Pubmed du 02/09/19

lundi 2 septembre 2019

1. Back E. Inferring Mental States From Dynamic Faces in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder : Insights From Eye Tracking. Child Dev ;2019 (Sep 2)

There is mixed evidence concerning whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can infer mental states from the eyes. This study aims to elucidate whether they use less efficient strategies. Sixteen adolescents with ASD (11-16 year olds) were compared to a chronological age- and IQ-matched sample of 16 typically developing (TD) adolescents. Eight mental states were presented as full dynamic faces and in conditions altering the presence of expressive dynamic information from the eyes and mouth. Bayes factors revealed that adolescents with ASD had similar accuracy, response times (less conclusive), and fixations to TD adolescents. Findings imply that adolescents with ASD spontaneously fixate on the eyes, and not all individuals with ASD have difficulties inferring mental states from faces.

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2. Bednarz HM, Kana RK. Patterns of Cerebellar Connectivity with Intrinsic Connectivity Networks in Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Aug 31)

There is growing evidence of altered connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) between the cerebellum and cortex. Three intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are especially important to cognitive processing in ASD : the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience networks (SNs). The goal of this study was to compare resting-state functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the DMN, ECN, and SN in ASD and typically developing children (n = 74, ages 7-12 years). Children with ASD showed stronger connectivity between the ventral DMN and left cerebellar lobules I-IV. No meaningful relationships were observed between ICN-cerebellar functional connectivity and ASD symptoms. These results suggest that the cerebellum contributes to altered network connectivity in ASD.

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3. Churruca K, Ellis LA, Long JC, Pomare C, Wiles LK, Arnolda G, Ting HP, Woolfenden S, Sarkozy V, de Wet C, Hibbert P, Braithwaite J. The Quality of Care for Australian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Aug 31)

Knowledge about the quality of care delivered to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in relation to that recommended by clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is limited. ASD care quality indicators were developed from CPGs and validated by experts, then used to assess the quality of care delivered by general practitioners (GPs) and pediatricians in Australia. Data were retrospectively collected from the medical records of 228 children (</= 15 years) with ASD for 2012-2013. Overall quality of care was high, but with considerable variation among indicators, and between GPs and pediatricians-e.g., GPs were less likely to complete the assessment care bundle (61% ; 95% CI 21-92). Findings highlight potential areas for improvement in the need for standardized criteria for diagnosis.

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4. Condy EE, Factor RS, Swain DM, Strege MV, Scarpa A. Maternal Affect During a Challenging Mother-Child Interaction : The Effects of Broad Autism Phenotype and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Reactivity in Mothers of Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Aug 31)

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is proposed to index cognitive and behavioral inflexibility. Broad autism phenotype (BAP) traits are prevalent in family members of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study investigated whether RSA and BAP traits in mothers of typically developing (TD) children and mothers of children with ASD influence maternal affect. It was hypothesized that these factors would interact to influence mother-child interactions. Twenty-three mother-child dyads participated in a challenging interaction while measuring mother’s RSA. Results indicated that mothers of children with ASD show different RSA reactivity than mothers of TD children. Furthermore, preliminary analyses revealed RSA reactivity moderated the relationship between mothers’ rigidity and maternal affect during this interaction. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

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5. Corona LL, Janicki C, Milgramm A, Christodulu KV. Brief Report : Reductions in Parenting Stress in the Context of PEERS-A Social Skills Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Aug 31)

Social skills intervention is an evidence-based practice for enhancing communication and interpersonal skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participation in the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS(R)), a manualized social skills intervention for adolescents with ASD, is associated with improved social skills and peer interactions, as well as decreased autism symptoms. Participation in PEERS(R) has also been linked to increased parent self-efficacy and decreased family chaos. The present study examined parenting stress in the context of PEERS(R). Following participation in PEERS(R), parents reported lower levels of parenting stress associated with adolescent mood and social isolation. These findings provide further evidence of the family-wide benefits of adolescent-focused social skills intervention.

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6. Grossman RB, Zane E, Mertens J, Mitchell T. Facetime vs. Screentime : Gaze Patterns to Live and Video Social Stimuli in Adolescents with ASD. Sci Rep ;2019 (Sep 2) ;9(1):12643.

Atypical eye gaze to social stimuli is one of the most frequently reported and studied social behaviors affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The vast majority of this literature is based on analyses of gaze patterns as participants view social information, such as talking faces, on a computer screen. However, recent results suggest that generalizing gaze behaviors from computer screens to live interactions may not be valid. This study examines between- and within-group differences in gaze behaviors of children with ASD and their neurotypical (NT) peers during a screen-based and a live-interaction task. Results show between-group differences in gaze only for the screen-based, but not the live-interaction task. We also find that gaze behavior of NT children during the screen-based task significantly correlates with their gaze behavior during the live interaction ; individuals who direct a higher percentage of gaze to the face in one task also did so in the other task. However, there is no significant relationship between the gaze patterns of children with ASD for those two tasks. These results strongly caution against using gaze of individuals with ASD recorded during screen-based tasks as a proxy for understanding their gaze behavior during live social interactions.

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7. Johnsson G, Kerslake R, Crook S. Delivering allied health services to regional and remote participants on the autism spectrum via video-conferencing technology : lessons learned. Rural Remote Health ;2019 (Sep) ;19(3):5358.

Context and issues : The introduction of individualised funding under the National Disability Insurance Scheme in Australia aimed to increase individual choice and control over how people received disability supports. An increase in the allied health disability workforce was anticipated ; however, disability workforce sector reports have consistently indicated difficulties in attracting and retaining sufficient allied health staff to satisfy current and future demand. Autism spectrum disorder is the most prevalent primary diagnosis of participants receiving individualised funding to date and requires support staff to have specialised skills and experience. Given that overall staff attraction and retention issues are reported to be exacerbated in regional and remote areas of Australia, it is important to seek innovative ways of supporting individuals on the autism spectrum in their local communities. Technology has the potential to provide a timely and low-cost alternative that extends access to specialist services for people in remote locations. The current project aimed to identify the feasibility, essential requirements and potential barriers in delivering therapy support to regional and remote participants on the autism spectrum via video-conferencing technology. Lessons learned : A multidisciplinary team (speech pathologist, occupational therapist, psychologist and a special educator) were recruited and trained to deliver tele-therapy services to 16 participants on the autism spectrum, in collaboration with their families and local support teams. Participants resided in two northern, nine western and one southern regional area in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. There were three sets of siblings. One participant resided on remote Lord Howe Island off the coast of northern NSW. Researchers used semi-structured telephone interviews to gain insight into the program from key stakeholder groups including parents, education staff, allied health professionals and tele-therapists. A general inductive approach to data analysis was used under five project evaluation areas. The evaluation focused on five areas including : development of the tele-health delivery team, understanding the role of collaboration, examining the need for autism-specific support, establishing the need for in-person contact and identifying barriers to success. The project evaluation found that investment in staff training and support was key to building a competent tele-therapy team and delivering successful tele-therapy services under a sustainable model. For many families and support team members, collaboration was reported as an important part of the tele-therapy program, with families and teachers finding it helpful to work together with the same information. The evaluation confirmed that access to autism-specific knowledge and support was novel and regarded as beneficial for families and support teams living in regional and remote areas. There were mixed responses to the inclusion of in-person support as part of a tele-therapy service. While some families felt a tele-therapy service was no different to in-person services, other families and tele-therapists indicated that the addition of at least one in-person session would help to increase rapport. Barriers within the tele-therapy model included scheduling and local staff changes, as well as the delivery of intervention requiring physical support. Technology was not seen as a barrier in the current study. This research adds to the growing body of information supporting the use of tele-practice for geographically isolated regions. Ideally, tele-therapy should not replace in-person services ; however, it is necessary when no other comparable service option is available locally. Larger scale research is needed to compare blended, online and in-person models so that an optimal ratio can be established.

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8. Koren G, Moser-Sharman S. Corrigendum to : "Does high-dose gestational folic acid increase the risk for autism ? The birth order hypothesis" [Medical Hypotheses 132 (2019) 109350]. Med Hypotheses ;2019 (Aug 29) ;133:109378.

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9. Piper A, Borrero JC, Becraft JL. Differential reinforcement-of-low-rate procedures : A systematic replication with students with autism spectrum disorder. J Appl Behav Anal ;2019 (Sep 2)

Becraft, Borrero, Davis, Mendres-Smith, and Castillo (2018) studied the effects of two different types of DRL schedules (full session and spaced responding) under 2 sets of stimulus conditions (with and without signals). Reduced rates of responding maintained under both types of DRL schedules, when signals were included. The present study represents a replication of procedures by Becraft et al. involving learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results replicated those of Becraft et al. in that responding in both full-session and spaced-responding DRL schedules was low, but not eliminated. These results provide preliminary evidence to suggest that children with ASD are responsive to signals in DRL arrangements, which may set the stage for evaluation of signaled DRL arrangements for socially significant response forms.

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