Pubmed du 06/09/19

vendredi 6 septembre 2019

1. Baixauli I, Mira A, Berenguer C, Rosello B, Miranda A. Family Factors and Communicative Skills in Children with Autism Without Intellectual Disability. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

The primary objective of this study was to identify the profiles of families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability (ID) based on several risk indicators : sociodemographic and emotional indicators, parental stress, confidant social support, and coping strategies. A second aim was to determine the differences in communicative skills between children of family subtypes empirically established according to the aforementioned risk factors. Participants were 52 Spanish mothers and their children with ASD. Through cluster analysis, three subtypes of families were identified, classifying them as "high risk, moderate risk, and little risk". The "little risk" profile showed significantly less stress and greater use of coping strategies and confidant social support. Furthermore, the children’s communication exhibited better development, compared to children from the other family environments.

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2. Burgette JM, Rezaie A. Association between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Caregiver-Reported Dental Caries in Children. JDR clinical and translational research. 2019 : 2380084419875441.

INTRODUCTION : There is evidence that dental caries is both increased and decreased in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES : This study examined the association between ASD and the probability of a child having caregiver-reported dental caries based on a nationally representative sample. We hypothesized that when compared with children without ASD, children with ASD would have greater odds of dental caries. METHODS : We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health. Caregivers reported whether a health provider informed them that their children had ASD and "decayed teeth or cavities" during the past 12 mo. We used logistic regression controlling for child characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance, preventive dental use) and family characteristics (education and federal poverty level). RESULTS : Among the 45,155 children in our sample, 1,228 (2.5%) had ASD. The prevalence of caregiver-reported dental caries was 14.7% in children with ASD and 9.5% in children without ASD. The odds of having caregiver-reported child dental caries (adjusted odds ratio = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.7) was greater among children with ASD than children without ASD when controlling for the aforementioned covariates. CONCLUSION : Using a nationally representative sample, we found that children with ASD had significantly greater odds of having caregiver-reported dental caries as compared with children without ASD. Families can be educated on the increased odds of having dental caries in children with ASD. Moreover, this finding highlights a need for oral health services and policies to prevent and treat dental caries, which are tailored to the increasing number of American children with ASD. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT : The results of this study support the need for policy makers, clinicians, and families to improve oral health services that prevent and treat dental caries in the increasing number of American children with autism spectrum disorder.

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3. Chen Q, Qiao Y, Xu XJ, You X, Tao Y. Corrigendum : Urine Organic Acids as Potential Biomarkers for Autism-Spectrum Disorder in Chinese Children. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience. 2019 ; 13 : 388.

[This corrects the article DOI : 10.3389/fncel.2019.00150.].

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4. Conine DE, Vollmer TR, Bolivar HA. Response to name in children with autism : Treatment, generalization, and maintenance. Journal of applied behavior analysis. 2019.

Deficits in response to name (RTN) are an early indicator of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and RTN is a treatment goal in many early intervention curricula for children with ASD. However, little research has empirically evaluated methods for increasing RTN in children with ASD. We evaluated a series of conditions designed to increase RTN for 4 children with ASD using a multielement experimental design. The schedules of tangible reinforcement were thinned after mastery and generalization was tested across people and contexts. Tangible reinforcers were necessary to increase RTN for all 4 participants, and the schedule of reinforcement was successfully thinned with all participants after intervention. Generalization was also observed across people and experimental contexts.

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5. Coughlan B, Marshall-Andon T, Anderson J, Reijman S, Duschinsky R. Attachment and autism spectrum conditions : Exploring Mary Main’s coding notes. Developmental child welfare. 2019 ; 1(1) : 76-93.

Distinguishing autism spectrum behaviors from behaviors relating to disorganized attachment can be challenging. There is, for instance, a notable overlap between both conditions in terms of behaviors deemed stereotypical. In addition, there are also similarities regarding some atypical social overtures. Responding to this overlap has been the subject for much debate in the literature. Disorganized attachment was first introduced and conceptualized by the attachment researcher, Mary Main. Main is considered the leading authority on coding this phenomenon. During the course of archival research, we obtained Main’s notes on coding attachment in a group of 15 children with autism spectrum conditions (hereafter ASC). Drawing on these texts, this article explores Main’s reasoning when making distinctions between ASC and attachment at the behavioral level. Our approach is informed by Chang’s argument for the potential of "history as complementary science." Analysis indicates that, for Main, frequency and timing were important differential factors when attributing a behavior to either ASC or the child’s attachment pattern.

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6. Dempsey EE, Moore C, Johnson SA, Stewart SH, Smith IM. Morality in autism spectrum disorder : A systematic review. Development and psychopathology. 2019 : 1-17.

Moral reasoning and decision making help guide behavior and facilitate interpersonal relationships. Accounts of morality that position commonsense psychology as the foundation of moral development, (i.e., rationalist theories) have dominated research in morality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the well-documented differences in commonsense psychology among autistic individuals, researchers have investigated whether the development and execution of moral judgement and reasoning differs in this population compared with neurotypical individuals. In light of the diverse findings of investigations of moral development and reasoning in ASD, a summation and critical evaluation of the literature could help make sense of what is known about this important social-cognitive skill in ASD. To that end, we conducted a systematic review of the literature investigating moral decision making among autistic children and adults. Our search identified 29 studies. In this review, we synthesize the research in the area and provide suggestions for future research. Such research could include the application of an alternative theoretical framework to studying morality in autism spectrum disorder that does not assume a deficits-based perspective.

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7. Hahn LJ, Brady NC, Versaci T. Communicative Use of Triadic Eye Gaze in Children With Down Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Other Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. American journal of speech-language pathology. 2019 : 1-14.

Purpose This study examines differences in the communicative use of triadic eye gaze (TEG) during a communicative interaction in 2 neurodevelopmental disorders : Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and a 3rd group of varying disabilities associated with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs). Also, the relationship between TEG use and language abilities was explored. Method Participants were 45 children, 15 in each group. The frequency of TEG was coded during a scripted communication assessment when children were between 3 and 6 years of age (37-73 months). Receptive and expressive language was measured using raw scores from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning concurrently between 3 and 6 years and again 2 years later when children were between 5 and 8 years (59-92 months). Results Descriptively, children with DS had a higher frequency of TEG than children with ASD and IDD, but significant differences were only observed between children with DS and ASD. More TEG at Time 1 in children with DS was associated with higher receptive language at Time 1 and higher expressive language at Time 2. For children with ASD, a trend for a positive association between TEG at Time 1 and language abilities at Time 2 was observed. No significant associations were observed for children with IDD. Conclusion Children with DS used TEG significantly more than children with ASD in this sample. Identifying strengths and weaknesses in TEG use is important because providing caregiver training to facilitate TEG can result in increased opportunities to respond with language models and promote language development.

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8. He H, Ye N, Yi L, Yang C. Validating the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised for Children in China Aged 3 to 8 with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Research on the repetitive behavior of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has recently gained scholarly attention. Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is a core ASD symptom of various patterns and high prevalence. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a standard questionnaire used to assess RRB in individuals with ASD. This study collected data from 163 Chinese children aged 3-8 with ASD to analyze the validity and reliability of the RBS-R. Results showed that the original tested items were adaptable to the Chinese cultural environment when treating such disorders. A confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the structuring models, indicating that a 5-factor model was more suitable for evaluating RRB in this context.

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9. Keifer CM, Hauschild KM, Nelson BD, Hajcak G, Lerner MD. Differences in the Late Positive Potential and P300 to Emotional Faces in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Despite evidence suggesting differences in early event-related potential (ERP) responses to social emotional stimuli, little is known about later stage ERP contributions to social emotional processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Adults with and without ASD completed a facial emotion recognition task involving stimuli that varied by emotional intensity while electroencephalograms were recorded. Principal components analysis was used to examine P300 and late positive potential (LPP) modulation by emotional intensity. Results indicated that greater ASD symptomatology evinced heightened P300 to high relative to low intensity faces, then heightened LPP to low relative to high intensity faces. Findings suggest that adults with greater ASD symptomatology may demonstrate a lag in engagement in elaborative processing of low intensity faces.

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10. Kong X, Liu J, Cetinbas M, Sadreyev R, Koh M, Huang H, Adeseye A, He P, Zhu J, Russell H, Hobbie C, Liu K, Onderdonk AB. New and Preliminary Evidence on Altered Oral and Gut Microbiota in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) : Implications for ASD Diagnosis and Subtyping Based on Microbial Biomarkers. Nutrients. 2019 ; 11(9).

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurological and developmental disorder characterized by behavioral and social impairments as well as multiple co-occurring conditions, such as gastrointestinal abnormalities, dental/periodontal diseases, and allergies. The etiology of ASD likely involves interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies suggest that oral and gut microbiome play important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammation, immune dysfunction, and disruption of the gut-brain axis, which may contribute to ASD pathophysiology. The majority of previous studies used unrelated neurotypical individuals as controls, and they focused on the gut microbiome, with little attention paid to the oral flora. In this pilot study, we used a first degree-relative matched design combined with high fidelity 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene amplicon sequencing in order to characterize the oral and gut microbiotas of patients with ASD compared to neurotypical individuals, and explored the utility of microbiome markers for ASD diagnosis and subtyping of clinical comorbid conditions. Additionally, we aimed to develop microbiome biomarkers to monitor responses to a subsequent clinical trial using probiotics supplementation. We identified distinct features of gut and salivary microbiota that differed between ASD patients and neurotypical controls. We next explored the utility of some differentially enriched markers for ASD diagnosis and examined the association between the oral and gut microbiomes using network analysis. Due to the tremendous clinical heterogeneity of the ASD population, we explored the relationship between microbiome and clinical indices as an attempt to extract microbiome signatures assocociated with clinical subtypes, including allergies, abdominal pain, and abnormal dietary habits. The diagnosis of ASD currently relies on psychological testing with potentially high subjectivity. Given the emerging role that the oral and gut microbiome plays in systemic diseases, our study will provide preliminary evidence for developing microbial markers that can be used to diagnose or guide treatment of ASD and comorbid conditions. These preliminary results also serve as a starting point to test whether altering the oral and gut microbiome could improve co-morbid conditions in patients with ASD and further modify the core symptoms of ASD.

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11. Lee HY, Vigen C, Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson S, Smith I, Brian J, Watson LR, Crais ER, Turner-Brown L, Reznick JS, Baranek GT. The Performance of the First Year Inventory (FYI) Screening on a Sample of High-Risk 12-Month-Olds Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) at 36 Months. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

This study examined the performance of the First Year Inventory (FYI ; version 2.0), a community-normed parent-reported screening instrument, in a high-risk (HR) sample of 12-month-olds with older siblings diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FYI 2.0 was completed by parents of 86 HR infants and 35 low-risk control infants at age 12 months, followed by clinical diagnosis at 36 months. HR infants later diagnosed with ASD had significantly higher FYI 2.0 risk scores in both the social-communication and sensory-regulatory domains than typically developing infants. New FYI 2.0 cutoff scores for HR sample were explored by evaluating various cutoff options after considering tradeoffs between sensitivity and specificity and sample characteristics.

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12. Storch EA, Schneider SC, De Nadai AS, Selles RR, McBride NM, Grebe SC, Bergez KC, Ramirez A, Viana AG, Lewin AB. A Pilot Study of Family-Based Exposure-Focused Treatment for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2019.

Anxiety is a common and impairing condition in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioral therapy for treating anxiety in this population ; however, available treatment protocols may be difficult to implement outside of research settings. The present study examined the efficacy of family-based exposure-focused treatment (FET) compared to a treatment as usual (TAU) control in 32 youth aged 6-17 years with ASD and co-occurring anxiety. Fourteen youth were randomized to FET, which included 12 face-to-face weekly therapy sessions lasing 45-55 min, while 18 youth completed the TAU control where engagement in psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy was at the discretion of the families. Results strongly supported FET with a 79% (versus 0% in TAU) response rate, 86% (versus 0% in TAU) remission in primary anxiety diagnosis, and large between-group effects on clinician-rated anxiety severity and most parent-rated domains of anxiety-related impairment. Among treatment responders, 2-month follow-up supported maintenance of gains. Overall, the study supported FET as a relatively brief intervention for the treatment of anxiety in youth with ASD, although further research is needed to replicate these findings and compare FET outcomes to more comprehensive interventions.

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13. Van der Hallen R, Manning C, Evers K, Wagemans J. Global Motion Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Meta-Analysis. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Visual perception in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often debated in terms of enhanced local and impaired global perception. Deficits in global motion perception seem to support this characterization, although the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a large meta-analysis on global motion, combining 48 articles on biological and coherent motion. Results provide evidence for a small global motion processing deficit in individuals with ASD compared to controls in both biological and coherent motion. This deficit appears to be present independent of the paradigm, task, dependent variable, age or IQ of the groups. Results indicate that individuals with ASD are less sensitive to these types of global motion, although the difference in neural mechanisms underlying this behavioral difference remains unclear.

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14. Wilson AC, King J, Bishop DVM. Autism and social anxiety in children with sex chromosome trisomies : an observational study. Wellcome open research. 2019 ; 4 : 32.

Background : Recent studies suggest that an extra sex chromosome increases the risk of both autism and social anxiety, but it unclear whether these risks are specific to particular karyotypes. Methods : We considered diagnostic data from an online psychiatric assessment (DAWBA - The Development and Well-Being Assessment) and questionnaire responses completed by parents of children with 47,XXX (N = 29), 47,XXY (N = 28) and 47,XYY (N = 32) karyotypes. Analysis focused mainly on 54 children who were diagnosed prenatally or on the basis of other medical concerns in childhood (Low Bias subgroup), to minimise ascertainment bias. Results : Children with symptoms of autism who fell short of meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria were coded as cases of Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS). The odds ratio of autism or PDDNOS in the Low Bias group was computed relative to gender-specific population norms. This gave log odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 5.56 (4.25 - 6.88) for XXX girls ; 4.00 (2.66 - 5.33) for XXY boys ; and 4.60 (3.46 - 5.74) for XYY boys. Despite this elevated risk, most children had no autistic features. A diagnosis of DSM-IV Social Phobia was rare, though, in line with prediction, all three Low Bias cases with this diagnosis had 47,XXY karyotype. All three trisomy groups showed increased risk of milder symptoms of social anxiety. Conclusions : An increased risk of autism was found in girls with 47,XXX karyotype, as well as in boys with 47,XXY or 47,XYY. Symptoms of social anxiety were increased in all three karyotypes. There was wide variation in psychiatric status of children with the same karyotype, suggesting that an extra sex chromosome affects developmental stability in a non-specific way, with a diverse range of possible phenotypes.

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15. Young E, Aiyadurai R, Jegathesan T, Brown C, Bechard N, Minhas RS, Dillon K, Maguire J. Increasing Access to Developmental Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : The Pediatric Developmental Passport Pilot Randomized Trial. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

The pediatric developmental passport was created to aid service navigation for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A pilot-randomized-control trial was conducted at two developmental clinics. The intervention group received the Passport card versus the control group who received the placebo card. Primary outcome was the proportion of families who contacted ASD services 1-year following diagnosis. Of 40 families, 95% in the intervention group contacted services versus 70% in the control (p = 0.04). All families at the academic site contacted services ; at the community site 90% in the intervention group contacted versus 40% in the control (p = 0.02). The Passport shows promise aiding families of children with ASD in service navigation, particularly at community clinics where specialist follow-up is not readily available.

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16. Zhao J, Chen S, Tong X, Yi L. Advantage in Character Recognition Among Chinese Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

This study examined Chinese character recognition and its cognitive and linguistic correlates in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Forty-seven children with ASD and 51 IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children were tested on Chinese character recognition, rapid automatized naming, inhibitory control, digit span, IQ, vocabulary, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and listening comprehension. Chinese children with ASD showed strong character recognition skills. Unlike TD children’s character recognition, which was correlated with all the measured cognitive and linguistic skills, character recognition of children with ASD was only significantly correlated with rapid automatized naming, inhibitory control, and phonological awareness. Our findings suggest that phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming may serve as important predictors for possible advantage in emergent literacy acquisition in Chinese children with ASD.

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