Pubmed du 04/09/19

mercredi 4 septembre 2019

1. Arnold LE, Luna RA, Williams K, Chan J, Parker RA, Wu Q, Hollway JA, Jeffs A, Lu F, Coury DL, Hayes C, Savidge T. Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Quality of Life in Autism : A Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ;2019 (Aug 30)

Objective : A randomized pilot trial of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms targeting probiotic for quality of life in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods : Thirteen children, 3-12 years of age with ASD, anxiety, and GI symptoms, were randomized into a probiotic crossover trial of 8 weeks each on VISBIOME and placebo separated by a 3-week washout. VISBIOME contains eight probiotic species, mostly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Primary outcome was the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) GI module. Secondary outcomes included gut microbiota analysis, the Parent-Rated Anxiety Scale for ASD (PRAS-ASD), and parent-selected target symptoms. A mixed analysis model was applied. Results : Thirteen children were randomized, with 10 completing the study (77% retention) : 6 in probiotic/placebo sequence, 4 in placebo/probiotic sequence. Adherence to study treatment was 96%. There were no serious adverse events (AEs), and more nonserious AEs occurred with placebo than with probiotic, including those attributable to treatment. Only 6 of the 10 guessed the correct treatment at the end of week 8. Over the 19-week trial, each outcome improved from baseline and PedsQL correlated significantly with abundance of Lactobacillus without discernable changes to microbiota composition/diversity. Although probiotic showed more improvement than placebo, PedsQL and PRAS-ASD were not statistically significant, as expected at this sample size. PedsQL effect size was d = 0.49 by the general model and d = 0.79 by simple comparison of week 8 changes. A parent-selected target symptom showed significant improvement in GI complaints on probiotic compared with placebo (p = 0.02, d = 0.79). Probiotic effects carried over through the 3-week washout. Conclusion : The VISBIOME formulation was safe and suggested a health benefit in children with ASD and GI symptoms who retained Lactobacillus. The moderate effect size compared with placebo warrants a larger trial using a parallel-group design.

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2. Back E. Inferring Mental States From Dynamic Faces in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder : Insights From Eye Tracking. Child Dev ;2019 (Sep 2)

There is mixed evidence concerning whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can infer mental states from the eyes. This study aims to elucidate whether they use less efficient strategies. Sixteen adolescents with ASD (11-16 year olds) were compared to a chronological age- and IQ-matched sample of 16 typically developing (TD) adolescents. Eight mental states were presented as full dynamic faces and in conditions altering the presence of expressive dynamic information from the eyes and mouth. Bayes factors revealed that adolescents with ASD had similar accuracy, response times (less conclusive), and fixations to TD adolescents. Findings imply that adolescents with ASD spontaneously fixate on the eyes, and not all individuals with ASD have difficulties inferring mental states from faces.

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3. Cremone-Caira A, Buirkle J, Gilbert R, Nayudu N, Faja S. Relations between caregiver-report of sleep and executive function problems in children with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Res Dev Disabil ;2019 (Aug 31) ;94:103464.

BACKGROUND : Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience comorbid symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Additionally, children with ASD and ADHD often have sleep disturbances and deficits in executive functioning (EF). In typical development, sleep disturbances are causally linked to EF deficits and exacerbate ADHD-like symptoms. AIM : The aim of this study was to determine whether caregiver-report sleep and EF difficulties predict ADHD symptoms in children with ASD. METHODS : Caregiver-report of child sleep, EF, and ADHD symptom severity was collected for 101 children with ASD, 7-11 years of age. Hierarchical linear regressions tested the independent and interactive effects of sleep and EF in predicting ADHD symptoms. RESULTS : Children with ASD were more likely to have symptoms of ADHD if they experienced both sleep and EF difficulties. Children with difficulties in working memory were particularly at risk for clinically significant symptoms of ADHD. Notably, however, sleep did not mediate or moderate the relation between working memory and ADHD symptoms in this sample, suggesting that these variables act through independent mechanisms to increase vulnerability for comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS : These results have clinical significance as sleep and EF deficits may identify an ASD subgroup that is at increased risk for a comorbid ADHD diagnosis.

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4. Griego AW, Datzman JN, Estrada SM, Middlebrook SS. Suggestibility and false memories in relation to intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder : a meta-analytic review. J Intellect Disabil Res ;2019 (Sep 3)

BACKGROUND : A systematic literature review was conducted to evaluate previous research that examined intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in relation to memory distortions (i.e. suggestibility and false memories). There were two goals for the current study ; the first goal was to identify significant trends in past literature that fulfilled previously established selection criteria. The second goal was to establish reliability and effect sizes for suggestibility and false memory for samples with diagnoses of ID or ASD. METHODS AND PROCEDURES : Articles that were selected for inclusion in the current study were required to have a clinically diagnosed sample, as well as a non-clinical control group. Studies were also required to have a post-hoc power score higher than .30 to prevent the effects of underpowered studies and limit the potential for publication bias. Selected studies were also required to have provided pertinent information required to complete the analyses (e.g. means, standard deviations, p-values, or correlation coefficients). Any study that did not provide the required information was excluded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : Two empirical Bayes omnibus analyses revealed a significant effect for participants diagnosed with ID (z = 6.10, p < .001), which supported the researchers’ hypothesis. The results indicated increased susceptibility toward memory suggestibility and false memories when compared with the general population. However, the results of the analyses did not support the researchers’ hypothesis regarding participants diagnosed with ASD. The analyses indicated that participants diagnosed with ASD displayed decreased suggestibility and were less likely to develop false memories (z = -2.37, p = 0.018).

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5. Grossman RB, Zane E, Mertens J, Mitchell T. Facetime vs. Screentime : Gaze Patterns to Live and Video Social Stimuli in Adolescents with ASD. Sci Rep ;2019 (Sep 2) ;9(1):12643.

Atypical eye gaze to social stimuli is one of the most frequently reported and studied social behaviors affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The vast majority of this literature is based on analyses of gaze patterns as participants view social information, such as talking faces, on a computer screen. However, recent results suggest that generalizing gaze behaviors from computer screens to live interactions may not be valid. This study examines between- and within-group differences in gaze behaviors of children with ASD and their neurotypical (NT) peers during a screen-based and a live-interaction task. Results show between-group differences in gaze only for the screen-based, but not the live-interaction task. We also find that gaze behavior of NT children during the screen-based task significantly correlates with their gaze behavior during the live interaction ; individuals who direct a higher percentage of gaze to the face in one task also did so in the other task. However, there is no significant relationship between the gaze patterns of children with ASD for those two tasks. These results strongly caution against using gaze of individuals with ASD recorded during screen-based tasks as a proxy for understanding their gaze behavior during live social interactions.

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6. Kadam A. In the Shoes of a Child with Autism. Indian Pediatr ;2019 (Aug 15) ;56(8):689.

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7. Nicole W. Getting the Lay of the Land : Human and Animal Evidence on Environmental Chemicals and Autism. Environ Health Perspect ;2019 (Sep) ;127(9):94002.

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8. Piper A, Borrero JC, Becraft JL. Differential reinforcement-of-low-rate procedures : A systematic replication with students with autism spectrum disorder. J Appl Behav Anal ;2019 (Sep 2)

Becraft, Borrero, Davis, Mendres-Smith, and Castillo (2018) studied the effects of two different types of DRL schedules (full session and spaced responding) under 2 sets of stimulus conditions (with and without signals). Reduced rates of responding maintained under both types of DRL schedules, when signals were included. The present study represents a replication of procedures by Becraft et al. involving learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results replicated those of Becraft et al. in that responding in both full-session and spaced-responding DRL schedules was low, but not eliminated. These results provide preliminary evidence to suggest that children with ASD are responsive to signals in DRL arrangements, which may set the stage for evaluation of signaled DRL arrangements for socially significant response forms.

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9. Shah E, Marshall I. Case 2 : New-Onset Seizure in a 5-year-old Boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatr Rev ;2019 (Sep) ;40(9):485-487.

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