Pubmed du 30/07/19

mardi 30 juillet 2019

1. Anger M, Wantzen P, Le Vaillant J, Malvy J, Bon L, Guenole F, Moussaoui E, Barthelemy C, Bonnet-Brilhault F, Eustache F, Baleyte JM, Guillery-Girard B. Positive Effect of Visual Cuing in Episodic Memory and Episodic Future Thinking in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Front Psychol ;2019 ;10:1513.

Cognitive studies generally report impaired autobiographical memory in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but mostly using verbal paradigms. In the present study, we therefore investigated the properties of both past and future autobiographical productions using visual cues in 16 boys with ASD and 16 typically developing (TD) participants aged between 10 and 18 years. We focused on sensory properties, emotional properties, and recollection, probing past and future productions for both near and distant time periods. Results showed that the ASD group performed more poorly than controls on free recall for recent periods, but performed like them when provided with visual cues. In addition, the ASD group reported fewer sensory details than controls and exhibited difficulties in the experience of recollection for the most remote events. These data suggest a combination of consolidation and binding deficits. Finally, our findings reveal the relevance of using visual cues to probe autobiographical memory, with possible perspectives for memory rehabilitation.

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2. Carnett A, Hansen S, McLay L, Neely L, Lang R. Quantitative-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions to Treat Sleep Problems in Children with Autism. Dev Neurorehabil ;2019 (Jul 29):1-14.

Sleep is an essential activity for human development. Often, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are affected by a lack of sleep due to various types of sleep problems. We identified and analyzed studies that were aimed at utilizing sleep interventions for children with ASD. A systematic search of databases, reference lists, and ancestral searches identified 18 studies for inclusion. Studies were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) targeted sleep problem and measures, (d) intervention components, (e) research design and rigor, and (f) results. The aim of this review was to analyze the literature by evaluating the most commonly treated sleep problems, the various treatment components, and strength of the results using a between case parametric effect size estimate. The most commonly treated sleep problems were night wakings and bedtime disturbance. For interventions, all the studies incorporated multiple treatment components, most often including the use of a consistent bedtime routine. Effect size calculations indicated a moderate effect size, however, limited due to the small number of studies. Results suggest the overall effectiveness of behavioral interventions for the treatment of sleep problems for children with ASD. Based on our analysis, suggestions for practitioners regarding current practices and future directions for research are discussed.

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3. Chernenok M, Burris JL, Owen E, Rivera SM. Impaired Attention Orienting in Young Children With Fragile X Syndrome. Front Psychol ;2019 ;10:1567.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder caused by a trinucleotide CGG expansion within the FMR1 gene located on the X chromosome. Children with FXS have been shown to be impaired in dynamic visual attention processing. A key component of dynamic processing is orienting-a perceptual ability that requires disengagement and engagement of attention from one stimulus to fixate on a second. Orienting, specifically the disengagement and engagement of attention, has previously not been studied in young children with FXS. Using an eye tracking gap-overlap task, the present study investigated visual disengagement and engagement in young children with FXS, compared to mental age (MA)- and chronological age (CA)-matched typically developing children. On gap trials, the central stimulus elicited fixation, but then disappeared before the peripheral target appeared, imposing a visual gap between stimuli. On overlap trials, the central stimulus elicited fixation, and remained present when the peripheral target appeared, creating visual competition. A gap effect emerges when latencies to shift to the peripheral target are longer in overlap versus gap conditions, reflecting the recruitment of cortical and subcortical disengagement and engagement mechanisms. The gap effect was measured as the latency to orient attention to the peripheral target during gap versus overlap conditions. Both MA and CA groups showed the expected gap effect, where children were slower to orient to peripheral targets on overlap trials than on gap trials. In contrast, in the FXS group, saccadic latencies between gap and overlap trials were not significantly different, indicating no significant gap effect. These findings suggest disrupted attentional engagement patterns in FXS that may be underlying impairments in attention orienting, and suggest potential targets for attention training in this population.

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4. Demirci E, Guler Y, Ozmen S, Canpolat M, Kumandas S. Levels of Salivary Sialic Acid in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder ; Could It Be Related to Stereotypes and Hyperactivity ?. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci ;2019 (Aug 31) ;17(3):415-422.

Objective : Sialic acid (Sia) is an essential nutrient for brain development, learning, memory and cognition and plays a role in neurodevelopment of infants. The aim of this study was to determine whether Sia levels are signi fi cantly associated with the autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods : Forty-six ASD children and 30 typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years were included in the study. Behavioral symptoms in ASD children was assessed by the Autism Behavior Checklist (AuBC), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). After the collection of saliva samples, the supernatant was separated. All the samples kept at -80 degrees C until Sia analysis was done. Results : Sia level was found to be significantly lower in the ASD group when compared to healthy controls ( p = 0.013). There was no correlation between severity of ASD and salivary Sia levels. We found a negative correlation between AuBC scores and Sia levels and a negative correlation in both ABC Stereotypic Behavior and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales with Sia levels in ASD group. Conclusion : The obtained data indicate that Sia levels could have an effect on autism-like behaviors, particularly on stereotypes and hyperactivity.

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5. Gwynette MF, McGuire K, Fadus MC, Feder JD, Koth KA, King BH. Overemphasis of the ADOS Evaluation Subverts a Clinician’s Ability to Provide Access to Autism Services. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2019 (Jul 26)

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6. Hayward B, Loutaev I, Ding X, Nolin SL, Thurm A, Usdin K, Smith CB. Fragile X syndrome in a male with methylated premutation alleles and no detectable methylated full mutation alleles. Am J Med Genet A ;2019 (Jul 29)

Most cases of fragile X syndrome (FXS) result from aberrant methylation of the FMR1 gene. Methylation occurs when the number of tandemly arranged cytosine guanine guanine (CGG)-repeats in the 5’ end of the transcriptional unit of FMR1 exceeds a certain critical threshold, thought to be between 200 and 400 repeats. Such alleles are referred to as full mutation (FM) alleles. Premutation (PM) alleles, alleles with 55-200 repeats, are generally not aberrantly methylated and in fact may have hyperexpression of the FMR1 mRNA. We describe here a male who meets the diagnostic criteria for FXS, who is highly mosaic with a mixture of multiple PM and FM alleles and 50% methylation. However, the methylated alleles are limited to two alleles in the PM range, 165 and 175 repeats respectively, with the FM alleles being unmethylated. This finding has implications for FXS diagnosis as well as for efforts to delete the repeat in individuals with FXS using a CRISPR-Cas9 approach.

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7. Hong MP, Erickson CA. Investigational Drugs in Early Stage Clinical Trials for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Expert Opin Investig Drugs ;2019 (Jul 29)

Introduction : Pharmacologic interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have historically focused on symptom-based approaches. However, a treatment for the core social deficits has remained unidentified. While a definitive theory for the cause of ASD is not yet known, recent advances in our understanding of ASD pathophysiology have opened the door for research on new pharmaceutical methods to target core symptomology. Areas covered : Herein, we review the novel pharmacologic therapies undergoing early stage clinical trials for the treatment of the social symptoms associated with ASD. Specifically, these strategies center on altering neurologic excitatory and inhibitory imbalance, neuropeptide abnormalities, immunologic dysfunction, and biochemical deficiencies in ASD. Expert opinion : Utilizing the growing field of knowledge regarding the pathological mechanisms and altered neurobiology of individuals with ASD has led to development of many innovative pharmaceutical interventions. Clinical trials for neurobiologic and immunologic targets show promise in impacting the social behavior and processing deficits in ASD but need evaluation in larger clinical trials and continued biomarker development to more effectively and consistently assess pharmacologic effects. Additionally, evaluating patient-specific drug responsivity and integrating behavioral intervention in conjunction with pharmacologic treatment is crucial to developing a successful approach to ASD treatment.

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8. Krol ME, Krol M. Scanpath similarity measure reveals not only a decreased social preference, but also an increased nonsocial preference in individuals with autism. Autism ;2019 (Jul 27):1362361319865809.

We compared scanpath similarity in response to repeated presentations of social and nonsocial images representing natural scenes in a sample of 30 participants with autism spectrum disorder and 32 matched typically developing individuals. We used scanpath similarity (calculated using ScanMatch) as a novel measure of attentional bias or preference, which constrains eye-movement patterns by directing attention to specific visual or semantic features of the image. We found that, compared with the control group, scanpath similarity of participants with autism was significantly higher in response to nonsocial images, and significantly lower in response to social images. Moreover, scanpaths of participants with autism were more similar to scanpaths of other participants with autism in response to nonsocial images, and less similar in response to social images. Finally, we also found that in response to nonsocial images, scanpath similarity of participants with autism did not decline with stimulus repetition to the same extent as in the control group, which suggests more perseverative attention in the autism spectrum disorder group. These results show a preferential fixation on certain elements of social stimuli in typically developing individuals compared with individuals with autism, and on certain elements of nonsocial stimuli in the autism spectrum disorder group, compared with the typically developing group.

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9. Kumazaki H, Muramatsu T, Yoshikawa Y, Matsumoto Y, Miyao M, Ishiguro H, Mimura M, Minabe Y, Kikuchi M. How the Realism of Robot Is Needed for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders in an Interview Setting. Front Psychiatry ;2019 ;10:486.

The preliminary efficacy of interview training using an android robot whose appearance and movements resemble those of an actual human for treating social and communication difficulties in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been demonstrated. Patient preferences regarding the appearance of robots are crucial for incentivizing them to undergo robot-assisted therapy. However, very little is known about how the realistic nature of an android robot is related to incentivizing individuals with ASD in an interview setting. In this study, individuals with ASD underwent an interview with a human interviewer and an android robot. Twenty-three individuals with ASD (age, 17-25 years) participated in this study. After the interview, the participants were evaluated in terms of their motivation to practice an interview with an android robot and their impression of the nature of the android robot in terms of humanness. As expected, subjects exhibited higher motivation to undergo interview training with an android robot than with a human interviewer. Higher motivation to undergo an interview with the android robot was negatively correlated with the participants’ impressions of the extent to which the android robot exhibited humanness. This study brings us one step closer to understanding how such an android robot should be designed and implemented to provide sufficiently realistic interview training that can be of therapeutic value.

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10. Lindor E, Sivaratnam C, May T, Stefanac N, Howells K, Rinehart N. Problem Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder : Considering Core Symptom Severity and Accompanying Sleep Disturbance. Front Psychiatry ;2019 ;10:487.

In addition to the core symptoms that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD), many individuals experience broader problem behavior at a level significant enough for families to seek further clinical assessment and intervention. We define "problem behavior" as any significant emotional or behavioral issue captured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) including anxiety, depression, withdrawal, somatic complaints, problems with socialization, thought or attention, rule-breaking, and aggression. While greater ASD symptom severity and accompanying sleep disturbance have each been linked with more severe problem behavior, there is little understanding about how these two key factors interact ; that is, it is unclear whether the severity and type of sleep disturbance an individual experiences differentially influences the relationship between ASD symptom severity and problem behavior. The aim of the current study was, thus, to explore whether the link between greater ASD symptom severity and clinically elevated problem behavior is moderated by the presence/degree of accompanying sleep disturbance. Forty males with ASD, aged 5-12, participated in the study. The Social Responsiveness Scale, CBCL, and Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire were administered to obtain information about ASD symptom severity, problem behavior, and sleep habits, respectively. Results indicated that the relationship between ASD symptom severity and problem behavior differed among individuals with ASD depending on the degree of sleep disturbance they experienced. Specifically, there was a significant positive relationship between ASD symptom severity and problem behavior for individuals with no sleep disturbance or milder sleep disturbance (i.e., in these cases, individuals with severe ASD symptoms experienced clinically elevated problem behavior, while those with milder ASD symptoms experienced milder problem behavior). In contrast, there was no significant relationship between ASD symptom severity and problem behavior for individuals with moderate-to-severe sleep disturbance ; rather, clinically significant problem behavior was apparent across all individuals irrespective of ASD symptom severity. Follow-up analyses indicated that disturbances in sleep duration, disordered breathing, and daytime sleepiness were related to clinically elevated problem behavior even among those with milder ASD symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance of routinely assessing for accompanying sleep disturbance in this population regardless of whether individuals present with mild, moderate, or severe ASD.

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11. Miller IT, Wiederhold BK, Miller CS, Wiederhold MD. Virtual Reality Air Travel Training with Children on the Autism Spectrum : A Preliminary Report. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ;2019 (Jul 29)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is categorized by deficits in social communication and interaction, alongside repetitive, restrictive behaviors or interests (RRBIs). Previous research supports the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) to train a variety of specific skills (i.e., riding a bus or crossing the street) as well as more complex social skills, such as emotion recognition and functional communication. The present reports the implementation of a VR-based air travel functional communication activity in five children diagnosed with ASD. Using an iPhone X and Google Cardboard device, researchers delivered the VR intervention once per week for 3 weeks to each participant. During these interventions, researchers measured activity completion ability on a 4-point scale. At week 4, all children participated in a real-world air travel rehearsal at the San Diego International Airport. Parents were asked to rate their child’s air travel abilities before week 1 and after week 4. All children improved their air travel skills from pre- to postintervention, reflected in both the researchers’ and parents’ observations. All children navigated the real-world airport under their own power. This preliminary report suggests the efficacy of VR to teach basic air travel skills to young children diagnosed with autism. Clinician observations regarding attention to the VR and strategies for helping participants accept the intervention technique are discussed. Future iterations of this program will require larger sample sizes and more robust clinical measurements-such as communication samples and physiological monitoring.

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12. Mosner MG, McLaurin RE, Kinard JL, Hakimi S, Parelman J, Shah JS, Bizzell J, Greene RK, Cernasov PM, Walsh E, Addicott MA, Eisenlohr-Moul T, Carter RM, Dichter GS. Neural Mechanisms of Reward Prediction Error in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res Treat ;2019 ;2019:5469191.

Few studies have explored neural mechanisms of reward learning in ASD despite evidence of behavioral impairments of predictive abilities in ASD. To investigate the neural correlates of reward prediction errors in ASD, 16 adults with ASD and 14 typically developing controls performed a prediction error task during fMRI scanning. Results revealed greater activation in the ASD group in the left paracingulate gyrus during signed prediction errors and the left insula and right frontal pole during thresholded unsigned prediction errors. Findings support atypical neural processing of reward prediction errors in ASD in frontostriatal regions critical for prediction coding and reward learning. Results provide a neural basis for impairments in reward learning that may contribute to traits common in ASD (e.g., intolerance of unpredictability).

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13. Nguyen PH, Ocansey ME, Miller M, Le DTK, Schmidt RJ, Prado EL. The reliability and validity of the social responsiveness scale to measure autism symptomology in Vietnamese children. Autism Res ;2019 (Jul 29)

The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) has been validated in high-income countries but not yet in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to assess the reliability of the SRS in a community sample and its validity to discriminate between children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Vietnam. We used a three-phase study : piloting the translated SRS, reliability testing, and validation of the SRS in 158 Vietnamese caretakers and their children (ages 4-9 years). We examined reliability, validity and sensitivity, and specificity to ASD diagnosis. We applied receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine optimal cutoff scores discriminating the children with ASD from those without ASD. We also assessed the performance of the SRS short form. We found that reliability was good with high internal consistency (0.88-0.89), test-retest reliability (0.82-0.83), sensitivity (93%), and specificity (98%) for identification of children with ASD. The ROC curves were similar for total raw score and total T-score, with the area under the curve (AUC) values reaching 0.98 and the optimal cutoff of 62 for raw scores and 60 for T-scores. The SRS short form also performed well in distinguishing children with ASD from children without ASD, with high AUC (0.98), sensitivity (90%), and specificity (98%) when using a raw score of 15 as a cutoff. In conclusion, the translated and culturally adapted SRS shows good reliability, validity, and sensitivity for identification of children with ASD in Vietnam. Both SRS long and short forms performed adequately to discriminate between children with and without ASD. Autism Res 2019, 00 : 1-13. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Middle-income countries often lack validated tools to evaluate autism symptoms. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) translated to Vietnamese was reliable and performed well to distinguish between children with and without autism spectrum disorder in Vietnam. The Vietnamese SRS, and translations of the tool to other languages with this methodology, may be useful in pediatric practice, potentially allowing providers to make more appropriate referrals for diagnostic evaluations and identify children for intervention to help them fulfill their developmental potential.

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14. Rieske RD, Matson JL. Parental Age at Conception and the Relationship with Severity of Autism Symptoms. Dev Neurorehabil ;2019 (Jul 29):1-6.

Background : Previous research has examined the relationship between advanced parental age at conception and the incidence of autism, and has noted strong relationships between advanced parental age and other developmental disabilities. Aim : The purpose of this study was to confirm that and extend that knowledge to the association between advanced parental age and severity of autism symptoms as measured by a parental report of ASD symptom severity. Methods : The current study included 252 participants between the ages of 2-17 years and their parents. Results : Child’s gender and paternal age were found to be significant predictors of autism severity with males and children with older fathers at conception showing the highest severity. Interestingly, maternal age was not found to be a significant predictor of autism risk or severity of symptoms in this sample. Conclusion : Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, as well as future directions for research in this area.

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15. Wagner JB, Keehn B, Tager-Flusberg H, Nelson CA. Attentional bias to fearful faces in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder. Emotion ;2019 (Jul 29)

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their first-degree relatives show differences from neurotypical individuals in emotional face processing. Prospective studies of infant siblings of children with ASD, a group at high risk for autism (HRA), allow researchers to examine the early emergence of these differences. This study used eye tracking to examine disengagement of attention from emotional faces (fearful, happy, neutral) at 6, 9, and 12 months in low-risk control infants (LRC) and HRA infants who received a subsequent clinical judgment of ASD (HRA+) or non-ASD (HRA-). Infants saw centrally presented faces followed by a peripheral distractor (with face remaining present). For each emotion, latency to shift to the distractor and percentage of trials with no shift were calculated. Results showed increased saccadic latency and a greater percentage of no-shift trials for fearful faces. No between-group differences were present for emotion ; however, there was an interaction between age and group for disengagement latency, with HRA+ infants slower to shift at 12 months compared with the other 2 groups. With HRA+ infants slower to shift at 12 months compared with the other groups. Exploratory correlational analyses looking at shift biases to fearful faces alongside measures of social behavior at 12 and 18 months (from the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales) revealed that for HRA+ infants, 9- and 12-month fear biases were significantly related to 12- and 18-month social abilities, respectively. This work suggests that both low- and high-risk infants show biases to threat-relevant faces, and that for HRA+, differences in attention shifting emerge with age, and a stronger fear bias could potentially relate to less social difficulty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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