in the Indian context, there is a need to develop and/or adapt tools/scale to assess the parenting behaviors in regional languages. Aim of the Study : To adapt, translate and validate the Parental behavioral scale for Autism spectrum disorder (PBS-A) to Kannada. Materials and Methods : The original version of PBS-A was given to three healthcare professionals to examine the sociocultural suitability of items. The linguistic adaptation was performed through a forward-backward translation scheme. It was then administered on 50 parents of children with autism. Further, the psychometric properties of PBS-A Kannada version were examined, viz. acceptability, test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Results : Kannada version of PBS-A showed an excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.993) and an overall high level of internal consistency (alpha = 0.93). The acceptability was found to be good among the Speech-language pathologists (SLP) ratings (k = 0.485). Conclusions : Kannada version of PBS-A is a valid and reliable scale that can be useful for assessing the parenting behavior.

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6. Hamed NO, Laila Al A, Osman MA, Elkhawad AO, Bjorklund G, Qasem H, Zayed N, El-Ansary A. Determination of neuroinflammatory biomarkers in autistic and neurotypical Saudi children. Metab Brain Dis ;2019 (May 30)

To identify neuroinflammatory biomarkers in patients with various severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increases the insight about the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this neurodevelopmental disorder. The aim of the present study was to analyze the levels in plasma of TGFbeta2, Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase (H-PGDS) in Saudi ASD children and healthy age-matched neurotypical controls. Also, it was in the present study examined the correlation among these neuroinflammatory biomarkers and the sensory deficit exhibited by the ASD children. Blood samples from 38 Saudi children with ASD and 32 age-matched neurotypical controls were withdrawn after an overnight fast. For the blood taking 3 mL EDTA containing blood collection tubes was used. The samples were centrifuged for 20 min (4 degrees C ; 3000xg) directly after the blood sampling. The harvested plasma was used for in vitro quantification of TGF-beta2, HSP70, and H-PGDS by using the sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and predictiveness curves showed that each of TGF-beta2, HSP70 or H-PGDS alone could not be used as a predictive neuroinflammatory biomarker for ASD. However, when TGF-beta2 and HSP70 were combined in one ROC curve, the AUC was increased to an appreciable value that makes them together robust predictors of variation between the ASD and neurotypical control groups. Overall, it was in the present study found significant differences for TGF-beta2 and HSP70 when the ASD and neurotypical control groups were compared, independently of the sensory deficit level. In conclusion, the present study highlights the usefulness of TGF-beta2, HSP70, and H-PGDS as diagnostic tools to differentiate between ASD and neurotypical control children, but not among subgroups of ASD children exhibiting different severity levels of sensory dysfunction. The presented data also suggest the effectiveness of ROC as a powerful statistical tool, which precisely can measure a combined effect of neuroinflammatory biomarkers intended for diagnostic purposes.

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7. Harmsen IE. Empathy in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (May 30)

Empathy is an essential component of human social life. It requires the ability to understand another’s mental state and respond with an appropriate emotion or action. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been described to exhibit atypical empathic responses which limit communication and social interactions. This review highlights the clinical characteristics and mechanisms underlying empathy in ASD by summarizing 61 peer-reviewed articles. Studies characterized empathic differences due to sex, age, intelligence, and disorder severity and provided valuable insights into the roles that genetics, neural networks, and sensory processing have in eliciting empathy. This knowledge will lead to improved diagnostics and therapies to improve social cognition, emotional recognition, and the empathic response in patients with ASD.

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8. Ibrahim K, Kalvin C, Marsh CL, Anzano A, Gorynova L, Cimino K, Sukhodolsky DG. Anger Rumination is Associated with Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (May 29)

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported to have greater levels of anger rumination than typically developing children. This study examined anger rumination in children with ASD in comparison to children with disruptive behavior disorder without ASD. We also tested if anger rumination is associated with aggression and the core ASD symptoms of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). This study included three groups of children aged 8-16 years : 63 had ASD (ASD group), 79 had disruptive behavior disorder (DB group), and 40 healthy controls (HC). ASD and DB groups showed greater anger rumination relative to the HC group. Anger rumination was associated with RRBs in children with ASD, suggesting the link to core ASD symptoms.

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9. Leedham A, Thompson A, Smith R, Freeth M. ’I was exhausted trying to figure it out’ : The experiences of females receiving an autism diagnosis in middle to late adulthood. Autism ;2019 (May 30):1362361319853442.

Females often receive autism spectrum condition diagnoses later than males, leaving needs misunderstood. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of female adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition in middle to late adulthood. Eleven autistic females diagnosed over the age of 40 years completed semi-structured interviews, analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four superordinate themes emerged : A hidden condition (pretending to be normal and fitting in ; mental health and mislabelling), The process of acceptance (initial reactions and search for understanding ; re-living life through a new lens), The impact of others post-diagnosis (initial reactions ; stereotyped assumptions), and A new identity on the autism spectrum (negotiating relationships, connections and community ; changing well-being and views of the self ; the meaning of diagnosis). Findings highlight several factors not previously identified that affect late diagnosis in females, including widespread limited understandings of others. Diagnosis was experienced by several participants as facilitating transition from being self-critical to self-compassionate, coupled with an increased sense of agency. Participants experienced a change in identity that enabled greater acceptance and understanding of the self. However, this was painful to adjust to at such a late stage.

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10. Meng J, Shen L, Li Z, Peng W. Top-down Effects on Empathy for Pain in Adults with Autistic Traits. Sci Rep ;2019 (May 29) ;9(1):8022.

While empathic responses of individuals with autism-spectrum disorder have been reported to be modulated by top-down attention, it remains unclear whether empathy for pain in typically developing individuals with autistic traits also involves such top-down modulation mechanisms. This study employed the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) to quantify autistic traits in a group of 1,231 healthy adults. Two subset groups (High-AQ and Low-AQ groups) were randomly selected from the highest and lowest 10% AQ scores respectively. We explored whether participants in both groups would differ in their response to others’ pain when their attention was directed toward (A-P tasks) or away (A-N tasks) from pain cues in auditory and visual experimental modalities. Compared to Low-AQ individuals, High-AQ individuals exhibited more suppressed N1 and P2 amplitudes in response to painful vocal cues in auditory A-N tasks. This suggests suppressed attentional and emotional processes of empathy for pain when High-AQ individuals have their attention directed away from others’ pain cues. No significant difference was found between both groups in the auditory A-P task, nor in the visual A-P and A-N tasks. These results suggest that top-down attention modulation of cortical empathic responses to others’ vocal pain is influenced by autistic traits.

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11. Muscas M, Louros SR, Osterweil EK. Lovastatin, not simvastatin, corrects core phenotypes in the fragile X mouse model. eNeuro ;2019 (May 30)

The cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin corrects neurological phenotypes in animal models of fragile X syndrome (FX), a commonly identified genetic cause of autism and intellectual disability. The therapeutic efficacy of lovastatin is being tested in clinical trials for FX, however the structurally similar drug simvastatin has been proposed as an alternative due to an increased potency and brain penetrance. Here, we perform a side-by-side comparison of the effects of lovastatin and simvastatin treatment on two core phenotypes in Fmr1(-/y) mice versus WT littermates : excessive hippocampal protein synthesis and susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS). We find that simvastatin does not correct excessive hippocampal protein synthesis in the Fmr1(-/y) hippocampus at any dose tested. In fact, simvastatin significantly increases protein synthesis in both Fmr1(-/y) and WT. Moreover, injection of simvastatin does not reduce AGS in the Fmr1(-/y) mouse, while lovastatin significantly reduces AGS incidence and severity versus vehicle treated animals. These results show that unlike lovastatin, simvastatin does not correct core phenotypes in the Fmr1(-/y) mouse model.Significance Statement The statin drug lovastatin is in clinical trials for the treatment of Fragile X Syndrome (FX), and the structurally similar drug simvastatin has been proposed as a viable alternative. This study compares the efficacy of these drugs for ameliorating two major phenotypes in the FX mouse model and shows that although lovastatin is effective in correcting excessive protein synthesis and audiogenic seizures, simvastatin fails to correct either phenotype. These results suggest caution should be used when assuming simvastatin is a suitable substitute for lovastatin with respect to the treatment of FX or other neurodevelopmental disorders.

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12. Patra S, Naik S, Jha M. Corpus Callosum Agenesis : Neuroanatomical Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder ?. Indian J Psychol Med ;2019 (May-Jun) ;41(3):284-286.

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13. Puli A, Kushki A. Towards Automatic Anxiety Detection in Autism : A Real-Time Algorithm for Detecting Physiological Arousal in the Presence of Motion. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ;2019 (May 27)

OBJECTIVE : Anxiety is a significant clinical concern in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) due to its negative impact on physical and psychological health. Treatment of anxiety in ASD remains a challenge due to difficulties with self-awareness and communication of anxiety symptoms. To reduce these barriers to treatment, physiological markers of autonomic arousal, collected through wearable sensors, have been proposed as real-time, objective, and language-free measures of anxiety. A critical limitation of existing anxiety detection systems is that physiological arousal is not specific to anxiety and can occur with other user states such as physical activity. This can result in false positives which can hinder the operation of these systems in real-world situations. The objective of this work was to address this challenge by proposing an approach for real-time detection and mitigation of physical activity effects. METHODS : A novel multiple model Kalman-like filter is proposed to integrate heart rate and accelerometry signals. The filter tracks user heart rate under different motion assumptions, and chooses the appropriate model for anxiety detection based on user motion conditions. RESULTS : Evaluation of the algorithm using data from a sample of children with ASD shows a significant reduction in false positives compared to the state-of-the-art, and an overall arousal detection accuracy of 93%. CONCLUSION : The proposed method is able to reduce false detections due to user motion, and effectively detect arousal states during movement periods. SIGNIFICANCE : The results add to the growing evidence supporting the feasibility of wearable technologies for anxiety detection and management in naturalistic settings.

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14. Sindermann C, Cooper A, Montag C. Empathy, Autistic Tendencies, and Systemizing Tendencies-Relationships Between Standard Self-Report Measures. Front Psychiatry ;2019 ;10:307.

The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between four highly used self-report measures assessing empathy (measured as both a unidimensional and multidimensional construct), autistic tendencies, and systemizing tendencies. Participants in this study completed the following self-report measures : The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to measure empathy, and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) to assess autistic and systemizing tendencies, respectively. The final sample consisted of N = 1,098 participants (304 males) without a diagnosed autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were university students. The IRI scale "Perspective Taking" and the EQ were negatively related to the AQ in male and female participants, while the IRI scale "Empathic Concern" was negatively related to the AQ in females only. Moreover, the AQ was positively related to the SQ-R in females only. Lastly, the SQ-R and a number of the empathy scales were significantly associated : For example and surprisingly, the EQ correlated weakly and positively with the SQ-R in both male and female participants. The results from this study illustrate how standard self-report measures of empathy, autistic tendencies, and systemizing tendencies are associated with each other in a large sample not diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Additionally, some potential gender-specific effects are revealed.

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15. Vanderslott S. Study shows lower vaccination rates for younger siblings after autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in older siblings. Evid Based Nurs ;2019 (May 29)

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16. Yang Y, Wang H, Xue Q, Huang Z, Wang Y. High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Applied to the Parietal Cortex for Low-Functioning Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Case Series. Front Psychiatry ;2019 ;10:293.

Background : Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe and efficacious technique to stimulate specific areas of cortical dysfunction in several neuropsychiatric diseases ; however, it is not known whether high-frequency rTMS (HF-rTMS) over the left inferior parietal lobule, in low functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), improves core symptoms. Method : Eleven low-functioning children with ASD completed two separate HF-rTMS treatment courses, 6 weeks apart. Each treatment course involved five 5-s trains at 20 Hz, with 10-min inter-train intervals, on left inferior parietal lobule each consecutive weekday for a 3-week period (15 treatments per course). Subjects were assessed at five time points : immediately before and after the first HF-rTMS course, immediately before and after the second HF-rTMS course, and 6 weeks after the second rTMS treatment course. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated using the Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale (VerBAS) and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). The latter test consists of four subtest scales : Language, Sociability, Sensory, and Behavior. In addition, daily treatment logbooks completed by parents were considered as one of the outcome measures. Results : Participants showed a significant reduction in language- and social-related symptoms measured by ATEC from pretreatment to the 6-week follow-up after the second treatment course. Moreover, some possible improvements in imitation and cognition were reported by caregivers. Conclusions : Our findings suggest that HF-rTMS over the left parietal cortex might improve core deficits in low-functioning children with ASD.

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17. Yao W, Huang J, He H. Over-expressed LOC101927196 suppressed oxidative stress levels and neuron cell proliferation in a rat model of autism through disrupting the Wnt signaling pathway by targeting FZD3. Cell Signal ;2019 (May 27)

Accumulating evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in autism. Herein, we delineated the functions of LOC101927196 and its potential mitigation effect on a rat model of autism. We retrieved various bioinformatics databases and websites to screen differentially expressed lncRNAs associated with autism. Next, a rat model of autism was established with the neuron cells extracted for transfection of different plasmids. The regulatory effect of LOC101927196 on neuron cell proliferation, apoptosis as well as oxidative stress was also investigated. Firstly, microarray dataset GSE18123 revealed that LOC101927196 was poorly expressed in a rat model of autism. Poor development and growth and oxidative stress disorder were also observed in a rat model of autism. In addition, LOC101927196 targeting FZD3 played a vital role in a rat model of autism through the Wnt signaling pathway. Furthermore, we further demonstrated that over-expressed LOC101927196 blocked neuron cell proliferation and reduced oxidative stress levels, while promoting apoptosis by suppressing the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Our findings illustrate that up-regulated LOC101927196 attenuated oxidative stress disorder in a rat model of autism through suppressing the activation of Wnt signaling pathway by targeting FZD3.

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18. Yuan C, Hua Y, Zhu J. The Role of Reinforcement in Multiple Response Repetition Error Correction and Treatment Preference of Chinese Children with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (May 29)

Error correction is a ubiquitous instructional component for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the context of alternating treatment with repeated acquisition design, we taught four young Chinese children with ASD three sets of a match-to-sample task using multiple response repetition error correction with and without reinforcement. We assessed the participants’ preferences of the procedures. Results showed that the acquisition rates were similar under both conditions. However, participant’s preferences varied, with three participants preferring error correction with reinforcement and one preferring the without-reinforcement procedure. The discussion addresses the results from our comparison in light of prior studies and learner preferences of error-correction procedures, as well as the research and practical implications of our findings.

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