Pubmed du 04/07/19

jeudi 4 juillet 2019

1. Alzghoul L, Abdelhamid SS, Yanis AH, Qwaider YZ, Aldahabi M, Albdour SA. The association between levels of inflammatory markers in autistic children compared to their unaffected siblings and unrelated healthy controls. Turkish journal of medical sciences. 2019 ; 49(4).

Background/aim : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a range of neurodevelopmental disabilities that impair behavior and communication. Although it is relatively prevalent, the pathophysiology is still subject to speculation and debate. The aim of this study is to identify a possible association between interleukin-6, -8, -9, and -10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in autism among Jordanian children by comparing the plasma levels of these cytokines in autistic children with those of their unaffected siblings and unrelated healthy controls. Materials and methods : In this study, 80 Jordanian children under the age of 12 with diagnosed autism were selected. For comparison, 51 unaffected siblings and 86 unrelated healthy controls were also recruited. Venous blood was collected and interleukin levels in all three groups were investigated. Results : Interleukin-6 was found to be significantly higher in the plasma of both autistic children and their siblings compared with the unrelated healthy control group (P < 0.05). As for interleukin-8 and TNF-alpha, plasma levels were significantly higher exclusively in autistic children compared to their siblings and unaffected control subjects (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between plasma levels of the previously mentioned cytokines in the siblings and the unrelated control group. As for interleukin-9 and interleukin-10, no significant differences were found between all three groups (P = 0.15, P = 0.35). Conclusion : We found that interleukin-8 and TNF-alpha were exclusively elevated in autistic Jordanian children, while interleukin-6 was elevated in both autistic children and their siblings, potentially dismissing its significance. These results may lead to a better understanding of the disorder’s pathophysiology, early testing, and diagnosis.

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2. Bethin KE, Kanapka LG, Laffel LM, Majidi S, Chaytor NS, MacLeish S, Adams R, Foster NC. Autism spectrum disorder in children with Type 1 diabetes. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2019.

AIM : Links between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autoimmune diseases, including Type 1 diabetes have been proposed. This study assessed the frequency of ASD in children with Type 1 diabetes in the T1D Exchange (T1DX) registry and the impact of ASD on characteristics of children with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS : Analysis included 10 032 participants aged < 18 years (median Type 1 diabetes duration 6.5 years, 48% female, 77% non-Hispanic White). Diagnosis of ASD was defined as autism, Asperger’s or pervasive developmental disorder. RESULTS : A diagnosis of ASD was recorded for 159 (1.58%) participants. Those with ASD were predominantly male (88% vs. 51% of those without ASD, P < 0.001) and slightly older (median 14 vs. 13 years, P = 0.022). Occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis at Type 1 diabetes diagnosis was similar (35% vs. 41%, P = 0.161). Pump use was lower in those with ASD (51% vs. 63%, P = 0.005) but continuous glucose monitor use was similar (24% vs. 27%, P = 0.351). Median HbA1c was slightly lower in those with ASD [68 vs. 69 mmol/mol (8.4% vs. 8.5%), P = 0.006]. This difference was more pronounced after adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSIONS : The frequency of ASD in the T1DX registry was similar to that in the general population. These data show that despite deficits in communication, occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis was similar in youth with and without ASD. Pump use was less frequent in those with ASD, possibly due to sensory issues, although CGM use did not differ. The lower HbA1c may be due to a more regimented routine with ASD. Because comorbidities such as ASD complicate care of patients with Type 1 diabetes, further research is needed to support these children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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3. Bohadana G, Morrissey S, Paynter J. Self-compassion : A Novel Predictor of Stress and Quality of Life in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

The double ABCX model of adaptation has been used to predict parental outcomes in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with predictors including child characteristics, pile up of demands, external resources, coping, parental perceptions, and internal resources. This study investigated whether self-compassion is a unique predictor of parental outcomes of stress and quality of life. One hundred and thirty-nine parents (120 mothers, 19 fathers) completed an online questionnaire investigating known predictors and self-compassion. It was found that higher scores on the positive dimension of self-compassion were associated with better quality of life, and higher scores on the negative dimension of self-compassion were associated with greater stress. This research has implications for developing self-compassion interventions for parents.

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4. Booth AJ, Rodgers JD, Volker MA, Lopata C, Thomeer ML. Psychometric Characteristics of the DANVA-2 in High-Functioning Children with ASD. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

This study examined psychometric characteristics of the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-Second Edition (DANVA-2) in 121 children, ages 6 to 13 years, with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Internal consistency for adult and child faces subtests were .70 and .75, respectively. Immediate test-retest reliability in the total sample (N = 121) ranged from .78 to .84. Reliability for two subsamples for 5- (n = 21) and 12-week (n = 21) intervals ranged from .75 to .90 and from .43 to .68, respectively. DANVA-2 scores strongly converged with two measures of emotion recognition but were unrelated to parent ratings of social functioning and ASD symptoms. Significant correlations (small to medium) were found between DANVA-2 scores and child age, IQ, and language ability.

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5. Brayette M, Saliba E, Malvy J, Blanc R, Ponson L, Tripi G, Roux S, Bonnet-Brilhault F. Incomplete Gestation has an Impact on Cognitive Abilities in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Extreme prematurity is known as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the association between prematurity and ASD, for children born moderately and late preterm (MLPT) and those born early term (ET), is less established. This retrospective study aimed to characterize the phenotypic characteristics (i.e. behavioral profile and cognitive abilities) of 254 children with ASD, between 3 and 15 years of age, born MLPT (19 children), ET (60 children) and full term (175 children). MLPT and ET births do not modify ASD symptomatology, but modify cognitive development. The results highlight that incomplete gestation, i.e., MLPT or ET, has a negative impact on both verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities, in children with neurodevelopmental vulnerability.

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6. Camodeca A. Theory of Mind Performance in Broad Autism Phenotype Groups : Between-Group Differences and Predictor Variables. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Investigated between-group differences in cognitive/affective theory of mind (ToM) and predictors of cognitive ToM both within broad autism phenotype/non (BAP/Non-BAP) groups as well as across the sample. The BAP group (n = 45) performed worse than the Non-BAP group (n = 102) on the unexpected outcomes test (UOT), but groups were similar regarding reading the mind in the eyes test (RMET). Stepwise regression indicated RMET best predicted UOT for the BAP group ; block design best predicted UOT in the Non-BAP group. BAP traits did not mediate the relation of RMET to UOT performance. While RMET and UOT appear similarly related in BAP/Non-BAP samples, use of emotion recognition abilities in a cognitive ToM task may reflect over-reliance on this skill in the BAP.

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7. Carlone G, Trombetta A, Amoroso S, Poropat F, Barbi E, Cozzi G. Intramuscular Dexmedetomidine, a Feasible Option for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Needing Urgent Procedural Sedation. Pediatric emergency care. 2019.

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8. Craig F, De Giacomo A, Savino R, Ruggiero M, Russo L, Fanizza I, Margari L, Trabacca A. The Empathizing-Systemizing Theory and ’Extreme Male Brain’ (EMB) Theory in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) : An Explorative, Cross-Sectional Study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether empathizing and systemizing are part of the parental broad autism phenotype (BAP). Parents (N = 76) of preschool children with a diagnosis of ASD and parents (N = 48) of typically developing (TD) children completed the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) questionnaires. The E-S discrepancy (D score) was used to test for sex differences in five "brain types". Our results suggest that the E-S theory do not seem to be part of the BAP. However, a stronger drive to systemize than empathize (Type S brain) could be a highly inheritable cognitive endophenotype of mothers of children with ASD. This study should be repeated with a larger sample size.

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9. Gopal KV, Schafer EC, Mathews L, Nandy R, Beaudoin D, Schadt L, Brown A, Phillips B, Caldwell J. Effects of Auditory Training on Electrophysiological Measures in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. 2019.

BACKGROUND : Identifying objective changes following an auditory training program is central to the assessment of the program’s efficacy. PURPOSE : This study aimed (1) to objectively determine the efficacy of a 12-week auditory processing training (APT) program in individuals with autism spectrum disorder using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and (2) to identify the top central AEP predictors of the overall score on the Test of Auditory Processing Skills-3 (TAPS-3), the primary behavioral outcome measure of the APT program published in our earlier article. RESEARCH DESIGN : A one-group pretraining, posttraining design was used. STUDY SAMPLE : The sample included 15 children and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Participants underwent the APT program consisting of computerized dichotic training, one-on-one therapist-directed auditory training, and the use of remote microphone technology at home and in the classroom. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS : All participants underwent pre- and posttraining auditory brain stem responses (ABRs), complex auditory brain stem responses (cABRs), and auditory late responses (ALRs). Test results from ABRs and ALRs were grouped based on scores obtained in their dominant and nondominant ears. Paired t-tests were used to assess the efficacy of the training program, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression was used to assess the relationship between ALRs and the TAPS-3 overall summed raw score reported in our earlier article. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : When compared with pretraining results, posttraining results showed shorter ABR latencies and larger amplitudes. The cABRs showed decreased latencies of the frequency following waves, a reduction in pitch error, and enhancement of pitch strength and phase shift. ALR results indicated shorter latencies and larger amplitudes. Our earlier article showed that the TAPS-3 overall score was significantly higher after training. This study showed that the top three ALR predictors of TAPS-3 outcomes were P1 amplitude in the dominant ear, and N1 amplitude in the dominant and nondominant ears.

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10. Grandin T. Case Study : How Horses Helped a Teenager with Autism Make Friends and Learn How to Work. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 ; 16(13).

I was born in 1947 and had autism with speech delay until age four. I am now a college professor of animal science. Horse activities enabled me to make friends through a shared interest in horses. This paper describes the benefits that I experienced from working with horses and my friendships and work skills. A close friendship developed with another student through both riding and horse craft projects. Keeping employment is a serious problem for many people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The responsibility of caring for horses and cleaning stalls every day taught me good work skills. My experiences suggest that there were valuable outcomes from working with horses. This may be a beneficial intervention to include in programming for youth with ASD.

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11. Herscu P, Handen BL, Arnold LE, Snape MF, Bregman JD, Ginsberg L, Hendren R, Kolevzon A, Melmed R, Mintz M, Minshew N, Sikich L, Attalla A, King B, Owley T, Childress A, Chugani H, Frazier J, Cartwright C, Murphy T. The SOFIA Study : Negative Multi-center Study of Low Dose Fluoxetine on Repetitive Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that reduces obsessive-compulsive symptoms. There is limited evidence supporting its efficacy for repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). We conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of fluoxetine in 158 individuals with ASD (5-17 years). Following 14 treatment weeks (mean dose 11.8 mg/day), no significant differences were noted on the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale ; the proportion of responders was similar (fluoxetine : 36% ; placebo : 41%). There were similar rates of AEs (e.g., insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting) ; high rates of activation were reported in both groups (fluoxetine : 42% ; placebo : 45%). Overly cautious dosing/duration may have prevented attainment of a therapeutic level. Results are consistent with other SSRI RCTs treating RRBs in ASD.Trial Registration : clinicaltrials.gov Identifier : NCT00515320.

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12. Hidaka S, Yaguchi A. An Investigation of the Relationships Between Autistic Traits and Crossmodal Correspondences in Typically Developing Adults. Multisensory research. 2018 ; 31(8) : 729-51.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes characteristics such as social and behavioral deficits that are considered common across the general population rather than unique to people with the diagnosis. People with ASD are reported to have sensory irregularities, including crossmodal perception. Crossmodal correspondences are phenomena in which arbitrary crossmodal inputs affect behavioral performance. Crossmodal correspondences are considered to be established through associative learning, but the learning cues are considered to differ across the types of correspondences. In order to investigate whether and how ASD traits affect crossmodal associative learning, this study examined the relationships between the magnitude of crossmodal correspondences and the degree of ASD traits among non-diagnosed adults. We found that, among three types of crossmodal correspondences (brightness-loudness, visual size-pitch, and visual location-pitch pairs), the brightness-loudness pair was related with total ASD traits and a subtrait (social skill). The magnitude of newly learned crossmodal associations (the visual apparent motion direction-pitch pair) also showed a relationship with an ASD subtrait (attention switching). These findings demonstrate that there are unique relationships between crossmodal associations and ASD traits, indicating that each ASD trait is differently involved in sensory associative learning.

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13. Hu HF, Liu TL, Hsiao RC, Ni HC, Liang SH, Lin CF, Chan HL, Hsieh YH, Wang LJ, Lee MJ, Chou WJ, Yen CF. Cyberbullying Victimization and Perpetration in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder : Correlations with Depression, Anxiety, and Suicidality. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

The present study examined the associations between cyberbullying involvement and sociodemographic characteristics, autistic social impairment and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in 219 adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Moreover, the associations between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. Adolescents self-reported higher rates of being a victim or perpetrator of cyberbullying than were reported by their parents. Increased age and had more severe ODD symptoms were significantly associated with being victims or perpetrators of cyberbullying. Being a victim but not a perpetrator of cyberbullying was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and suicidality. Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration should be routinely surveyed in adolescents with high-functioning ASD.

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14. Lee GT, Xu S, Guo S, Gilic L, Pu Y, Xu J. Teaching "Imaginary Objects" Symbolic Play to Young Children with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Symbolic play skills are important in language acquisition and child development. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulties demonstrating such play behaviors. Imaginary objects symbolic play refers to play behavior in which children perform play actions without actual objects. Three boys with ASD (3-7 years) participated in this study. A multiple-probe across three participants and two settings design was employed to evaluate the effects of intraverbal training on the acquisition and generalization of imaginary objects symbolic play. Results indicated that all children acquired and maintained target imaginary objects play activities. Generalization to untaught activities occurred in one child. All three children’ symbolic play emerged or increased in free play after the instruction.

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15. Payne KL, Russell A, Mills R, Maras K, Rai D, Brosnan M. Is There a Relationship Between Cyber-Dependent Crime, Autistic-Like Traits and Autism ?. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

International law enforcement agencies have reported an apparent preponderance of autistic individuals amongst perpetrators of cyber-dependent crimes, such as hacking or spreading malware (Ledingham and Mills in Adv Autism 1:1-10, 2015). However, no empirical evidence exists to support such a relationship. This is the first study to empirically explore potential relationships between cyber-dependent crime and autism, autistic-like traits, explicit social cognition and perceived interpersonal support. Participants were 290 internet users, 23 of whom self-reported being autistic, who completed an anonymous online survey. Increased risk of committing cyber-dependent crime was associated with higher autistic-like traits. A diagnosis of autism was associated with a decreased risk of committing cyber-dependent crime. Around 40% of the association between autistic-like traits and cyber-dependent crime was mediated by advanced digital skills.

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16. S JB, P B. Spectral Analysis of Codons in the DNA Sequence of Fragile X Syndrome. J Med Syst. 2019 ; 43(8) : 261.

There are frequent studies undergoing related to the Fragile X syndrome caused due to the triplet CGG replicates on the X chromosome of Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Mutations of this chromosome can lead to Fragile X syndrome, rational disability, and other cognitive discrepancies. A novel approach based on Rajan Transform is proposed to analyze the spectral density of codons. The traditional transform like Fourier transform provides imaginary values whereas the Rajan Transform exhibits only the real values. The mutations there in the DNA are successfully distinguished by using the Rajan Transform which is suitable tool for the spectral analysis of DNA sequences. The utilization of the Rajan Transform urges larger profits in terms of minimal false alarm rate and thereby leading to an increase in the accuracy of the spectral analysis.

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17. Saniee S, Pouretemad HR, Zardkhaneh SA. Developing set-shifting improvement tasks (SSIT) for children with high-functioning autism. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2019.

BACKGROUND : Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience set-shifting deficit as a part of executive function, which can lead to cognitive and behavioural flexibility deficits and/or restricted behaviours. Despite the increasing body of research on this cognitive deficit, set-shifting training has not been exclusively studied in ASD. AIMS : In this study, a training condition [set-shifting improvement tasks (SSIT)] was developed to improve set-shifting ability ; afterwards, the possible effects of these tasks were investigated. METHODS AND PROCEDURES : With the aim of improving set-shifting ability in children with autism, a training program (SSIT), involving a computer game (Tatka, a puzzle game produced by our research team) with some home-based tasks (for generalisation purposes), was developed. Then, in a quasi-experimental design, the effects of SSIT tasks were studied on children (n = 13, 5-7 years old) with high-functioning autism. Outcome measures (pre-training, post-training and a 6-week follow-up) were assessed using Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Bender-Gestalt Test and Behavioural Flexibility Rating Scale. RESULTS AND OUTCOMES : A significant change was observed in both cognitive (Bender Gestalt, eta p 2 = 0.84 ; WCST ; = p 2 0.87 ) and behavioural flexibilities ( eta p 2 = 0.79 ) and also in repetitive behaviours ( eta p 2 = 0.45 ). Furthermore, the result remained stable to some extent for about 1 month after the training condition. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS : Developing the SSIT is just an initial step in the major target of creating cognitive rehabilitation tools to be used by clinicians and parents for children diagnosed with ASD and should be understood as a supplement, rather than an alternative, to the main treatments such as applied behaviour analysis. Future research with larger samples are needed to confirm whether this intervention is effective for children with ASD.

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18. Spratt E, Mercer MA, Grimes A, Papa C, Norton J, Serpe A, Mueller M, Eckert M, Harris K, Blackmon L, Durant J, Newton J. Translating benefits of exercise on depression for youth with autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of psychology and psychiatry. 2018 ; 2.

Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at increased risk of poor health and depressive symptoms due to difficulty with communication, limited interests, sensory deficits, and sedentary lifestyles. The Piece It Together program was developed to provide socialization and wellness goals for teens and young adults with ASD and other mild neurocognitive deficits. The curriculum includes strength and endurance training, nutrition education, and stress reduction techniques to promote healthy lifestyle choices. Twelve participants, aged 15-27, attended 90-minute classes at the MUSC Wellness Center twice a week for six weeks and were encouraged to increase their activity level every day. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was administered to each participant at the first and last class. Results showed significantly decreased PHQ-9 depression scores at the end of the program, from mild (7.69) to minimal depression (3.42) (p=0.000063). Overall, the activities completed in the Piece It Together program successfully unified this group to promote healthy lifestyle choices and resulted in improved mood.

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19. Tovar AE, Rodriguez-Granados A, Arias-Trejo N. Atypical Shape Bias and Categorization in Autism : Evidence from Children and Computational Simulations. Dev Sci. 2019 : e12885.

The shape bias, a preference for mapping new word labels onto the shape rather than the color or texture of referents, has been postulated as a word learning mechanism. Previous research has shown deficits in the shape bias in children with autism even though they acquire sizeable lexicons. While previous explanations have suggested the atypical use of color for label extension in individuals with autism, we hypothesize an atypical mapping of novel labels to novel objects, regardless of the physical properties of the objects. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate this phenomenon in some individuals with autism, but the novelty of objects only partially explains their lack of shape bias. In a second experiment, we present a computational model that provides a developmental account of the shape bias in typically developing children and in those with autism. This model is based on theories of neurological dysfunctions in autism, and it integrates theoretical and empirical findings in the literature of categorization, word learning, and the shape bias. The model replicates the pattern of results of our first experiment and shows how individuals with autism are more likely to categorize experimental objects together on the basis of their novelty. It also provides insights into possible mechanisms by which children with autism learn new words, and why their word referents may be idiosyncratic. Our model highlights a developmental approach to autism that emphasizes deficient representations of categories underlying an impaired shape bias. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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20. van Laarhoven T, Stekelenburg JJ, Vroomen J. Increased sub-clinical levels of autistic traits are associated with reduced multisensory integration of audiovisual speech. Sci Rep. 2019 ; 9(1) : 9535.

Recent studies suggest that sub-clinical levels of autistic symptoms may be related to reduced processing of artificial audiovisual stimuli. It is unclear whether these findings extent to more natural stimuli such as audiovisual speech. The current study examined the relationship between autistic traits measured by the Autism spectrum Quotient and audiovisual speech processing in a large non-clinical population using a battery of experimental tasks assessing audiovisual perceptual binding, visual enhancement of speech embedded in noise and audiovisual temporal processing. Several associations were found between autistic traits and audiovisual speech processing. Increased autistic-like imagination was related to reduced perceptual binding measured by the McGurk illusion. Increased overall autistic symptomatology was associated with reduced visual enhancement of speech intelligibility in noise. Participants reporting increased levels of rigid and restricted behaviour were more likely to bind audiovisual speech stimuli over longer temporal intervals, while an increased tendency to focus on local aspects of sensory inputs was related to a more narrow temporal binding window. These findings demonstrate that increased levels of autistic traits may be related to alterations in audiovisual speech processing, and are consistent with the notion of a spectrum of autistic traits that extends to the general population.

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21. Wang GF, Li WL, Han Y, Gao L, Dai W, Su YY, Zhang X. Sensory Processing Problems and Comorbidities in Chinese Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Little is known about the relationship between sensory processing problems and sleep disturbances, emotional and behavioral problems and mealtime behavioral problems in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study examined those relationships in Chinese preschool children with ASD using a case-control design. Atypical sensory processing was associated with increased risks of sleep disturbances, emotional and behavioral problems, and abnormal mealtime behaviors in the children with ASD, whereas sensory processing problems were significantly correlated with abnormal mealtime behaviors only in the typically developing children. Based on our findings, clinicians must collect information about sensory problems when a child with ASD experiences sleep disturbances and emotional and behavioral problems or presents abnormal mealtime behaviors.

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22. Yaguchi A, Hidaka S. Distinct Autistic Traits Are Differentially Associated With the Width of the Multisensory Temporal Binding Window. Multisensory research. 2018 ; 31(6) : 523-36.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted interests and behavior patterns. These characteristics are considered as a continuous distribution in the general population. People with ASD show atypical temporal processing in multisensory integration. Regarding the flash-beep illusion, which refers to how a single flash can be illusorily perceived as multiple flashes when multiple auditory beeps are concurrently presented, some studies reported that people with ASD have a wider temporal binding window and greater integration than typically developed people ; others found the opposite or inconsistent tendencies. Here, we investigated the relationships between the manner of the flash-beep illusion and the various dimensions of ASD traits by estimating the degree of typically developed participants’ ASD traits including five subscales using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. We found that stronger ASD traits of communication and social skill were associated with a wider and narrower temporal binding window respectively. These results suggest that specific ASD traits are differently involved in the particular temporal binding processes of audiovisual integration.

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23. Yassin W, Kojima M, Owada K, Kuwabara H, Gonoi W, Aoki Y, Takao H, Natsubori T, Iwashiro N, Kasai K, Kano Y, Abe O, Yamasue H. Paternal age contribution to brain white matter aberrations in autism spectrum disorder. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences. 2019.

AIM : Although advanced parental age holds an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), its role as a potential risk factor for an atypical white matter development underlying the pathophysiology of ASD has not yet been investigated. The current study was aimed to detect white matter disparities in ASD, and further investigate the relationship of paternal and maternal age at birth with such disparities. METHODS : Thirty-nine adult males with high-functioning ASD and 37 typically developing (TD) males were analyzed in the study. FMRIB Software Library and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics were utilized to process and analyze the diffusion tensor imaging data. RESULTS : Subjects with ASD exhibited significantly higher mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in white matter fibers including the association (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, right inferior longitudinal fasciculi, superior longitudinal fasciculi, uncinate fasciculus, and cingulum), commissural (forceps minor), and projection tracts (anterior thalamic radiation, and right corticospinal tract) compared to TD subjects (Padjusted < .05). No differences were seen in either fractional anisotropy or axial diffusivity. Linear regression analyses assessing the relationship between parental ages and the white matter aberrations revealed a positive correlation between paternal age (PA), not maternal age (MA), and both MD and RD in the affected fibers (Padjusted < .05). Multiple regression performed, showed that only PA was a predictor of both MD and RD." CONCLUSION : Our findings suggest that PA contributes to the white matter disparities seen in individuals with ASD compared to TD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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24. Zanobini M, Solari S. Effectiveness of the Program "Acqua Mediatrice di Comunicazione" (Water as a Mediator of Communication) on Social Skills, Autistic Behaviors and Aquatic Skills in ASD Children. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

The study aims to analyze the effectiveness of a swimming program on interpersonal skills, autistic mannerisms, and aquatic abilities in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Research on aquatic therapy showed improvements in motor skills, whereas there is little evidence of effectiveness of this approach on social impairments of ASD. Participants included 25 children, 13 in the experimental group and 12 in the control group, matched for gender, age and autism score. The results showed an advantage in the relational skills for the experimental group at the post-test. The tendency to ameliorate other symptomatology, e.g., autonomy and negative behaviors, persisted at follow-up. Likewise, positive changes in aquatic skills were maintained 6 months after the end of the program.

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