Pubmed du 17/08/19

samedi 17 août 2019

1. Arafat EA, Shabaan DA. The possible neuroprotective role of grape seed extract on the histopathological changes of the cerebellar cortex of rats prenatally exposed to Valproic Acid : animal model of autism. Acta histochemica. 2019.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disease characterized by defect in verbal and nonverbal communications. As, the cerebellum has the greatest number of neurons and synapses in the central nervous system so, the cerebellum has emerged as one of the target brain areas affected in autism. The aim of this work was to study the biochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of autism and the possible neuroprotective role of grape seed extract. In this study 28 male pups were divided into Control groups ; Group I (saline), Group II (GSE 400mg/kg), Group III (VPA 500mg/kg) and Group IV (VPA and GSE). Cerebellar hemispheres were dissected out and prepared to determine the oxidative stress markers, histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric study were done. A significant elevation in oxidative stress markers in off spring of VPA treated rats in comparison to control group was detected. A significant decrease in the Purkinje cell count and nuclear size were observed. Numerous shrunken cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and ultrastructural degeneration of cytoplasmic organelles were detected. A significant rise in the area percentage of GFAP-positive immune stained cells in comparison to that of the control groups was seen. Strikingly, GSE revealed significant improvement in the oxidative stress markers and then the histological and morphometric picture of the cerebellum. GSE has neuroprotective effect on the cerebellum of VPA treated rats through its potent antioxidant effect.

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2. Bolte S. Hey autism researcher, what’s on your mind today about inclusion ?. Autism. 2019 : 1362361319870994.

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3. Dickinson A, Varcin KJ, Sahin M, Nelson CA, 3rd, Jeste SS. Early patterns of functional brain development associated with autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex. Autism Res. 2019.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder that confers a high risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with behavioral predictors of ASD emerging early in life. Deviations in structural and functional neural connectivity are highly implicated in both TSC and ASD. For the first time, we explore whether electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of neural network function precede or predict the emergence of ASD in TSC. We determine whether altered brain function (a) is present in infancy in TSC, (b) differentiates infants with TSC based on ASD diagnostic status, and (c) is associated with later cognitive function. We studied 35 infants with TSC (N = 35), and a group of typically developing infants (N = 20) at 12 and 24 months of age. Infants with TSC were later subdivided into ASD and non-ASD groups based on clinical evaluation. We measured features of spontaneous alpha oscillations (6-12 Hz) that are closely associated with neural network development : alpha power, alpha phase coherence (APC), and peak alpha frequency (PAF). Infants with TSC demonstrated reduced interhemispheric APC compared to controls at 12 months of age, and these differences were found to be most pronounced at 24 months in the infants who later developed ASD. Across all infants, PAF at 24 months was associated with verbal and nonverbal cognition at 36 months. Associations between early network function and later neurodevelopmental and cognitive outcomes highlight the potential utility of early scalable EEG markers to identify infants with TSC requiring additional targeted intervention initiated very early in life. Autism Res 2019, 00 : 1-16. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Approximately half of infants with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) develop autism. Here, using EEG, we find that there is a reduction in communication between brain regions during infancy in TSC, and that the infants who show the largest reductions are those who later develop autism. Being able to identify infants who show early signs of disrupted brain development may improve the timing of early prediction and interventions in TSC, and also help us to understand how early brain changes lead to autism.

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4. Florindez LI, Florindez DC, Florindez FM, Como DH, Pyatak E, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Polido JC, Cermak SA. Oral Care Experiences of Latino Parents/Caregivers with Children with Autism and with Typically Developing Children. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 ; 16(16).

As a result of various barriers, several pediatric populations are at risk for poor oral health, including children with disabilities and children from under-represented populations, such as Latinos. To this end, this study aimed to better understand the factors that affect the oral health experiences of 32 Latino parents/caregivers from 18 families (n = 8 with a typically developing child and n = 10 with a child with Autism). Using a qualitative descriptive methodology, each family was interviewed twice. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded thematically to identify the individual, social, systemic, and culturally rooted factors contributing to oral health disparities in the families. The three themes that arose were "Why would I want to start trouble ?" : Latino parents’ dissatisfaction with dental treatments, costs, and fear of the dentist and health care providers because of their ethnic minority status as key factors inhibiting receipt of dental care ; "We have to put our children first" : prioritizing the oral care activities of their children over their own individual oral care needs ; and "We always keep baking soda around" : familial and cultural influences on oral care habits. Understanding the oral health beliefs and experiences of Latino parents and caregivers of children with and without autism is critical for developing targeted prevention and intervention programs and reducing oral health disparities.

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5. Hegarty JP, 2nd, Zamzow RM, Ferguson BJ, Christ SE, Porges EC, Johnson JD, Beversdorf DQ. Beta-adrenergic antagonism alters functional connectivity during associative processing in a preliminary study of individuals with and without autism. Autism. 2019 : 1362361319868633.

Beta-adrenergic antagonism (e.g. propranolol) has been associated with cognitive/behavioral benefits following stress-induced impairments and for some cognitive/behavioral domains in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In this preliminary investigation, we examined whether the benefits of propranolol are associated with functional properties in the brain. Adolescents/adults (mean age = 22.54 years) with (n = 13) and without autism spectrum disorder (n = 13) attended three sessions in which propranolol, nadolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist that does not cross the blood-brain barrier), or placebo was administered before a semantic fluency task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Autonomic nervous system measures and functional connectivity between language/associative processing regions and within the fronto-parietal control, dorsal attention, and default mode networks were examined. Propranolol was associated with improved semantic fluency performance, which was correlated with the baseline resting heart rate. Propranolol also altered network efficiency of regions associated with semantic processing and in an exploratory analysis reduced functional differences in the fronto-parietal control network in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Thus, the cognitive benefits from beta-adrenergic antagonism may be generally associated with improved information processing in the brain in domain-specific networks, but individuals with autism spectrum disorder may also benefit from additional improvements in domain-general networks. The benefits from propranolol may also be able to be predicted from baseline autonomic nervous system measures, which warrants further investigation.

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6. Hwang YIJ, Arnold S, Srasuebkul P, Trollor J. Understanding anxiety in adults on the autism spectrum : An investigation of its relationship with intolerance of uncertainty, sensory sensitivities and repetitive behaviours. Autism. 2019 : 1362361319868907.

Anxiety is present in high rates in both children and adults on the autism spectrum. An increasing number of studies have highlighted the potentially important role that intolerance of uncertainty may have in anxiety for those on the spectrum, as well as their interrelationships with sensory sensitivities and repetitive behaviours. In response to a lack of studies involving adults, this study examined self-report survey data regarding intolerance of uncertainty, sensory sensitivities, repetitive behaviours and anxiety in a sample of 176 adults on the autism spectrum (mean age = 42). Intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety were both found to be elevated relative to non-autistic adults (N = 116) and significant, positive correlations were found between intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety, repetitive behaviours and sensory sensitivities in those on the spectrum. Intolerance of uncertainty was found to be a significant mediator between sensory sensitivities and anxiety, as well as between anxiety and insistence on sameness behaviours. These results were not sensitive to age. Intolerance of uncertainty is an important factor to be considered in the conceptualisation and management of elevated rates of anxiety for adults on the autism spectrum.

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7. Klusek J, Moser C, Schmidt J, Abbeduto L, Roberts JE. A novel eye-tracking paradigm for indexing social avoidance-related behavior in fragile X syndrome. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2019.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is characterized by hallmark features of gaze avoidance, reduced social approach, and social anxiety. The development of therapeutics to manage these symptoms has been hindered, in part, by the lack of sensitive outcome measures. This study investigated the utility of a novel eye-tracking paradigm for indexing social avoidance-related phenotypes. Adolescent/young adult-aged males with FXS (n = 24) and typical development (n = 23) participated in the study. Participants viewed faces displaying direct or averted gaze and the first fixation duration on the eyes was recorded as an index of initial stimulus registration. Fixation durations did not differ across the direction of gaze conditions in either group, although the control group showed longer initial fixations on the eyes relative to the FXS group. Shorter initial fixation on averted gaze in males with FXS was a robust predictor of the severity of their social avoidance behavior exhibited during a social greeting context, whereas parent-reported social avoidance symptoms were not related to performance in the semi-naturalistic context. This eye-tracking paradigm may represent a promising outcome measure for FXS clinical trials because it provides a quantitative index that closely maps onto core social avoidance phenotypes of FXS, can be completed in less than 20 min, and is suitable for use with individuals with low IQ.

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8. Latimier A, Kovarski K, Peyre H, Fernandez LG, Gras D, Leboyer M, Zalla T. Trustworthiness and Dominance Personality Traits’ Judgments in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social functioning, communication, and by the presence of repetitive behaviours and restricted interests. Abnormal processing of faces has also been described as a neuropsychological feature of ASD. We investigated the ability to judge two personality traits in adults with ASD in comparison to typically developed adults (TD). We used an eye tracking device to investigate the exploration of faces when participants judged the degree of trustworthiness and dominance of synthetic faces. In sum, we found that adults with ASD were as capable as TD adults to judge personality traits of face trustworthiness and dominance, which relied on similar exploration of the synthetic faces in the two populations.

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9. Liu GH, Huang LS, Qian QF, Wang YX, Ge P. [Curative effect of progressively integrated sandplay therapy on core symptoms and sleep management in preschool children with mild-to-moderate autism spectrum disorder]. Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics. 2019 ; 21(8) : 743-8.

OBJECTIVE : To explore the curative effect of progressively integrated sandplay therapy on core symptoms and sleep management in preschool children with mild-to-moderate autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS : A total of 50 mild-to-moderate ASD preschool children were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=25) and a control group (n=25). The control group was treated with structured teaching and auditory integration training (AIT). Based on these, the experimental group was treated with progressively integrated sandplay therapy. The Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Children Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and emotion recognition tools were used to evaluate the overall curative effect before treatment and 3 months after treatment. RESULTS : The experimental group had significantly lower scores of feeling, social interaction, somatic motor, language factor, total ABC and total CARS than the control group (P<0.05). The experimental group had also significantly lower scores of social cognition, social communication, social motivation, autistic behavior factor and total SRS than the control group (P<0.05). The experimental group had a significantly higher accurate rate of recognition of the upper facial expression and lower facial expression than the control group (P<0.05). The experimental group had significantly lower scores of bedtime resistance, sleep onset, sleep duration, night waking, daytime sleepiness, and total CSHQ than the control group (P<0.05). The experimental group had significantly reduced themes of wounding and significantly increased themes of healing after sandplay therapy (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS : Progressively integrated sandplay therapy can effectively improve the core symptoms and sleep quality of preschool children with mild-to-moderate ASD, which can be used as an early rehabilitation measure.

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10. Pisula E, Banasiak A. Empowerment in Polish fathers of children with autism and Down syndrome : the role of social support and coping with stress - a preliminary report. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2019.

BACKGROUND : Although empowerment is an important factor in the adaptation of parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities, our understanding of empowerment in fathers or how it relates to coping with stress and subjective social support is limited. In Poland, families with children with intellectual and developmental disabilities experience many challenges because of insufficient support. Although parental contribution to developing different forms of services for people with disability is crucial, the potential of fathers is underestimated and poorly understood. METHODS : The study enrolled 35 fathers of children with autism with intellectual disability, 37 fathers of children with Down syndrome and 40 fathers of typically developing children. They completed three questionnaires : Family Empowerment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire and Social Support Questionnaire - Short Form. RESULTS : Compared with other groups, family empowerment was lower in fathers of children with autism. No group differences were found for the service system and community dimensions of empowerment. In the fathers of children with autism, social support was not related to empowerment, but there was a negative correlation between emotional coping and service system. Satisfaction with social support in fathers of children with Down syndrome correlated positively with the community dimension of empowerment. CONCLUSIONS : Results show that fathers of children with autism and intellectual disability require support in family empowerment and that the significance of emotion-focused and problem-focused coping and social support in the context of empowerment differs in fathers of children with autism and Down syndrome. These results should be considered preliminary because of the limited sample size.

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11. Sanagi T, Sasaki T, Nakagaki K, Minamimoto T, Kohsaka S, Ichinohe N. Segmented Iba1-Positive Processes of Microglia in Autism Model Marmosets. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience. 2019 ; 13 : 344.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most widespread neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by impairment in social interactions, and restricted stereotyped behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry and positron emission tomography (PET), several studies have provided evidence of the existence of activated microglia in ASD patients. Recently, we developed an animal model of ASD using the new world monkey common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and demonstrated ASD-like social impairment after the in utero administration of valproic acid (VPA). To characterize microglia in this marmoset model of ASD from early toddler to adult, morphological analyses of microglia in VPA marmosets and age-matched unexposed (UE) marmosets were performed using immunohistochemistry for microglia-specific markers, Iba1, and P2RY12. The most robust morphological difference between VPA marmosets and UE marmosets throughout the life span evaluated were the microglia processes in VPA marmosets being frequently segmented by thin and faintly Iba1-positive structures. The segmentation of microglial processes was only rarely observed in UE marmosets. This feature of segmentation of microglial processes in VPA marmosets can also be observed in images from previous studies on ASD conducted in humans and animal models. Apoptotic cells have been shown to have segmented processes. Therefore, our results might suggest that microglia in patients and animals with ASD symptoms could frequently be in the apoptotic phase with high turnover rates of microglia found in some pathological conditions.

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12. Sasson NJ, Morrison KE, Kelsven S, Pinkham AE. Social cognition as a predictor of functional and social skills in autistic adults without intellectual disability. Autism Res. 2019.

Autistic adults, including those without intellectual disability, commonly experience poor social and functional outcomes. Although reduced social cognitive ability in autism is often theorized as a mechanism of these poor outcomes, there has been surprisingly little empirical work testing this assumption. Here, 103 autistic adults without intellectual disability completed a comprehensive battery that included eight social cognitive tasks psychometrically validated for use with this population (e.g., emotion recognition and theory of mind), five tasks assessing neurocognitive abilities (e.g., processing speed and working memory), performance-based measures of their functional skills, and a standardized assessment of their social skills. Collectively, the combination of demographic variables, IQ, neurocognitive performance, and social cognitive performance accounted for 49% of the variance in functional skills and 33% of the variance in social skills. For functional skills, demographic variables, and general and neurocognition independently accounted for a significant portion of the variance, but social cognition did not. Social cognition did, however, significantly mediate the effect of neurocognition on functional skills. Social cognition also accounted for significant proportion in the variance in social skills above and beyond the relatively large contribution of neurocognition. Taken together, findings indicate that social cognitive ability contributes to functional and social skills in autistic adults without intellectual disability, but this contribution may be more limited and indirect than commonly assumed. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Many social programs for autistic adults presume that improving social cognition will translate to better life outcomes. In this study of 103 autistic adults without intellectual disability, we found that social cognitive abilities do contribute to real-world social and daily living skills, but this contribution is small and indirect once general-cognitive abilities are taken into account. Although results substantiate social cognition as an independent cognitive capacity in autism spectrum disorder, its unique contribution to functional and social outcomes may be more limited than previously assumed.

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13. Thurm A, Farmer C, Salzman E, Lord C, Bishop S. State of the Field : Differentiating Intellectual Disability From Autism Spectrum Disorder. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2019 ; 10 : 526.

The topic of this special issue on secondary versus idiopathic autism allows for discussion of how different groups may come to manifest autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or ASD-like symptoms despite important etiological differences. A related issue is that, because many of the social communication deficits that define ASD represent a failure to acquire developmentally expected skills, these same deficits would be expected to occur to some extent in all individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Thus, regardless of etiology, ASD symptoms may appear across groups of individuals with vastly different profiles of underlying deficits and strengths. In this focused review, we consider the impact of ID on the diagnosis of ASD. We discuss behavioral distinctions between ID and ASD, in light of the diagnostic criterion mandating that ASD should not be diagnosed if symptoms are accounted for by ID or general developmental delay. We review the evolution of the autism diagnosis and ASD diagnostic tools to understand how this distinction has been conceptualized previously. We then consider ways that operationalized criteria may be beneficial for making the clinical distinction between ID with and without ASD. Finally, we consider the impact of the blurred diagnostic boundaries between ID and ASD on the study of secondary versus idiopathic ASD. Especially pertinent to this discussion are findings that a diagnosis of ID in the context of an ASD diagnosis may be one of the strongest indicators that an associated condition or specific etiological factor is present (i.e., secondary autism).

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14. Valicenti-McDermott M, Seijo R, Shulman L. Social Differences Between Monolingual English and Bilingual English-Spanish Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Pediatric neurology. 2019.

OBJECTIVE : Bilingualism is increasingly prevalent ; however, research in bilingual children with autism is sparse. The purpose of this study was to compare social skills and autistic features in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS : We conducted a review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in all children aged one to six years diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder in an inner city, university-affiliated clinic from 2003 to 2013. Collected information included demographics, developmental testing, and autistic characteristics. RESULTS : We identified 462 children ; 165 were bilingual English-Spanish and 297 were monolingual English. Parents of bilingual children reported stereotyped or repetitive use of language more often (66% vs 48% P = 0.002) than monolinguals. Significant differences were not found in social interaction, use of nonverbal behaviors, peer relationships, sharing or social or emotional reciprocity, mannerisms, or autism severity. CONCLUSIONS : Bilingualism does not seem to confer an extra vulnerability on children with autism spectrum disorder ; however, differences in qualitative use of language were observed.

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15. Wendt O, Hsu N, Simon K, Dienhart A, Cain L. Effects of an iPad-based Speech-Generating Device Infused into Instruction with the Picture Exchange Communication System for Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behav Modif. 2019 : 145445519870552.

This study used a multiple baseline, single-subject research design to investigate the efficacy of an iPad((R))-based speech-generating device (SGD). The iPad was equipped with the SPEAKall !((R)) application to function as a SGD. SGDs are a form of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) allowing a user to communicate using digitized and/or synthesized speech. Instruction followed a modified version of the intervention phases from the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). This modified PECS protocol was implemented with two adolescents and one young adult between the ages of 14 and 23. All three participants were diagnosed with severe autism spectrum disorder and little to no functional speech. Dependent measures included the ability to request for edible and tangible items as the primary measure, and the ability to engage in natural speech production as an ancillary measure to determine simultaneous, additive effects on speech acquisition. Results indicated increases in requesting behaviors for all three participants across intervention and maintenance phases. Once participants mastered requesting of edible items, they were able to generalize the skill to tangible items. However, mixed results were found when targeting natural speech production. Based on the current findings, the infusion of an iPad-based SGD into PECS instruction may be effective in increasing initial requesting skills ; however, a facilitative effect on increasing speech acquisition cannot necessarily be expected for every participant.

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16. Zhang AY, Jin XM, Ma J. [Abnormal brain structure in preschool and school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder]. Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics. 2019 ; 21(8) : 749-53.

OBJECTIVE : To investigate the prevalence and type of abnormal brain structure in preschool and school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS : A total of 74 252 preschool and school-aged children aged 3-12 years in Shanghai were enrolled as subjects. A questionnaire survey was performed to collect basic information, and their parents and teachers completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) based on the children’s conditions. ASD was diagnosed by specialist physicians according to the DSM-5 criteria. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed according to their parents’ desires. RESULTS : The overall prevalence rate of ASD was 2.59 per thousand (192/74 252) in the preschool and school-aged children. Brain MRI data were collected from 73 children with ASD and 185 healthy children. Among the 73 children with ASD, 40 (55%) had abnormal brain structure, and the most common types were unilateral or bilateral ventriculomegaly in 32 children (80%) and unilateral or bilateral deep frontotemporal sulci in 12 children (30%). Children with ASD showed lower white matter signal in bilateral ventricular and unilateral or bilateral deep frontotemporal sulci, compared to their normal peers (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS : There is a high prevalence rate of abnormal brain structure in preschool and school-aged children with ASD, with major types of unilateral or bilateral ventriculomegaly and unilateral or bilateral deep frontotemporal sulci. It is speculated that abnormal brain structure might be associated with the pathogenesis of ASD, and further studies are needed to clarify the association between abnormal brain structure and symptoms in children with ASD.

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