Pubmed du 06/10/19

dimanche 6 octobre 2019

1. Fraguas D, Diaz-Caneja CM, Pina-Camacho L, Moreno C, Duran-Cutilla M, Ayora M, Gonzalez-Vioque E, de Matteis M, Hendren RL, Arango C, Parellada M. Dietary Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Meta-analysis. Pediatrics ;2019 (Oct 4)

CONTEXT : Dietary interventions such as restrictive diets or supplements are common treatments for young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Evidence for the efficacy of these interventions is still controversial. OBJECTIVE : To assess the efficacy of specific dietary interventions on symptoms, functions, and clinical domains in subjects with ASD by using a meta-analytic approach. DATA SOURCES : Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, Embase databases. STUDY SELECTION : We selected placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trials assessing the efficacy of dietary interventions in ASD published from database inception through September 2017. DATA EXTRACTION : Outcome variables were subsumed under 4 clinical domains and 17 symptoms and/or functions groups. Hedges’ adjusted g values were used as estimates of the effect size of each dietary intervention relative to placebo. RESULTS : In this meta-analysis, we examined 27 double-blind, randomized clinical trials, including 1028 patients with ASD : 542 in the intervention arms and 486 in the placebo arms. Participant-weighted average age was 7.1 years. Participant-weighted average intervention duration was 10.6 weeks. Dietary supplementation (including omega-3, vitamin supplementation, and/or other supplementation), omega-3 supplementation, and vitamin supplementation were more efficacious than the placebo at improving several symptoms, functions, and clinical domains. Effect sizes were small (mean Hedges’ g for significant analyses was 0.31), with low statistical heterogeneity and low risk of publication bias. LIMITATIONS : Methodologic heterogeneity among the studies in terms of the intervention, clinical measures and outcomes, and sample characteristics. CONCLUSIONS : This meta-analysis does not support nonspecific dietary interventions as treatment of ASD but suggests a potential role for some specific dietary interventions in the management of some symptoms, functions, and clinical domains in patients with ASD.

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2. Schwarz K, Moessnang C, Schweiger JI, Baumeister S, Plichta MM, Brandeis D, Banaschewski T, Wackerhagen C, Erk S, Walter H, Tost H, Meyer-Lindenberg A. Transdiagnostic Prediction of Affective, Cognitive, and Social Function Through Brain Reward Anticipation in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Major Depression, and Autism Spectrum Diagnoses. Schizophr Bull ;2019 (Sep 7)

The relationship between transdiagnostic, dimensional, and categorical approaches to psychiatric nosology is under intense debate. To inform this discussion, we studied neural systems linked to reward anticipation across a range of disorders and behavioral dimensions. We assessed brain responses to reward expectancy in a large sample of 221 participants, including patients with schizophrenia (SZ ; n = 27), bipolar disorder (BP ; n = 28), major depressive disorder (MD ; n = 31), autism spectrum disorder (ASD ; n = 25), and healthy controls (n = 110). We also characterized all subjects with an extensive test battery from which a cognitive, affective, and social functioning factor was constructed. These factors were subsequently related to functional responses in the ventral striatum (vST) and neural networks linked to it. We found that blunted vST responses were present in SZ, BP, and ASD but not in MD. Activation within the vST predicted individual differences in affective, cognitive, and social functioning across diagnostic boundaries. Network alterations extended beyond the reward network to include regions implicated in executive control. We further confirmed the robustness of our results in various control analyses. Our findings suggest that altered brain responses during reward anticipation show transdiagnostic alterations that can be mapped onto dimensional measures of functioning. They also highlight the role of executive control of reward and salience signaling in the disorders we study and show the power of systems-level neuroscience to account for clinically relevant behaviors.

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3. Weitlauf AS, Goode RH, Warren Z. Do We Have Evidence for Dietary and Nutritional Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder ?. Pediatrics ;2019 (Oct 4)

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4. Zhao X, Lu H, Dagur PK, Usdin K. Isolation and Analysis of the CGG-Repeat Size in Male and Female Gametes from a Fragile X Mouse Model. Methods Mol Biol ;2020 ;2056:173-186.

Analysis of individual gametes has a number of applications in the study of the mechanism of repeat expansion in mouse models of the fragile X-related disorders, as well as in mouse models of other repeat expansion diseases. This chapter describes the techniques required to isolate oocytes and male gametes of different stages of maturity, along with the techniques required to accurately determine the repeat number in these gametes.

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