Pubmed du 09/09/19

lundi 9 septembre 2019

1. Abdullahi I, Wong K, de Klerk N, Mutch R, Glasson EJ, Downs J, Cherian S, Leonard H. Hospital admissions in children with developmental disabilities from ethnic minority backgrounds. Dev Med Child Neurol ;2019 (Sep 9)

AIM : To compare hospital admission patterns after the first year of life in Australian children with developmental disabilities and children with no known disability, according to maternal country of birth and Indigenous status. METHOD : This was a retrospective cohort study using linked data across health, disability, and hospital admission databases. The study investigated 656 174 children born in Western Australia between 1983 and 2008 with a total of 1 091 834 records of hospital admissions. RESULTS : Children with no known disability born to Indigenous mothers had the highest rate of hospital admissions compared to children of non-Indigenous mothers. Children of foreign-born mothers from low-income countries had the highest rate of hospital admissions if disability was present. Children with cerebral palsy (CP) with or without associated intellectual disability had the highest rate of hospital admissions among children with developmental disability, especially if mothers were foreign-born. INTERPRETATION : Children with CP and intellectual disability, particularly from minority backgrounds (Indigenous Australian and foreign-born mothers), were at higher risk of being admitted to hospital after the first year of life. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS : Hospital admissions in Australian children with and without disabilities differ according to maternal country of birth. Hospital admission rates in children without a developmental disability were greatest for Australian-born Indigenous children. Disabled Australian-born children of foreign-born mothers from low-income countries had the highest hospital admission rates. Hospital admission risk was greatest for Australian-born children with cerebral palsy, especially if mothers were foreign-born.

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2. Ahuja AS. The Potential for Machine Learning-Based Wearables to Improve Socialization in Teenagers and Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder. JAMA Pediatr ;2019 (Sep 9)

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3. Carrington SJ, Barrett SL, Sivagamasundari U, Fretwell C, Noens I, Maljaars J, Leekam SR. Describing the Profile of Diagnostic Features in Autistic Adults Using an Abbreviated Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-Abbreviated). J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Sep 7)

The rate of diagnosis of autism in adults has increased over recent years ; however, the profile of behaviours in these individuals is less understood than the profile seen in those diagnosed in childhood. Better understanding of this profile will be essential to identify and remove potential barriers to diagnosis. Using an abbreviated form of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, comparisons were drawn between the profile of a sample of able adults diagnosed in adulthood and the profile of a sample of able children. Results revealed both similarities and differences. A relative strength in non-verbal communication highlighted a potential barrier to diagnosis according to DSM-5 criteria for the adult sample, which may also have prevented them from being diagnosed as children.

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4. James WH, Grech V. Potential explanations of behavioural and other differences and similarities between males and females with autism spectrum disorder. Early Hum Dev ;2019 (Sep 4):104863.

Several potential explanations may be dependent on the dynamics of prenatal and postnatal testosterone in males and females, and to be consistent with Baron-Cohen’s concept of extreme male brain. This paper explores the evidence that male and female autistic subjects differ on the average in that they have had different exposures to the causes of autism, females bearing higher genetic burdens for ASD (autistic spectrum disorder), and males having a greater exposure to high intrauterine levels of testosterone (T). The high levels of intrauterine (and possibly postnatal) testosterone to which ASD cases have been exposed, cause a less masculinized physical habitus (including facial features) in exposed males, and a more masculinized physical habitus in exposed females. ASD genes (as opposed to intrauterine testosterone) are mainly responsible for a low mean IQ in ASD (especially female cases). Exposure to high intrauterine T increases the probability that foetuses will be male, thus potentially explaining the high sex ratio (proportion male) of cases of ASD. The Gender Incoherence Model seems to be based on facts unrelated directly to autism. The shifts towards the other sex are argued to be consequent on sex-different reactions to prenatal exposure to high T, not on the pathology itself. The suspected underdiagnosis of female cases is partially dependent on the different proportions of environmental and genetic causes to which male and female cases are hypothesized to have been exposed, and the consequent ’more normal’ behaviour of female cases.

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5. Sharda M, Silani G, Specht K, Tillmann J, Nater U, Gold C. Music therapy for children with autism : investigating social behaviour through music. Lancet Child Adolesc Health ;2019 (Sep 4)

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6. Voss C, Haber N, Wall DP. The Potential for Machine Learning-Based Wearables to Improve Socialization in Teenagers and Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder-Reply. JAMA Pediatr ;2019 (Sep 9)

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7. Whittenburg HN, Schall CM, Wehman P, McDonough J, DuBois T. Helping High School-Aged Military Dependents With Autism Gain Employment Through Project SEARCH + ASD Supports. Mil Med ;2019 (Sep 9)

INTRODUCTION : Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face high rates of unemployment, with unique challenges for military-dependent and -connected youth with ASD. This paper reports preliminary findings from Year One of a randomized waitlist controlled trial investigating the efficacy of the Project SEARCH + ASD Supports (PS + ASD) intervention model for military-dependent and -connected youth with ASD. METHODS : Treatment group participants (n = 6) participated in internships at a military installation in the southeastern United States ; waitlist group participants (n = 8) received special education transition services at their local high schools. Employment outcome data were collected at 12 months for both groups. RESULTS : Fourteen unique internship experiences were developed across seven business partner organizations on the military installation during Year One. Five of six PS + ASD treatment group participants obtained competitive integrated employment for an overall employment rate of 83.3%. Four of the positions were federal jobs. None of the waitlist group participants obtained competitive integrated employment during the same period. CONCLUSIONS : Initial results are promising and suggest that the PS + ASD model may help to meet the transition needs of military-dependent and -connected youth with ASD and the employment needs of local military communities.

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