Pubmed du 08/07/19

lundi 8 juillet 2019

1. Brewer R, Bird G, Gray KLH, Cook R. Face perception in autism spectrum disorder : Modulation of holistic processing by facial emotion. Cognition ;2019 (Jul 4) ;193:104016.

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD ; autistic individuals) may exhibit atypical face perception because they fail to process faces holistically. In the context of this hypothesis, it is critical to determine whether autistic individuals exhibit diminished susceptibility to the composite face illusion, widely regarded as a key marker of holistic face processing. To date, however, previous studies have yielded inconsistent findings. In light of recent evidence suggesting that facial emotion cues increase the strength of the composite face illusion in typical individuals, the present study sought to determine whether the presence of facial emotion also modulates the strength of the composite face illusion in autistic individuals, many of whom experience difficulties recognizing facial expressions. We therefore measured composite face effects in a sample of autistic individuals (N=20) and matched typical controls (N=29) using an incidental emotion procedure in which distractor regions varied systematically in their emotion strength. As expected, the presence of facial emotion in the distractor regions of composite face arrangements increased the strength of the illusory distortion induced. The extent of the modulation by facial emotion was similar in the two groups. The composite effects seen in the ASD group were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those seen in the typical group, suggestive of intact holistic processing in this population.

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2. Heuer LS, Croen LA, Jones KL, Yoshida CK, Hansen RL, Yolken R, Zerbo O, DeLorenze G, Kharrazi M, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. An Exploratory Examination of Neonatal Cytokines and Chemokines as Predictors of Autism Risk : The Early Markers for Autism Study. Biol Psychiatry ;2019 (May 15)

BACKGROUND : The identification of an early biomarker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would improve the determination of risk, leading to earlier diagnosis and, potentially, earlier intervention and improved outcomes. METHODS : Data were generated from the Early Markers for Autism study, a population-based case-control study of prenatal and neonatal biomarkers of ASD. Newborn bloodspots of children with ASD (n = 370), children with developmental delay (n = 140), and general population (GP) controls (n = 378) were analyzed for 42 different immune markers using a Luminex multiplex platform. Comparisons of immune marker concentrations between groups were examined using logistic regression and partial least squares discriminant analysis. RESULTS : Children with ASD had significantly increased neonatal levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 compared with GP controls. An increase in IL-8 was especially significant in the ASD group with early onset compared with the GP group, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.83 ; p = .00014). In addition, children with ASD had significantly elevated levels of eotaxin-1, interferon-gamma, and IL-12p70 relative to children with developmental delay. We observed no significant differences in levels of immune markers between the developmental delay and GP groups. CONCLUSIONS : Elevated levels of some inflammatory markers in newborn bloodspots indicated a higher degree of immune activation at birth in children who were subsequently diagnosed with ASD. The data from this exploratory study suggest that with further expansion, the development of neonatal bloodspot testing for cytokine/chemokine levels might lead to the identification of biomarkers that provide an accurate assessment of ASD risk at birth.

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3. Huisman SA, Wiedijk BM, van Eeghen AM, Hennekam RC, van Trotsenburg ASP. Thyroid function in males with fragile X syndrome. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ;2019 (Jul 6)

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