Pubmed du 26/08/19

lundi 26 août 2019

1. Corbett BA, Muscatello RA, Tanguturi Y, McGinn E, Ioannou S. Pubertal Development Measurement in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Comparison Between Physical Exam, Parent- and Self-Report. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Aug 26)

Adolescence is a time of remarkable biopsychosocial change, which may be particularly challenging for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), necessitating enhanced understanding and accurate assessment of pubertal maturation. The study compared physical examination to parent- and self-report measures in 200 participants (134 males and 66 females) ages 10.0-13.5 years. Both participants with typical development (TD, n = 78) and ASD (n = 122) were included. Concordance ranged from slight-to-fair for self-assessments (kappa = .17-.32) and slight-to-moderate for parent-report (kappa = .21-.44). Concordance of physical exam with self- and parent-report of the ASD group was somewhat lower than for the TD group. Findings indicate pubertal assessments by parent or child are not reliable indices of precise pubertal staging.

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2. Lu H, Li P, Fang J, Yi L. The Perceived Social Context Modulates Rule Learning in Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Aug 24)

This study examines how the awareness of social situation affects rule learning in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using computer-based distrust and deception games. Twenty-eight 4- to 7-year-old children with ASD and 28 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) peers learned the distrusting and deceptive rules in a non-social condition, in which they were playing with a computer, or a social condition with another person pretending to interact via a computer. Results showed intact rule-learning ability in the ASDs in the non-social condition, but poorer overall performance and slower learning process than TD children when they thought that they interacted with a human opponent. Rule learning in ASD was affected by their beliefs about the social context.

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3. Taghizadeh N, Heard G, Davidson A, Williams K, Story D. The experiences of children with autism spectrum disorder, their caregivers and health care providers during day procedure : A mixed methods study. Paediatr Anaesth ;2019 (Aug 26)

BACKGROUND : Autism Spectrum Disorder is now diagnosed in more than 1% of children in Australia and USA. Children with autism spectrum disorder may have additional health care needs, require more specialized services for their health care, or experience more difficulties during hospital attendance. Customized care for these children may assist in decreasing potentially challenging behaviours during hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of children with autism spectrum disorder and their caregivers during attendance for day procedures in two hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Further, the perceptions of their health care providers were explored. METHOD : Twenty-nine participants, including 14 health care providers and 15 caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder, were interviewed within 72 hours of their day procedure attendance at the Royal Children’s Hospital and the Royal Dental Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Interviews were recorded digitally, then transcribed and coded. Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods (content analysis) were used. RESULTS : Hospital attendance was often stressful. Participants identified a number of facilitating factors including good communication, clear explanations, and friendly attitudes of staff. Flexibility and individualized care of patients (such as avoiding unnecessary blood pressure measurements, and not changing into hospital gowns) were valued. Supportive aids (such as computers or special interest objects), use of social stories, and giving premedication were all considered helpful. Perceived barriers to care included prolonged waiting times for operation date as well as waiting on the day of operation, lack of private space, lack of noninvasive equipment such as cutaneous infrared thermometers, poor communication, and inadequate training of staff about autism spectrum disorder. CONCLUSION : Providing optimal care for children with autism spectrum disorder requires a multifaceted approach that may require changes to hospital work flow, staff training, better use of aids (such as tablet computers and social stories), and premedication. Good communication and flexibility are key areas of importance.

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4. Wang C, Xiao Z, Wu J. Functional connectivity-based classification of autism and control using SVM-RFECV on rs-fMRI data. Phys Med ;2019 (Aug 22) ;65:99-105.

Considering the unsatisfactory classification accuracy of autism due to unsuitable features selected in current studies, a functional connectivity (FC)-based algorithm for classifying autism and control using support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is proposed in this paper. The goal is to find the optimal features based on FC and improve the classification accuracy on a large sample of data. We chose 35 regions of interest based on the social motivation hypothesis to construct the FC matrix and searched for informative features in the complex high-dimensional FC dataset by the SVM-RFE with a stratified-4-fold cross-validation strategy. The selected features were then entered into an SVM with a Gaussian kernel for classification. A total of 255 subjects with autism and 276 subjects with typical development from 10 sites were involved in the study. For the data of global sites, the proposed classification algorithm could identify the two groups with an accuracy of 90.60% (sensitivity 90.62%, specificity 90.58%). For the leave-one-site-out test, the proposed algorithm achieved a classification accuracy of 75.00%-95.23% for data from different sites. These promising results demonstrate that the proposed classification algorithm performs better than those in recent similar studies in that the importance of features can be measured accurately and only the most discriminative feature subset is selected.

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5. Martin CA, Papadopoulos N, Chellew T, Rinehart NJ, Sciberras E. Associations between parenting stress, parent mental health and child sleep problems for children with ADHD and ASD : Systematic review. Res Dev Disabil ;2019 (Aug 22) ;93:103463.

BACKGROUND : Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high rates of sleep problems. Their parents experience higher parenting stress and more mental health difficulties than parents of typically developing children. AIM : To examine the association between child sleep problems, parenting stress and parent mental health for children with ADHD or ASD. METHODS : MEDLINE Complete, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL Complete databases were searched. Studies needed to include : children aged 5-18 with ADHD or ASD, a child sleep measure, and a parenting stress or adult mental health measure. RESULTS : Eleven studies were identified (four ADHD, seven ASD). Six studies examined parenting stress (five cross-sectional, one longitudinal) and five found associations, of varying strengths, with child sleep problems. Six studies examined parent mental health (four cross-sectional, two longitudinal) and five found associations, of differing magnitudes, with child sleep problems. CONCLUSIONS : These studies demonstrate child sleep problems are associated with poorer parent mental health and higher parenting stress. IMPLICATIONS : Future longitudinal research including multiple measurements of child sleep problems and family functioning is required to clarify the directionality of associations. Such knowledge is key in adapting sleep interventions to better meet the needs of children with ADHD or ASD and their families.

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6. Yeung MK, Lee TL, Chan AS. Right-Lateralized Frontal Activation Underlies Successful Updating of Verbal Working Memory in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder. Biol Psychol ;2019 (Aug 22):107743.

Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit altered frontal lobe activation during working memory (WM) processing despite relatively intact WM updating ability. To determine whether this alteration reflects compensation and is also present in adolescents, this study examined prefrontal activation during WM updating in adolescents with ASD using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Eighteen adolescents with high-functioning ASD and 18 typically developing (TD) adolescents aged 11 to 18 years successfully underwent a verbal n-back paradigm with a WM (i.e., 2-back) and a control (i.e., 0-back) condition. We found that adolescents with ASD exhibit more right-lateralized prefrontal activation in response to WM load (i.e., 2-back > 0-back) compared to TD adolescents. More importantly, right-lateralized prefrontal activation was associated with better WM updating ability-specifically among adolescents with ASD. Thus, adolescents with ASD might rely on a compensatory mechanism such as the employment of a visuospatial processing style to help them update verbal WM.

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