Pubmed du 11/06/19

mardi 11 juin 2019

1. Baron-Mendoza I, Del Moral-Sanchez I, Martinez-Marcial M, Garcia O, Garzon-Cortes D, Gonzalez-Arenas A. Dendritic complexity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of the autistic-like mice C58/J. Neurosci Lett ;2019 (Jun 11) ;703:149-155.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated to atypical neuronal connectivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus, in part, due to an alteration in neuroplasticity processes such as dendritic remodeling. Moreover, it has been proposed that abnormal cytoskeletal dynamics might be underlying the disrupted formation and morphology of dendrites in the ASD brain. Hence, we performed an analysis of the complexity of dendritic arborization of the pyramidal neurons localized in the layer II/III of the PFC and the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the autistic-like mouse strain C58/J, which has previously demonstrated neuronal cytoskeleton anomalies. We found differences in length, number and branching pattern of dendrites of the pyramidal neurons from both structures of C58/J strain. These data suggest a lower dendritic arborization complexity that could be involved with the characteristic autistic-like behaviors displayed in C58/J mice.

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2. Bartram LA, Lozano J, Coury DL. Aripiprazole for treating irritability associated with autism spectrum disorders. Expert Opin Pharmacother ;2019 (Jun 10):1-7.

Introduction : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a reported prevalence of 1 in 59 people. Its core features are persistent deficits in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interests. Individuals with ASD have a high incidence of secondary problems with mood lability, tantrums, self-injurious behavior and aggressiveness toward others. Collectively, these behaviors are often referred to as irritability. Many medications have been used to treat irritability in autism, with aripiprazole one of only two medications approved in the USA for this purpose. Areas covered : Herein, the authors review the evidence supporting the use of aripiprazole for treating irritability in autism, including the pivotal trials leading to regulatory approval and long-term studies conducted post-approval. They utilized PubMed, searching all English language publications since 2000, using the terms aripiprazole, autism, autism spectrum disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger’s disorder, and irritability, and focused on clinical trials and review articles. Expert opinion : Multiple studies have shown the clear benefit of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in autism disorders compared to placebo. Often underemphasized are the metabolic effects, the proper monitoring for these effects, and the need for periodic reassessment to determine if ongoing treatment is needed.

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3. Martinez G, Mosconi E, Daban-Huard C, Parellada M, Fananas L, Gaillard R, Fatjo-Vilas M, Krebs MO, Amado I. "A circle and a triangle dancing together" : Alteration of social cognition in schizophrenia compared to autism spectrum disorders. Schizophr Res ;2019 (Jun 6)

Difficulties in social cognition are present both in persons with schizophrenia (SCZ) and persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, qualitative similarities and differences in this field remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore attribution of intentionality in patients with recent onset SCZ in comparison to patients with high functioning ASD, and to explore relationships between alterations in attribution and clinical profile. Animated shapes are a non-verbal Theory of Mind (ToM) task involving the interpretation of geometric figure interactions in three conditions : random, goal-directed and ToM. We compared 51 young adults with SCZ, 32 with ASD and 23 healthy controls (HC) matched for age and gender. In random, goal-directed and ToM conditions, persons with SCZ attributed less intentionality with less appropriate answers than HC, while the same anomalies were only found in the ToM condition in persons with ASD. In SCZ, thought and langage disorganization and earlier age at onset were correlated with intentionality score in the random condition. Moreover, a mixed ToM impairment was found in SCZ, combining undermentalizing (for movements involving a mental state) similar to what was found in ASD, and overmentalizing (for random movements), related to dizorganization and precocity of the first psychotic episode. In the frame of the hypothesis of a continuum, these results underline both similarities and differences between autism and schizophrenia.

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4. Milne E, Gomez R, Giannadou A, Jones M. Atypical EEG in autism spectrum disorder : Comparing a dimensional and a categorical approach. J Abnorm Psychol ;2019 (Jun 10)

Myriad studies have found group differences in neural dynamics between people with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the extent to which variation in neural dynamics is related to variation in the autism phenotype across the population is not known. Here we measured behavioral characteristics of autism alongside intertrial phase coherence (ITC) and multiscale entropy (MSE) computed from EEG in order to address this question. Data were obtained from 99 adults, 38 of whom had an ASD diagnosis. Phenotypic information was obtained from the Social Responsiveness Scale (Revised), the Repetitive Behavior Questionnaire, the WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Trait version). ITC and MSE were computed from EEG recorded during visual stimulation and eyes-closed rest. We found no evidence to suggest that population variance in autistic traits is underpinned by variance in neural dynamics, despite finding that ITC and MSE are more likely to be reduced in people with ASD than in those without. We conclude that there are likely to be multiple neural profiles underpinning ASD, and suggest that while individual differences in the autism phenotype exist across the population, their distribution is not underpinned by individual differences in neural dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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5. Mishra SK, Khosa S, Trikamji B, Khanli HM, Scheuner MT, Jamal NI, Hanssen AM. A case of Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). J Clin Neurosci ;2019 (Jun 6)

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with dysfunction of movement, memory, and the peripheral nervous system. We report an 82years old male who presented with tremors and difficulty with balance that started at 65years of age. His motor examination revealed decreased strength in left lower extremity. Tremors were seen in both the upper limbs at rest that worsened with movement. Bilateral lower extremities showed absent vibration and proprioception sensations, absent reflexes and upgoing toes. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed sensory predominant axonal sensory-motor peripheral polyneuropathy. Brain MRI revealed microvascular ischemic changes. The cervical and lumbar MRI showed diffuse degenerative changes. Genetic test for heritable causes of ataxia revealed a premutation in Fragile X gene (84 CGG repeats), confirming the diagnosis of FXTAS. On further genetic testing three out of his four daughters also tested positive for the FMR1 premutation. In appropriate clinical setting, Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) should be considered in every middle aged/elderly patient who presented with slowly progressive ataxia, tremor and peripheral polyneuropathy without any history of cognitive or neurological disabilities in childhood.

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6. Nishimura T, Takei N, Tsuchiya KJ. Neurodevelopmental Trajectory During Infancy and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder as an Outcome at 32 Months of Age. Epidemiology ;2019 (Jul) ;30 Suppl 1:S9-S14.

BACKGROUND : Little is known about the extent to which neurodevelopmental trajectories in infancy predict a later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS : We investigated the association between the neurodevelopmental trajectory classes identified using a latent class growth analysis and the distal clinical outcome. Participants included 952 infants from the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for Mothers and Children (HBC study). Neurodevelopment was measured using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, which contains five subscales (gross motor, fine motor, visual reception, receptive language, and expressive language), at seven time points from 1 to 24 months of age. ASD was diagnosed in 3.1% of the children at 32 months of age. The clinical outcome was included in our analysis model. RESULTS : Five neurodevelopmental classes were identified : high normal (11.5%), normal (49.2%), low normal (21.2%), delayed (14.1%), and markedly delayed (4.0%). The probability of a diagnosis of ASD in the markedly delayed class was highest (32.6%) when compared with the other classes. The probabilities of receiving a diagnosis of ASD in the delayed and low normal classes were 6.4% and 4.0%, respectively, whereas the probabilities in the normal and high normal classes were both 0%. CONCLUSIONS : A diagnosis of ASD may be predicted by the neurodevelopmental trajectories during infancy, which can be evaluated both routinely and objectively in clinical settings. In this representative population, children diagnosed with ASD showed early signs in neurodevelopmental domains during the first 2 years of life.

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7. Solis M, Reutebuch CK, Falcomata T, Steinle PK, Miller VL, Vaughn S. Vocabulary and Main Idea Reading Intervention Using Text Choice to Improve Content Knowledge and Reading Comprehension of Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behav Modif ;2019 (Jun 10):145445519853781.

This simultaneous replication single-case design study investigated a vocabulary and main idea intervention with an aspect of text choice provided to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Five middle school students with ASD participated in two instructional groups taught by school-based personnel. Results were initially mixed. These results were followed by upward and stable trends, indicating a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Social validity measures indicated that students appreciated the opportunity to make choices on text selection.

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8. Zhang J, Meng Y, Wu C, Xiang YT, Yuan Z. Non-speech and speech pitch perception among Cantonese-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder : An ERP study. Neurosci Lett ;2019 (Jun 11) ;703:205-212.

The present study compared how Cantonese-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their typically developing counterparts perceived speech pitch and non-speech pitch information using ERP measurements. Sixteen children with ASD (mean age = 10.42 years, SD = 2.12 years) and sixteen normal controls (mean age = 9.48 years, SD =.86 years) participated in two experiments, in which Cantonese lexical tone contrasts and non-speech pitch variations were presented to children following an oddball paradigm when they watched a silent movie. The results showed that : 1) When processing speech pitch contour, the two groups did not differ in the amplitude of mismatch response (p-MMR), while typically developing controls showed larger mismatch negativity (MMN) responses than children with ASD. In the processing of speech pitch height, more positive p-MMR was observed among children with ASD than among normal controls and stronger MMN was found for typically developing children than for children with ASD. 2) For the processing of non-speech pitch, MMN rather than p-MMR was observed and the two groups did not differ significantly with each other in the amplitudes of MMN. These results indicated that Cantonese-speaking children with ASD manifested impaired ability when processing speech pitch information (i.e., lexical tone), which was in line with previous research. However, they did not show the advantage in processing non-speech or auditory pitch information, which was not in agreement with the previous studies. Results were discussed from the perspective of how language background (i.e., Cantonese) might shape the perceptive abilities of children.

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