Pubmed du 19/08/19

lundi 19 août 2019

1. Correction for Shpigler et al., Deep evolutionary conservation of autism-related genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019.

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2. Bal VH, Fok M, Lord C, Smith IM, Mirenda P, Szatmari P, Vaillancourt T, Volden J, Waddell C, Zwaigenbaum L, Bennett T, Duku E, Elsabbagh M, Georgiades S, Ungar WJ, Zaidman-Zait A. Predictors of longer-term development of expressive language in two independent longitudinal cohorts of language-delayed preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2019.

BACKGROUND : Studies estimate that 30% of individuals with autism are minimally verbal. Understanding what factors predict longer-term expressive development in children with language delays is critical to inform identification and treatment of those at-risk for persistent language impairments. The present study examined predictors of expressive language development in language-delayed preschoolers followed through later school-age and young adulthood. METHODS : Children using single words or less on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) at approximately 3 years old were drawn from the Early Diagnosis (EDX) and Pathways in ASD longitudinal cohorts. Age-3 predictors of Age-19 ADOS language level were identified using Classification and Regression Trees (CART) in the EDX sample. Linear mixed models examined the effects of CART-identified predictors on Vineland expressive communication (VExp) trajectories from Age-3 to Age-19. The same linear mixed models were examined in the Pathways sample, identifying predictors of VExp from ages 3 to 10.5 years. RESULTS : Significantly delayed fine motor skills (T-score < 20) was the strongest CART predictor of Age-19 language. In the linear mixed models, time, Age-3 fine motor skills and initiation of joint attention (IJA) predicted VExp trajectories in the EDX sample, even when controlling for Age-3 visual receptive abilities. In the Pathways sample, time and Age-3 fine motor skills were significant predictors of VExp trajectories ; IJA and cognitive skills were not significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS : Marked deficits in fine motor skills may be a salient proxy marker for identifying language-delayed children with ASD who are at risk for persistent language impairments. This finding adds to the literature demonstrating a relation between motor and language development in ASD. Investigating individual skill areas (e.g., fine motor and nonverbal problem-solving skills), rather than broader indices of developmental level (e.g., nonverbal IQ) may provide important cues to understanding longer-term language outcomes that can be targeted in early intervention.

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3. Ballester P, Martinez MJ, Inda MD, Javaloyes A, Richdale AL, Muriel J, Belda C, Toral N, Morales D, Fernandez E, Peiro AM. Evaluation of agomelatine for the treatment of sleep problems in adults with autism spectrum disorder and co-morbid intellectual disability. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2019 : 269881119864968.

PURPOSE : Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are common, co-occurring developmental disorders and are frequently associated with sleep problems. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of agomelatine as a pharmacotherapy for sleep problems in ASD adults with ID. METHOD : A randomised, crossover, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, with two three-month periods of treatment starting with either agomelatine or placebo and a washout period of two weeks. Ambulatory circadian monitoring (24 hours/7 days) evaluated total sleep time (TST) as the primary outcome variable. RESULTS : Participants (N=23 ; 35+/-12 years old ; 83% male) had a median of three (interquartile range (IQR) 1-4) co-morbidities and were taking a median of five (IQR 2-7) prescribed drugs. Before agomelatine or placebo treatment, all subjects presented with insomnia symptoms, including sleep latency (100% abnormal, 55+/-23 minutes) or TST (55% abnormal, 449+/-177 minutes), and 66% had circadian rhythm sleep-wake abnormalities with rhythm phase advancements according to the M5 sleep phase marker values. During the three-month agomelatine treatment, night TST significantly increased by a mean of 83 minutes (16% abnormal, 532+/-121 minutes), together with a phase correction (M5 1:45+/-2:28 hours vs. 3:15+/-2:20 hours), improving sleep stability in wrist temperature rhythm (0.43+/-0.29 vs. 0.52+/-0.18 AU). Adverse events were mild and transient. CONCLUSIONS : Agomelatine was effective and well tolerated for treating insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep problems present in adults with ASD and ID.

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4. Ostrolenk A, Bao VA, Mottron L, Collignon O, Bertone A. Reduced multisensory facilitation in adolescents and adults on the Autism Spectrum. Sci Rep. 2019 ; 9(1) : 11965.

Individuals with autism are reported to integrate information from visual and auditory channels in an idiosyncratic way. Multisensory integration (MSI) of simple, non-social stimuli (i.e., flashes and beeps) was evaluated in adolescents and adults with (n = 20) and without autism (n = 19) using a reaction time (RT) paradigm using audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli. For each participant, the race model analysis compares the RTs on the audiovisual condition to a bound value computed from the unimodal RTs that reflects the effect of redundancy. If the actual audiovisual RTs are significantly faster than this bound, the race model is violated, indicating evidence of MSI. Our results show that the race model violation occurred only for the typically-developing (TD) group. While the TD group shows evidence of MSI, the autism group does not. These results suggest that multisensory integration of simple information, void of social content or complexity, is altered in autism. Individuals with autism may not benefit from the advantage conferred by multisensory stimulation to the same extent as TD individuals. Altered MSI for simple, non-social information may have cascading effects on more complex perceptual processes related to language and behaviour in autism.

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5. Rademacher S, Eickholt BJ. PTEN in Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 2019.

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a classical tumor suppressor that antagonizes phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling. Although there is a strong association of PTEN germline mutations with cancer syndromes, they have also been described in a subset of patients with autism spectrum disorders with macrocephaly characterized by impairments in social interactions and communication, repetitive behavior and, occasionally, epilepsy. To investigate PTEN’s role during neurodevelopment and its implication for autism, several conditional Pten knockout mouse models have been generated. These models are valuable tools to understand PTEN’s spatiotemporal roles during neurodevelopment. In this review, we will highlight the anatomical and phenotypic results from animal studies and link them to cellular and molecular findings.

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6. Wiebe S, Nagpal A, Truong VT, Park J, Skalecka A, He AJ, Gamache K, Khoutorsky A, Gantois I, Sonenberg N. Inhibitory interneurons mediate autism-associated behaviors via 4E-BP2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019.

Translational control plays a key role in regulation of neuronal activity and behavior. Deletion of the translational repressor 4E-BP2 in mice alters excitatory and inhibitory synaptic functions, engendering autistic-like behaviors. The contribution of 4E-BP2-dependent translational control in excitatory and inhibitory neurons and astrocytic cells to these behaviors remains unknown. To investigate this, we generated cell-type-specific conditional 4E-BP2 knockout mice and tested them for the salient features of autism, including repetitive stereotyped behaviors (self-grooming and marble burying), sociability (3-chamber social and direct social interaction tests), and communication (ultrasonic vocalizations in pups). We found that deletion of 4E-BP2 in GABAergic inhibitory neurons, defined by Gad2, resulted in impairments in social interaction and vocal communication. In contrast, deletion of 4E-BP2 in forebrain glutamatergic excitatory neurons, defined by Camk2a, or in astrocytes, defined by Gfap, failed to cause autistic-like behavioral abnormalities. Taken together, we provide evidence for an inhibitory-cell-specific role of 4E-BP2 in engendering autism-related behaviors.

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7. Xiol C, Vidal S, Pascual-Alonso A, Blasco L, Brandi N, Pacheco P, Gerotina E, O’Callaghan M, Pineda M, Armstrong J. X chromosome inactivation does not necessarily determine the severity of the phenotype in Rett syndrome patients. Sci Rep. 2019 ; 9(1) : 11983.

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurological disorder usually caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene. Since the MECP2 gene is located on the X chromosome, X chromosome inactivation (XCI) could play a role in the wide range of phenotypic variation of RTT patients ; however, classical methylation-based protocols to evaluate XCI could not determine whether the preferentially inactivated X chromosome carried the mutant or the wild-type allele. Therefore, we developed an allele-specific methylation-based assay to evaluate methylation at the loci of several recurrent MECP2 mutations. We analyzed the XCI patterns in the blood of 174 RTT patients, but we did not find a clear correlation between XCI and the clinical presentation. We also compared XCI in blood and brain cortex samples of two patients and found differences between XCI patterns in these tissues. However, RTT mainly being a neurological disease complicates the establishment of a correlation between the XCI in blood and the clinical presentation of the patients. Furthermore, we analyzed MECP2 transcript levels and found differences from the expected levels according to XCI. Many factors other than XCI could affect the RTT phenotype, which in combination could influence the clinical presentation of RTT patients to a greater extent than slight variations in the XCI pattern.

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