Pubmed du 17/09/19

mardi 17 septembre 2019

1. Friedman BH, Scarpa A, Patriquin MA. The Biopsychology of Autism Spectrum Disorder : Theory, Methods, and Evidence. Biol Psychol ;2019 (Sep 13):107770.

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2. Habayeb S, Dababnah S, John A, Rich B. Cultural Experiences of Arab American Caregivers Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Sep 17)

Research on families’ experiences raising children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is limited in minority ethnic and cultural groups, such as the Arab American community. Twenty Arab American caregivers raising children with ASD completed online questionnaires regarding their experiences with stigma and acculturation. Nine participants completed follow-up phone interviews. Perceived stigma fell in the low to moderate range. Acculturation related to social interactions indicated slightly greater assimilation compared to separation, and slightly greater integration over marginalization. During interviews, participants discussed the impact of disability stigma, distancing from their communities, and parent gender roles. By better understanding Arab American families raising children with ASD professionals can work towards improving clinical services for these families.

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3. Jameel L, Vyas K, Bellesi G, Crawford S, Channon S. Thinking about other’s mistakes : contrasting patterns of performance in groups high or low in autistic or psychopathic traits. Cogn Neuropsychiatry ;2019 (Sep 15):1-17.

Introduction : Counterfactual thinking refers to thoughts such as, "What if ... ?" or "If only ... " that hypothesise about how past events might have turned out differently. It is a functional process, allowing us to reflect upon and solve problems, and to evoke appropriate responses. It is thought to involve both cognitive and emotional processes, and is linked to the development of false belief and moral emotions. Methods : The present study compared responses to a novel task, "Counterfactual Judgments", in students who scored high or low on self-report measures of autistic or psychopathic traits, two conditions putatively associated with deficits in empathy. Results : Contrasting patterns of performance were revealed : those with high versus low autistic traits gave harsher ratings of blame for others’ mistakes and showed reduced sensitivity to punitive counterfactual alternatives, whereas those with high versus low psychopathic traits gave lower ratings for moral judgments of regret and guilt. A self-report questionnaire measure of empathy also provided some evidence of reduced empathic processing in both the high trait groups. Conclusions : The findings are considered in the light of the possible contributions of cognitive versus emotional processes to counterfactual thinking. The possible implications for managing social dysfunction in clinical populations are also discussed.

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4. Maher GM, O’Keeffe GW, Dalman C, Kearney PM, McCarthy FP, Kenny LC, Khashan AS. Association between preeclampsia and autism spectrum disorder : a population-based study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ;2019 (Sep 17)

BACKGROUND : The environmental contribution of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is approximately 17%-50%, highlighting the importance of investigating factors potentially contributing to the likelihood of its development, and of gaining a greater understanding of the pathogenesis surrounding ASD. The objective of this study was to examine the association between preeclampsia and ASD using a population-based cohort study. METHODS : All singleton live births in Sweden from 1982 to 2010 were included, using data from Swedish National Registers. Exposures of interest included : (a) preeclampsia (classified according to ICD-8, ICD-9 and ICD-10) and (b) preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) combined, used as a proxy for preeclampsia with placental dysfunction. ASD status was based on ICD-9 and ICD-10. The cohort consisted of 2,842,230 children, with 54,071 cases of ASD. Follow-up began from the child’s first birthday, and data were censored at first diagnosis of ASD, death, migration or end of study period (31st December 2016). We conducted multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusting for several perinatal and sociodemographic factors, selected a priori. We further controlled for shared genetic and familial confounding using sibling-matched analysis. RESULTS : In the adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, preeclampsia was associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of ASD (Hazard Ratio (HR) : 1.25, 95% CI:1.19, 1.30) compared with those unexposed to preeclampsia, while in the sibling-matched analysis the HR was 1.17 (95% CI : 1.06, 1.28). The HR for preeclampsia and SGA combined was 1.66 (95% CI : 1.49, 1.85) in the adjusted Cox model and 1.95 (95% CI : 1.53, 2.48) in the sibling-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Exposure to preeclampsia or preeclampsia/SGA (i.e. SGA baby exposed to preeclampsia) was associated with ASD. The stronger association with preeclampsia/SGA than preeclampsia alone suggests that placental pathology may be a mechanism for the increased likelihood of ASD.

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5. Peyroux E, Franck N. Is social cognitive training efficient in autism ? A pilot single-case study using the RC2S+ program. Neurocase ;2019 (Sep 15):1-8.

In high-functioning autism, deficits in emotional processing and theory of mind are relevant to understanding the particularities of social functioning. Here we used a multiple baseline and ABA single-case design to assess the efficacy of an individualized social cognitive training program using both pen-and-paper and computerized materials for an 18-year old patient. After the treatment phase, we found significant improvement in both emotional processes and theory of mind. These results provide further significant data showing that therapeutic tools based on digital relational simulation are a promising way for helping people with autism to compensate for their impaired social functioning.

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6. Schofield D, Zeppel MJB, Tanton R, Veerman JL, Kelly SJ, Passey ME, Shrestha RN. Intellectual disability and autism : socioeconomic impacts of informal caring, projected to 2030. Br J Psychiatry ;2019 (Sep 16):1-7.

BACKGROUND : Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) influence the interactions of a person with their environment and generate economic and socioeconomic costs for the person, their family and society. AIMS : To estimate costs of lost workforce participation due to informal caring for people with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorders by estimating lost income to individuals, lost taxation payments to federal government and increased welfare payments. METHOD : We used a microsimulation model based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Surveys of Disability, Ageing and Carers (population surveys of people aged 15-64), and projected costs of caring from 2015 in 5-year intervals to 2030. RESULTS : The model estimated that informal carers of people with intellectual disability and/or ASD in Australia had aggregated lost income of AU$310 million, lost taxation of AU$100 million and increased welfare payments of AU$204 million in 2015. These are projected to increase to AU$432 million, AU$129 million and AU$254 million for income, taxation, and welfare respectively by 2030. The income gap of carers for people with intellectual disability and/or ASD is estimated to increase by 2030, meaning more financial stress for carers. CONCLUSIONS : Informal carers of people with intellectual disability and/or ASD experience significant loss of income, leading to increased welfare payments and reduced taxation revenue for governments ; these are all projected to increase. Strategic policies supporting informal carers wishing to return to work could improve the financial and psychological impact of having a family member with intellectual disability and/or ASD. DECLARATION OF INTEREST : None.

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7. Voinsky I, Bennuri SC, Svigals J, Frye RE, Rose S, Gurwitz D. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Expression Positively Correlates with Social and Behavioral Function in Children with Autism. Sci Rep ;2019 (Sep 17) ;9(1):13443.

The peptide hormone oxytocin is an established regulator of social function in mammals, and dysregulated oxytocin signaling is implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Several clinical trials examining the effects of intranasal oxytocin for improving social and behavioral function in ASD have had mixed or inclusive outcomes. The heterogeneity in clinical trials outcomes may reflect large inter-individual expression variations of the oxytocin and/or vasopressin receptor genes OXTR and AVPR1A, respectively. To explore this hypothesis we examined the expression of both genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from ASD children, their non-ASD siblings, and age-matched neurotypical children aged 3 to 16 years of age as well as datamined published ASD datasets. Both genes were found to have large inter-individual variations. Higher OXTR and AVPR1A expression was associated with lower Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) scores. OXTR expression was associated with less severe behavior and higher adaptive behavior on additional standardized measures. Combining the sum expression levels OXTR, AVPR1A, and IGF1 yielded the strongest correlation with ABC scores. We propose that future clinical trials in ASD children with oxytocin, oxytocin mimetics and additional tentative therapeutics should assess the prognostic value of their PBMC mRNA expression of OXTR, AVPR1A, and IGF1.

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