Pubmed du 14/07/19

dimanche 14 juillet 2019

1. O’Keeffe C, Taboada LP, Feerick N, Gallagher L, Lynch T, Reilly RB. Complexity based measures of postural stability provide novel evidence of functional decline in fragile X premutation carriers. J Neuroeng Rehabil ;2019 (Jul 12) ;16(1):87.

BACKGROUND : Fragile X Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by tremor, ataxic gait, and balance issues resulting from a premutation of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. No biomarkers have yet been identified to allow early diagnosis of FXTAS, however, recent studies have reported subtle issues in the stability of younger premutation carriers, before disease onset. This study investigates the efficacy of multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) in detecting early changes in the motor system of premutation carriers without FXTAS. METHODS : Sway complexity of 12 female Premutation carriers and 15 healthy Controls were measured under four conditions : eyes open, closed, and two dual-task conditions. A Sustained Attention Response Task (SART) and a working memory based N-Back task were employed to increase cognitive load while standing on the forceplate. A Complexity Index (Ci) was calculated for anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) sway. Independent t-tests were used to assess between-group differences and Oneway repeated measures ANOVA were used to assess within group differences with Bonferroni corrections to adjust for multiple comparisons. RESULTS : Group performances were comparable with eyes open and closed conditions. The Carrier group’s Ci was consistent across tasks and conditions while the Control group’s AP Ci increased significantly during the cognitive dual-task (p = 0.001). There was also a strong correlation between CGG repeat length and complexity for the Carrier group (p = 0.004). SIGNIFICANCE : Increased sway complexity is believed to stem from reallocation of attention to facilitate the increased cognitive demands of dual-tasks. Carriers’ complexity did not change during dual-tasks, possibly indicating capacity interference and inefficient division of attention. Lower sway complexity in carriers suggests diminished adaptive capacity under stress as well as degradation of motor functioning. Therefore, sway complexity may be a useful tool in identifying early functional decline in FMR1 premutation carriers as well as monitoring progression towards disease onset.

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2. Stickel S, Weismann P, Kellermann T, Regenbogen C, Habel U, Freiherr J, Chechko N. Audio-visual and olfactory-visual integration in healthy participants and subjects with autism spectrum disorder. Hum Brain Mapp ;2019 (Jul 13)

The human capacity to integrate sensory signals has been investigated with respect to different sensory modalities. A common denominator of the neural network underlying the integration of sensory clues has yet to be identified. Additionally, brain imaging data from patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not cover disparities in neuronal sensory processing. In this fMRI study, we compared the underlying neural networks of both olfactory-visual and auditory-visual integration in patients with ASD and a group of matched healthy participants. The aim was to disentangle sensory-specific networks so as to derive a potential (amodal) common source of multisensory integration (MSI) and to investigate differences in brain networks with sensory processing in individuals with ASD. In both groups, similar neural networks were found to be involved in the olfactory-visual and auditory-visual integration processes, including the primary visual cortex, the inferior parietal sulcus (IPS), and the medial and inferior frontal cortices. Amygdala activation was observed specifically during olfactory-visual integration, with superior temporal activation having been seen during auditory-visual integration. A dynamic causal modeling analysis revealed a nonlinear top-down IPS modulation of the connection between the respective primary sensory regions in both experimental conditions and in both groups. Thus, we demonstrate that MSI has shared neural sources across olfactory-visual and audio-visual stimulation in patients and controls. The enhanced recruitment of the IPS to modulate changes between areas is relevant to sensory perception. Our results also indicate that, with respect to MSI processing, adults with ASD do not significantly differ from their healthy counterparts.

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