Pubmed du 18/09/19

mercredi 18 septembre 2019

1. Hollingdale J, Woodhouse E, Young S, Fridman A, Mandy W. Autistic spectrum disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder : a meta-analytical review. Psychol Med ;2019 (Sep 18):1-14.

BACKGROUND : Research identifies highly variable prevalence estimates for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly between community and clinical samples, warranting quantitative meta-analyses to investigate the true prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS : Studies were identified through a systematic literature search of PsycINFO, MEDLINE and Web of Science through January 2018. Twenty-two publications met inclusion criteria (total N = 61 985). Two random effects meta-analyses were conducted : (1) to identify the proportion of children and adolescents with ADHD that met criteria for ASD ; and (2) to compare the severity of dimensionally-measured ASD symptomology in children and adolescents with and without ADHD. RESULTS : The overall pooled effect for children and adolescents with ADHD who met threshold for ASD was 21%. There was no significant difference between community samples (19%) and clinical samples (24%) or between US studies v. those from other countries. Children and adolescents with ADHD had substantially more dimensionally-measured ASD traits compared with those who did not have ADHD (d = 1.23). CONCLUSION : The findings provide further evidence that ADHD and ASD are associated in nature. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

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2. Levy G, Oppenheim D, Koren-Karie N, Ariav-Paraira I, Gal N, Yirmiya N. Disrupted maternal communication and attachment disorganization in children with autism spectrum disorder. Attach Hum Dev ;2019 (Sep 18):1-14.

We examined whether disrupted maternal communication, which is associated with disorganized attachment in typically developing children, is also associated with disorganized attachment in children with ASD. The attachments of 45 boys with ASD and maternal disruption were assessed in the Strange Situation Procedure. Analyses revealed a link between low cognitive functioning and resistant/ambivalent and disorganized attachment, and children’s functioning was therefore controlled. Contrary to expectations, mothers of children with disorganized attachments did not show more disrupted communication than mothers of children with organized attachments. However, the 4-way attachment breakdown showed that the mothers of disorganized and ambivalent/resistant children had higher disruption scores than mothers of secure and avoidant children. The findings suggest that the expected associations between maternal disruption and attachment disorganization apply to children with ASD as well, but raise questions whether disrupted behavior is a unique antecedent of disorganized attachment or also of resistant/ambivalent attachment.

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3. Stevanovic M, Henttonen P, Koskinen E, Perakyla A, Nieminen von-Wendt T, Sihvola E, Tani P, Ravaja N, Sams M. Physiological responses to affiliation during conversation : Comparing neurotypical males and males with Asperger syndrome. PLoS One ;2019 ;14(9):e0222084.

We examined the emotional and psychophysiological underpinnings of social interaction in the context of autism spectrum disorder, more specifically, involving participants diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). We recorded participants’ autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation (electrodermal activity, heart rate, and heart rate variability) and facial muscle activation during conversations in two different types of male dyads : (1) ten dyads where one participant has been diagnosed with AS (AS/NT dyads) and (2) nine dyads where both participants are neurotypical (NT/NT dyads). Afterwards, three independent raters assessed continuously each participant’s affiliative and dominant behaviors during the first and last 10 minutes of the conversations. The relationship between the assessed data and ANS responses was examined. We found that, in the NT/NT dyads, a high level of affiliation displayed by the conversational partner calms down the participant when they are actively dominating the interaction. In contrast, when the participants themselves expressed affiliation, their psychophysiological responses indicated increase in arousal, which suggests that the giving of affiliation is physiologically "hard work." The affiliation-related ANS responses were similar in those NT participants whose conversational partner had AS, while some differences in facial muscle activation did occur in comparison to NT/NT dyads. In the AS participants, in contrast, a high level of affiliation provided by the conversational partner was associated with increase in arousal, suggesting heightened alertness and stress. As for their own affiliative behavior, the AS participants exhibited similar indicators of alertness and stress as the NT participants, but only when their own level of dominance was low. Our results increase understanding of how individuals with AS experience social interaction at the physiological level, and how this experience differs from that in NT individuals. Moreover, our results confirm and further specify our earlier results, where we proposed that affiliation involves the type of "sharing of the burden" that also reverberates in the participants’ bodies.

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4. Zurita MF, Cardenas PA, Sandoval ME, Pena MC, Fornasini M, Flores N, Monaco MH, Berding K, Donovan SM, Kuntz T, Gilbert JA, Baldeon ME. Analysis of gut microbiome, nutrition and immune status in autism spectrum disorder : a case-control study in Ecuador. Gut Microbes ;2019 (Sep 18):1-12.

Most studies on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk factors have been conducted in developed countries where ethnicity and environment are different than in developing countries. We compared nutritional status, immune response and microbiota composition in mestizo children with ASD with matched controls in Ecuador. Twenty-five cases and 35 controls were matched by age, sex and school location. The prevalence of under- and overweight was higher in children with ASD. Nutritional differences were accompanied by abnormal food habits and more frequent gastrointestinal symptoms in children with ASD. Also, greater serum concentrations of TGF-beta1 were observed in children with ASD. Finally, there was greater alpha diversity and abundance of Bacteroides (2 OTUs), Akkermansia, Coprococcus and different species of Ruminococcus in ASD children.

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