Pubmed du 27/07/19

samedi 27 juillet 2019

1. Jariwala-Parikh K, Barnard M, Holmes ER, West-Strum D, Bentley JP, Banahan B, Khanna R. Autism Prevalence in the Medicaid Program and Healthcare Utilization and Costs Among Adult Enrollees Diagnosed with Autism. Adm Policy Ment Health ;2019 (Jul 27)

As the number of individuals diagnosed with autism increases, there is an increase in demand to provide support throughout their lifespan. This study aimed to : (1) estimate trends in the prevalence of autism diagnoses and medical services use in adults with autism diagnoses ; (2) assess predictors of healthcare utilization and costs among adults with autism diagnoses enrolled in Medicaid. A retrospective analysis of 2006-2008 Medicaid claims for 39 states was conducted. There was a 38% increase in the prevalence of autism diagnoses from 2006 to 2008. Total expenditures and outpatient and ER visits varied significantly by demographic variables.

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2. Krol ME, Krol M. Scanpath similarity measure reveals not only a decreased social preference, but also an increased nonsocial preference in individuals with autism. Autism ;2019 (Jul 27):1362361319865809.

We compared scanpath similarity in response to repeated presentations of social and nonsocial images representing natural scenes in a sample of 30 participants with autism spectrum disorder and 32 matched typically developing individuals. We used scanpath similarity (calculated using ScanMatch) as a novel measure of attentional bias or preference, which constrains eye-movement patterns by directing attention to specific visual or semantic features of the image. We found that, compared with the control group, scanpath similarity of participants with autism was significantly higher in response to nonsocial images, and significantly lower in response to social images. Moreover, scanpaths of participants with autism were more similar to scanpaths of other participants with autism in response to nonsocial images, and less similar in response to social images. Finally, we also found that in response to nonsocial images, scanpath similarity of participants with autism did not decline with stimulus repetition to the same extent as in the control group, which suggests more perseverative attention in the autism spectrum disorder group. These results show a preferential fixation on certain elements of social stimuli in typically developing individuals compared with individuals with autism, and on certain elements of nonsocial stimuli in the autism spectrum disorder group, compared with the typically developing group.

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