Pubmed du 04/08/19

dimanche 4 août 2019

1. den Houting J, Pellicano E. A Portfolio Analysis of Autism Research Funding in Australia, 2008-2017. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Aug 2)

Autism research funding across the world has disproportionately been invested in biological and genetic research, despite evidence that these topics are not prioritized by community members. We sought to determine whether a similar pattern was evident in Australia’s autism research funding landscape between 2008 and 2017, by analysing the nation’s portfolio of autism research investments. We also examined whether there was any change in this pattern of funding since the establishment in 2013 of the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC). Overall, Australian autism research funding during 2008-2017 followed a similar pattern to other countries, but shifted in the past 5 years. Further progress is required to bring research funding into line with community priorities.

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2. Ezzeddine EW, DeBar RM, Reeve SA, Townsend DB. Using video modeling to teach play comments to dyads with ASD. J Appl Behav Anal ;2019 (Aug 4)

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display deficits in social and conversational skills. One method used to improve social deficits includes video modeling. When targeting conversational skills, few studies have included individuals with ASD as conversational partners. We evaluated the effects of video modeling on commenting (i.e., scripted statements) during leisure activities with dyads of children with ASD using a multiple-probe-across-activities design. Video modeling alone was found to be effective in increasing scripted statements for 3 of 6 participants. Video modeling, tangible reinforcement, and additional prompts were necessary for the remaining participants. Results maintained 1 and 3 weeks after mastery. Procedures, goals and outcomes were reported as socially valid. Limitations and areas of future research are discussed.

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3. Friedman LK, Kahen BA. Chronic Subconvulsive Activity during Early Postnatal Life Produces Autistic Behavior in the Absence of Neurotoxicity in the Juvenile Weanling Period. Behav Brain Res ;2019 (Jul 31):112046.

The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) varies from very mild to severe social and cognitive impairments. We hypothesized that epigenetic subconvulsive activity in early postnatal life may contribute to the development of autistic behavior in a sex-related manner. Low doses of kainic acid (KA) (25-100 microg) were administered to rat pups for 15 days beginning on postnatal (P) day 6 to chronically elevate neuronal activity. A battery of classical and novel behavioral tests was used, and sex differences were observed. Our novel open handling test revealed that ASD males nose poked more often and ASD females climbed and escaped more frequently with age. In the social interaction test, ASD males were less social than ASD females who were more anxious in handling and elevated plus maze (EPM) tasks. To evaluate group dynamics, sibling and non-sibling control and experimental animals explored 3 different shaped novel social environments. Control pups huddled quickly and more frequently in all environments whether they socialized with littermates or non-siblings compared to ASD groups. Non-sibling ASD pups were erratic and huddled in smaller groups. In the object recognition test, only ASD males spent less time with the novel object compared to control pups. Data suggest that chronic subconvulsive activity in early postnatal life leads to an ASD phenotype in the absence of cell death. Males were more susceptible to developing asocial behaviors and cognitive pathologies, whereas females were prone to higher levels of hyperactivity and anxiety, validating our postnatal ASD model apparent in the pre-juvenile period.

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4. Gadelkarim W, Shahper S, Reid J, Wikramanayake M, Kaur S, Kolli S, Osman S, Fineberg NA. Overlap of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and autism spectrum disorder traits among OCD outpatients : an exploratory study. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ;2019 (Aug 2):1-10.

Background : Whereas the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) shows similarities to that of obsessive compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) as well as with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the relationship between these disorders is poorly understood. Aims : Within a clinical sample, we aimed to investigate the distribution of OCD, OCPD and ASD symptoms and traits and their interrelationship, as well as to evaluate insight and treatment refractoriness. Methods : Consecutive adult OCD outpatients were assessed for OCPD traits (Compulsive Personality Assessment Scale (CPAS)), OCD symptoms (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)), ASD traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)), insight (Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS)) and treatment resistance (clinical records). Those scoring highly on the AQ underwent a diagnostic interview for ASD. Results : Sixty-seven consenting individuals completed the CPAS, BABS and AQ, and 65 completed the Y-BOCS. Twenty-four patients (35.8%) were diagnosed with OCPD. Patients with OCPD were less likely to be employed (p=.04). They demonstrated elevated AQ scores (p=.004) and rates of ASD diagnosis (54.2%) (p <.001). OCPD traits (CPAS) showed a highly significant correlation with ASD traits (AQ) (p<.001), and no association with Y-BOCS, BABS or treatment resistance. Conclusions : In an OCD cohort limited by small size, OCPD associated strongly with unemployment and ASD, with implications for diagnosis, treatment and outcome. KEY POINTS Clinicians should exercise a high level of vigilance for OCPD and ASD in patients presenting with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The presence of OCPD may indicate a likelihood of disabling ASD traits, including cognitive inflexibility, poor central coherence and poor social communication. These neuropsychological factors may require separate clinical intervention strategies.

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5. Jurek L, Longuet Y, Baltazar M, Amestoy A, Schmitt V, Desmurget M, Geoffray MM. How did I get so late so soon ? A review of time processing and management in autism. Behav Brain Res ;2019 (Jul 31):112121.

While the definition of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) does not include any explicit criteria concerning difficulties of time perception or management, there is growing evidence of atypical temporal perception in individuals with ASD. This review synthesizes the evidence and gaps of the current literature on time processing in ASD. After a brief overview of clinical findings and available assessment tools, we synthetize outcomes of studies evaluating time perception at second and infra-second level, and then, recent literature on the circadian timing system. Findings point that all levels of time processing are atypical in autism (i.e. millisecond, interval and circadian timing). We discuss how time perception abnormalities and ASD core symptoms might intertwine and offer a new perspective for future research on this topic. We advocate the need to systematically assess temporal perception in ASD, and to include these aspects in global functional assessments before intervention. Implementing early intervention techniques to remediate time perception alterations in children with ASD may substantially improve their developmental trajectory.

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6. Moser SS, Davidovitch M, Rotem RS, Chodick G, Shalev V, Koren G. High dose folic acid during pregnancy and the risk of autism ; The birth order bias : a nested case-control study. Reprod Toxicol ;2019 (Jul 31)

OBJECTIVE : To examine whether there is an association between the cumulative dose of folic acid (FA) purchased by mothers, and risk of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in their progeny. METHODS : We identified 2009 singletons who received an ASD diagnosis from a cohort of 480,526 children born in a large health organization in Israel from 2000 through 2013. ASD patients were individually matched to ASD-free children (n = 19,886). Median commutative daily doses of supplemented FA during the 12-month period prior to the end of pregnancy (from dispensing records) were compared using conditional-logistic-regression models. RESULTS : Children with ASD were more likely to be first-born, and birth-order was significantly associated with FA use. In multivariable analysis, there were no statistically significant differences in the cumulative dose of FA between the groups. CONCLUSION : Birth order effects need to be accounted for in analyses aiming to decipher the associations between gestational FA use and developmental outcomes.

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7. Protopopova A, Matter AL, Harris BN, Wiskow KM, Donaldson JM. Comparison of contingent and noncontingent access to therapy dogs during academic tasks in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Appl Behav Anal ;2019 (Aug 4)

This study compared contingent and noncontingent access to therapy dogs during educational tasks for children with autism spectrum disorder using a multielement design. The experimenters assessed whether initial preference for the dog predicted reinforcer efficacy and how preference changed across time. A higher response rate during contingent dog sessions than baseline sessions occurred for 4 out of 5 participants, suggesting that the dog functioned as a reinforcer. One participant engaged in a high rate of responding in both contingent and noncontingent dog conditions. Preference assessments revealed idiosyncrasies, suggesting that further research is needed into the predictive nature of initial preference assessments with animals as part of the stimulus array. The experimenters also analyzed salivary cortisol before and after sessions to determine if learning about the upcoming interaction with a dog reduced salivary cortisol in children. Cortisol was variable across participants, with only some deriving a potential physiological benefit from expecting to interact with the dog.

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8. Reid M, Fesalbon M, Mendoza E, Alvord MK, Rich BA. Examining the Relationship Between Parental Symptomatology and Treatment Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Aug 2)

This report examines the relationship between treatment response in children with ASD and parents’ affective symptomatology. This study examined 29 children with ASD in a manualized group psychotherapy program, Resilience Builder Program((R)) (RBP), where emotional and social functioning of parent and child were measured through pre- and post-treatment questionnaires. Greater parental symptomatology was associated with children’s reduced response to RBP in resilience-based emotion regulation skills. Greater parental interpersonal sensitivity (beta = - .27, p = .024) predicted worse post-treatment scores in child communication skills, greater parental anxious symptoms (beta = - .45, p = .005) predicted worse post-treatment scores in child emotional control, and greater parental depressive (beta = .27, p = .041) and anxious symptoms (beta = .36, p = .004) predicted worse post-treatment scores in child internalizing problems.

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9. Trudeau MS, Madden RF, Parnell JA, Gibbard WB, Shearer J. Dietary and Supplement-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Pediatric Autism Spectrum Disorder. Nutrients ;2019 (Aug 1) ;11(8)

Previous literature has shown that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is steadily increasing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little data is currently available regarding its use, safety, and efficacy in children with ASD. Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe the use of supplement-based CAM therapies in children between the ages of 4 to 17 years with ASD. This population-based, cross-sectional study evaluated children with ASD regarding supplement use. A total of 210 participants were recruited from a variety of sources including educational and physical activity programs, and social media to complete a questionnaire. Primary caregivers provided information on current supplement based CAM use. Data evaluated the proportion of children that used supplement therapies, the types of supplements used, reasons for use, perceived safety, and demographic factors associated with use (e.g. income, parental education, severity of disorder). Seventy-five percent of children with ASD consumed supplements with multivitamins (77.8%), vitamin D (44.9%), omega 3 (42.5%), probiotics (36.5%), and magnesium (28.1%) as the most prevalent. Several supplements, such as adrenal cortex extract, where product safety has not yet been demonstrated, were also reported. A gluten free diet was the most common specialty diet followed amongst those with restrictions (14.8%). Health care professionals were the most frequent information source regarding supplements ; however, 33% of parents reported not disclosing all their child’s supplements to their physician. In conclusion, the use of supplement therapies in children with ASD is endemic and highlights the need for further research concerning public health education surrounding safety and efficacy.

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