Pubmed du 23/08/19

vendredi 23 août 2019

1. Erratum : Soda et al., "Hyperexcitability and Hyperplasticity Disrupt Cerebellar Signal Transfer in the IB2 KO Mouse Model of Autism". J Neurosci. 2019.

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2. What is regressive autism and why does it occur ? Is it the consequence of multi-systemic dysfunction affecting the elimination of heavy metals and the ability to regulate neural temperature ?. North American journal of medical sciences. 2019 : 263674.

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3. Arafat EA, Shabaan DA. The possible neuroprotective role of grape seed extract on the histopathological changes of the cerebellar cortex of rats prenatally exposed to Valproic Acid : animal model of autism. Acta histochemica. 2019.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disease characterized by defect in verbal and nonverbal communications. As, the cerebellum has the greatest number of neurons and synapses in the central nervous system so, the cerebellum has emerged as one of the target brain areas affected in autism. The aim of this work was to study the biochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of autism and the possible neuroprotective role of grape seed extract. In this study 28 male pups were divided into Control groups ; Group I (saline), Group II (GSE 400mg/kg), Group III (VPA 500mg/kg) and Group IV (VPA and GSE). Cerebellar hemispheres were dissected out and prepared to determine the oxidative stress markers, histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric study were done. A significant elevation in oxidative stress markers in off spring of VPA treated rats in comparison to control group was detected. A significant decrease in the Purkinje cell count and nuclear size were observed. Numerous shrunken cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and ultrastructural degeneration of cytoplasmic organelles were detected. A significant rise in the area percentage of GFAP-positive immune stained cells in comparison to that of the control groups was seen. Strikingly, GSE revealed significant improvement in the oxidative stress markers and then the histological and morphometric picture of the cerebellum. GSE has neuroprotective effect on the cerebellum of VPA treated rats through its potent antioxidant effect.

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4. Bowring DL, Totsika V, Hastings RP, Toogood S. Outcomes from a community-based Positive Behavioural Support team for children and adults with developmental disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2019.

BACKGROUND : Previous evaluations of community PBS teams have not investigated whether behaviour change is both statistically reliable and clinically significant. Few previous studies have reported quality of life (QoL) and social validity outcomes. METHOD : The present authors collected data on 85 people referred to a specialist PBS team. The present authors used a unique set of multiple measures and statistical change metrics to evaluate outcome. RESULTS : Statistically significant improvements in QoL and health-related QoL (HRQoL), with medium to large effect sizes, were demonstrated following PBS input. Mean Behaviour Problems Inventory-Short Form scores reduced from 37.74 (SD = 30.54) at baseline to 12.12 (SD = 12.24) at follow-up, with a large effect size (d = 0.84). Stakeholders reported valuing the process and outcomes of PBS, findings which support the social validity of PBS for people with developmental disabilities. CONCLUSION : This study demonstrates successful PBS outcomes in QoL, HRQoL, challenging behaviour and social validity in a community setting.

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5. Dai YX, Tai YH, Chang YT, Chen TJ, Chen MH. Increased Risk of Atopic Diseases in the Siblings of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Several studies have shown a strong association between atopic diseases and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the risk of atopic diseases in individuals having ASD-affected siblings has never been investigated. This nationwide population-based cohort study included 2762 individuals with ASD-affected siblings and 11,048 controls. Diagnoses of atopic diseases, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis, were ascertained from 1996 or the birth data to the end of 2011. Individuals with ASD-affected siblings had a higher risk for asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and multiple atopic diseases compared with controls. In conclusion, individuals with ASD-affected siblings were more likely than were the controls to develop atopic diseases, suggesting shared familial mechanisms underlying the two conditions.

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6. Eill A, Jahedi A, Gao Y, Kohli JS, Fong CH, Solders S, Carper RA, Valafar F, Bailey BA, Muller RA. Functional Connectivities Are More Informative Than Anatomical Variables in Diagnostic Classification of Autism. Brain Connect. 2019.

Machine learning techniques have been implemented to reveal brain features that distinguish people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) from typically developing (TD) peers. However, it remains unknown whether different neuroimaging modalities are equally informative for diagnostic classification. We combined anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (aMRI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) using conditional random forest (CRF) for supervised learning to compare how informative each modality was in diagnostic classification. In-house data (N = 93) included 47 TD and 46 ASD participants, matched on age, motion, and nonverbal IQ. Four main analyses consistently indicated that fcMRI variables were significantly more informative than anatomical variables from aMRI and DWI. This was found (1) when the top 100 variables from CRF (run separately in each modality) were combined for multimodal CRF ; (2) when only 19 top variables reaching >67% accuracy in each modality were combined in multimodal CRF ; and (3) when the large number of initial variables (before dimension reduction) potentially biasing comparisons in favor of fcMRI was reduced using a less granular region of interest scheme. Consistent superiority of fcMRI was even found (4) when 100 variables per modality were randomly selected, removing any such potential bias. Greater informative value of functional than anatomical modalities may relate to the nature of fcMRI data, reflecting more closely behavioral condition, which is also the basis of diagnosis, whereas brain anatomy may be more reflective of neurodevelopmental history.

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7. Harris JC. The Necessity to Identify Subtypes of Autism Spectrum Disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019.

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8. Kaczmarek LK. Loss of NaV1.2-Dependent Backpropagating Action Potentials in Dendrites Contributes to Autism and Intellectual Disability. Neuron. 2019 ; 103(4) : 551-3.

Mutations in voltage-dependent sodium channels cause severe autism/intellectual disability. In this issue of Neuron, Spratt et al. (2019) show that lowering expression of Nav1.2 channels attenuates backpropagation of action potentials into dendrites of cortical neurons, preventing spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity.

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9. Kahathuduwa CN, West B, Mastergeorge A. Effects of Overweight or Obesity on Brain Resting State Functional Connectivity of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Evidence on neurophysiological correlates of coexisting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and overweight/obesity may elucidate mechanisms leading to the observed greater risk of obesity in children with ASD. An exploratory secondary data analysis was performed on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of children downloaded from the ABIDE Preprocessed database (n = 81). Children with isolated ASD showed hypo-connectivity between anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN) (p = 0.003 ; FWER). Children with coexisting ASD and overweight/obesity showed hyper-connectivity between anterior and posterior DMN (p = 0.015 ; FWER). More evidence is needed to confirm these contrasting rs-fMRI connectivity profiles and to explicate causal inferences regarding neurophysiological mechanisms associated with coexisting ASD and overweight/obesity.

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10. Kasperzack D, Schrott B, Mingebach T, Becker K, Burghardt R, Kamp-Becker I. Effectiveness of the Stepping Stones Triple P group parenting program in reducing comorbid behavioral problems in children with autism. Autism. 2019 : 1362361319866063.

Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit comorbid behavioral problems. These problems have an impact on the severity of the core symptoms, the progression of the disorder as well as on the families’ quality of life. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Stepping Stones Triple P group parent training program as a supplementary intervention in the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder. Therefore, we employed a single group repeated measures design and assessed child variables via parents’ and teachers’ judgments at four successive time points. The participants were parents of 24 children with autism spectrum disorder aged between 3.6 and 12 years. We found a significant reduction of comorbid behavioral problems in the children, primarily in the parents’ judgment at follow-up. Furthermore, a reduction of the autism spectrum disorder core symptoms emerged. The teachers’ judgment particularly revealed an improvement in children’s social relationships. Effect sizes were large (n(2) ranging from 0.14 to 0.23). The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the Stepping Stones Triple P as a supplementary intervention for reducing comorbid behavioral problems in the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder. Higher parental self-efficacy and parental attributions, including parents’ ability to influence child problem behaviors, are discussed as important factors for the effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P.

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11. Keogh S, Bridle C, Siriwardena NA, Nadkarni A, Laparidou D, Durrant SJ, Kargas N, Law GR, Curtis F. Effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for insomnia in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019 ; 14(8) : e0221428.

BACKGROUND : Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by behavioural, communication and social impairments. The prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is 40-80%, with significant effects on quality of life for the children and carers. This systematic review aimed to synthesise evidence of the effects of behavioural interventions to improve sleep among children with ASD. METHODS : Databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Autism Data, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov and Current Controlled Trials) were searched for published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of non-pharmacological interventions for insomnia in children with autism spectrum conditions. RESULTS : Three studies met the inclusion criteria, one provided actigraphy data, one Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) data, and one both actigraphy and CSHQ data for use in meta-analyses. There were significant differences between the behavioural intervention and comparison groups (actigraphy data) for total sleep time (24.41 minutes, 95% CI 5.71, 43.11, P = 0.01), sleep latency (-18.31 minutes, 95% CI -30.84, -5.77, P = 0.004) and sleep efficiency (5.59%, 95% CI 0.87, 10.31, P = 0.02). There was also a favourable intervention effect evident for the subjective CSHQ data (-4.71, 95% CI -6.70, -2.73, P<0.00001). Risk of bias was low across several key domains (randomisation, allocation concealment and reporting), with some studies being unclear due to poor reporting. CONCLUSIONS : There are very few high quality randomised controlled trials in this area. Here we provide initial synthesised quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for treating sleep problems in children with ASD. TRIAL REGISTRATION : Protocol was registered (CRD42017081784) on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).

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12. Lim YH, Lee HC, Falkmer T, Allison GT, Tan T, Lee WL, Morris SL. Effect of Visual Information on Postural Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Visual information is crucial for postural control. Visual processing in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was hypothesized to be less efficient and thus they would display a less stable standing posture than typically developing children. The present study compared the static standing responses and attentional demands of 15 children with ASD and 18 control participants in conditions of eyes open and eyes closed. The results showed that postural responses and attention invested in standing were similar between the participant groups in the two visual conditions. Both groups displayed a more stable posture when their eyes were open in comparison to eyes closed. The finding suggests that normal postural control development could occur in children with ASD.

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13. Lopata C, Donnelly JP, Thomeer ML, Rodgers JD, Volker MA, Booth AJ. Exploratory factor analysis of the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist for children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2019 : 1362361319868639.

The Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist measures social/social-communication skills and behavioral flexibility/regulation of children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Prior studies provided support for the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist total score for these children ; however, no studies have examined the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist factor structure. This exploratory factor analysis examined the factor structure and internal consistency of parent ratings on the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist for a sample of 331 children, ages 6-12 years, with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Results yielded a correlated three-factor solution. The individual factors and total score demonstrated very good internal consistency reliability. Findings supported the presence and interpretability of three subscales, as well as derivation of a total composite reflecting overall prosocial and adaptive skills and behaviors. Implications for assessment and research are discussed.

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14. McNeill J. Social Validity and Teachers’ Use of Evidence-Based Practices for Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

The autism intervention literature focuses heavily on the concept of evidence-based practice, with less consideration of the acceptability, feasibility, and contextual alignment of interventions in practice. A survey of 130 special educators was conducted to quantify this "social validity" of evidence-based practices and analyze its relationship with knowledge level and frequency of use. Results indicate that knowledge, use, and social validity are tightly-connected and rank the highest for modeling, reinforcement, prompting, and visual supports. Regression analysis suggests that greater knowledge, higher perceived social validity, and a caseload including more students with autism predicts more frequent use of a practice. The results support the vital role that social validity plays in teachers’ implementation, with implications for both research and practice.

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15. Mohajer B, Masoudi M, Ashrafi A, Mohammadi E, Bayani Ershadi AS, Aarabi MH, Uban KA. Structural white matter alterations in male adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorder and concurrent depressive symptoms ; a diffusion tensor imaging study. Journal of affective disorders. 2019 ; 259 : 40-6.

BACKGROUND : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a prevalent developmental condition, is associated with comorbid mood disorders, most importantly depression. Here, we explored the underlying association between brain white matter microstructural integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and depressive symptoms, in male adults with high-functioning ASD. METHOD : To assess our main purpose, Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange II dataset was used to acquire brain diffusion imaging from 26 adult male patients with ASD ranging from 18 to 62 years of age, and 26 age and gender-matched typically developed control subjects. Participants were evaluated for depressive symptoms manifestation by the Beck Depression Index (BDI). DWI images were preprocessed and analyzed for DTI scalers in the "ExploreDTI" toolbox. Adjusted linear regression models were used. Association between normalized BDI score and its interaction with diagnosis, as predictors, and measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of regions of interest according to Mori atlas was assessed. RESULT : Significant lower microstructural integrity of white matter was found in association with higher BDI scores in ASD group, mainly in regions of anterior limb of internal capsule (ALIC) and corona radiata. Also, a statistically significant positive interaction between BDI and ASD was seen in FA of left ALIC. DISCUSSION : Considering similar regional brain white matter involvement with the imaging studies of depression in the typically developed population, we propose that these alterations of white matter tracts in depressive symptoms of adult ASD subjects might be, at least, similar to depression in typically developed population.

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16. Nevison C, Zahorodny W. Race/Ethnicity-Resolved Time Trends in United States ASD Prevalence Estimates from IDEA and ADDM. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Race-specific time trends in Autism Spectrum Disorder prevalence are tracked among 3-5 year-olds and 8 year-olds identified by the U.S. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, respectively. White ASD prevalence historically has been higher than other racial groups but plateaued for IDEA birth cohorts from 2004 to 2007 before resuming its increase. Black and Hispanic IDEA prevalence increased continuously and caught up to whites by birth year 2008 and 2013, respectively, with black prevalence subsequently exceeding white prevalence in the majority of states. Plateaus in white prevalence occurred in some ADDM states for birth years 2002-2006, but IDEA trends suggest prevalence will increase across all racial groups in ADDM’s birth year 2008 report.

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17. Rodgaard EM, Jensen K, Vergnes JN, Soulieres I, Mottron L. Temporal Changes in Effect Sizes of Studies Comparing Individuals With and Without Autism : A Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019.

Importance : The definition and nature of autism have been highly debated, as exemplified by several revisions of the DSM (DSM-III, DSM-IIIR, DSM-IV, and DSM-5) criteria. There has recently been a move from a categorical view toward a spectrum-based view. These changes have been accompanied by a steady increase in the prevalence of the condition. Changes in the definition of autism that may increase heterogeneity could affect the results of autism research ; specifically, a broadening of the population with autism could result in decreasing effect sizes of group comparison studies. Objective : To examine the correlation between publication year and effect size of autism-control group comparisons across several domains of published autism neurocognitive research. Data Sources : This meta-analysis investigated 11 meta-analyses obtained through a systematic search of PubMed for meta-analyses published from January 1, 1966, through January 27, 2019, using the search string autism AND (meta-analysis OR meta-analytic). The last search was conducted on January 27, 2019. Study Selection : Meta-analyses were included if they tested the significance of group differences between individuals with autism and control individuals on a neurocognitive construct. Meta-analyses were only included if the tested group difference was significant and included data with a span of at least 15 years. Data Extraction and Synthesis : Data were extracted and analyzed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline using fixed-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures : Estimated slope of the correlation between publication year and effect size, controlling for differences in methods, sample size, and study quality. Results : The 11 meta-analyses included data from a total of 27723 individuals. Demographic data such as sex and age were not available for the entire data set. Seven different psychological and neurologic constructs were analyzed based on data from these meta-analyses. Downward temporal trends for effect size were found for all constructs (slopes : -0.067 to -0.003), with the trend being significant in 5 of 7 cases : emotion recognition (slope : -0.028 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.007]), theory of mind (-0.045 [95% CI, -0.066 to -0.024]), planning (-0.067 [95% CI, -0.125 to -0.009]), P3b amplitude (-0.048 [95% CI, -0.093 to -0.004]), and brain size (-0.047 [95% CI, -0.077 to -0.016]). In contrast, 3 analogous constructs in schizophrenia, a condition that is also heterogeneous but with no reported increase in prevalence, did not show a similar trend. Conclusions and Relevance : The findings suggest that differences between individuals with autism and those without the diagnosis have decreased over time and that possible changes in the definition of autism from a narrowly defined and homogenous population toward an inclusive and heterogeneous population may reduce our capacity to build mechanistic models of the condition.

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18. Titlestad KB, Eldevik S. Brief Report : Modest but Clinically Meaningful Effects of Early Behavioral Intervention in Twins with Rett Syndrome-A Case Study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

A growing evidence base supports early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorder. We have found only one study exploring the outcome of EIBI for children with Rett syndrome, which reported little effect. It suggested that future studies should employ more fine-grained outcome measures. We provided EIBI for twin 3-year-old girls with Rett syndrome for a period of 3 years. We analyzed raw scores and standard scores from a measure of adaptive behavior and a detailed assessment of skills across 25 areas. We detected moderate but clinically meaningful gains in areas such as communication and self-help. Gains are discussed from a quality of life perspective and whether the moderate effects can justify the resources required in EIBI.

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19. Vulchanova M, Chahboun S, Galindo-Prieto B, Vulchanov V. Gaze and Motor Traces of Language Processing : Evidence from Autism Spectrum Disorders in Comparison to Typical Controls. Cognitive neuropsychology. 2019 : 1-27.

We investigated what strategies underlie figurative language processing in two groups of participants distinguished by the presence of a developmental deficit, highly-verbal participants with autism, and control participants without autism in two age ranges each. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder are characterised by impaired social interaction and communication. Even at the high end of the spectrum, where structural language is adequate, difficulties in comprehending non-literal aspects of language are widely attested. The exact causes of these problems are, however, still open to debate. In an interactive sentence-picture matching task participants selected the most suitable image representation of a non-literal figurative expression that matched the target meaning, while their eye-movements and hand movements were being tracked. Our results suggest that individuals with ASD have different processing patterns than typically developing peers when interpreting figurative language, even when they provide the correct answers. Both children with and without autism, and participants with autism display greater uncertainty and competition between alternatives when providing the answer, often reflected in also considering the literal interpretation of the expression against its target figurative meaning. We provide evidence that expression transparency and decomposability play a central role in figurative language processing across all groups.

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20. Wang J, Hedley D, Bury SM, Barbaro J. A systematic review of screening tools for the detection of autism spectrum disorder in mainland China and surrounding regions. Autism. 2019 : 1362361319871174.

Screening for autism spectrum disorder is the first step toward early detection and diagnosis, thereby impacting the likelihood of children accessing early intervention and, importantly, improving long-term outcomes. This systematic review aimed to (a) establish a clear baseline of autism spectrum disorder screening tools currently used throughout mainland China and surrounding regions, (b) identify the strengths and limitations of these instruments, and (c) develop specific recommendations regarding screening for autism spectrum disorder throughout Chinese-speaking countries. Databases were searched for recent (2015-2018) articles published in Chinese or English languages. Twenty-two studies (13 Chinese, 9 English) met inclusion criteria ; two from Taiwan and the remainder from mainland China. Studies varied greatly in the extent of psychometric analyses and reported autism spectrum disorder prevalence. The majority of diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. (DSM-IV) or 5th ed. (DSM-5)) criteria, although a small number of studies utilized gold-standard diagnostic assessment instruments. It is recommended that a systematic, multi-tiered, screening network be established to improve the identification of autism spectrum disorder in China and surrounding regions. Assessment and diagnosis need to be culturally appropriate, and amenable to low-resource settings. In addition, increased public awareness programs to reduce stigma will be important in improving outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder.

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21. Williamson HJ, Brennan AC, Tress SF, Joseph DH, Baldwin JA. Exploring health and wellness among Native American adults with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities and their family caregivers. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2019.

BACKGROUND : Adults with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) experience health inequities, and those who also identify as a member of an ethnic minority group face additional health inequities. In the United States, a majority of adults with IDD continue to be supported by family caregivers making their health equity also important. The purpose of this study was to explore how Native American adults with IDD and their family caregivers experience health and wellness. METHOD : This community-engaged research was guided by a Community Advisory Board (CAB) with study participants completing a Photovoice project. RESULTS : Participants identified individual, family and community level influences on health and wellness including the importance of participation in meaningful activities and connection to culture. CONCLUSIONS : In order to address health inequities, more research is needed to understand health and wellness from the unique perspectives of individuals with IDD and those from racial and ethnic minority groups.

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22. Yamamoto K, Masumoto K. Memory for Rules and Output Monitoring in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

This study examined factors related to repetitive errors in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the perspective of output monitoring and memory for rules. Previous studies have suggested that output monitoring errors are associated with repetition errors. Moreover, people with ASD have a reduced memory for rules, which could result in repetitive errors. Typically developing (TD) and ASD participants memorized rules and conducted an object arrangement task consisting of sorting objects according to their price under two conditions. Memory tests and output monitoring tests were conducted immediately, and 1 week later. Results indicated that output monitoring in ASD was significantly lower than in TD, although the memory for rules showed no differences between ASD and TD.

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