Pubmed du 07/10/19

lundi 7 octobre 2019

1. Cheung CC, Rong Y, Chen F, Leung MT, Tang TPY. Comprehension of presupposition triggers in cantonese-speaking children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Clin Linguist Phon ;2019 (Oct 7):1-19.

Built on a previous finding that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had difficulty comprehending presuppositions, a domain of knowledge which is crucial for successful communication, the present study investigated the comprehension of seven types of presupposition trigger - namely definite descriptions, factive predicates, change-of-state verbs, implicative verbs, iteratives, temporal clauses, and counterfactual conditionals - in Cantonese-speaking children with and without ASD. Twenty-seven children with ASD (mean age 9.07) were compared with 23 typically developing (TD) children matched on chronological age and 21 TD children matched on language ability (LA). Knowledge of presupposition triggers was evaluated on the basis of children’s ability to judge whether a given utterance was a correct presupposition of a preceding utterance. Children with ASD were found to perform significantly worse than TD children matched on chronological age in comprehending the seven types of presupposition trigger, but they performed similarly to TD children matched on language ability. After the effects of chronological age, language ability, and non-verbal intelligence were controlled for, children with ASD were still found to show a deficit in comprehending the presupposition triggered by a temporal clause, relative to the two groups of TD children. Future studies should investigate the factors contributing to this specific deficit in children with ASD, such as executive functioning and theory of mind.

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2. Corbett BA, Ioannou S, Key AP, Coke C, Muscatello R, Vandekar S, Muse I. Treatment Effects in Social Cognition and Behavior following a Theater-based Intervention for Youth with Autism. Dev Neuropsychol ;2019 (Oct 7):1-14.

This randomized clinical trial ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ID# NCT02276534) examined the impact of a peer-mediated, theater-based social skills intervention, SENSE Theater(R), on social cognition and behavior in 77 youth (ages 8-16) with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Analysis of Covariance models revealed that post-treatment, the experimental group (n = 44) performed significantly better than the controls (n = 33) on NEPSY theory of mind (verbal) subtest, demonstrated increased neural evidence of memory for faces, and engaged in more cooperative play and verbal interaction with novel peers. The study extends previous findings showing that SENSE Theater(R) contributes to improvement in social cognition and behavior.

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3. Donati MA, Berrocal C, Primi C, Petracchi G, Carpita B, Cosci F, Ruiz A, Carmassi C, Dell’Osso L. Measuring subthreshold autistic traits in the general population : Psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum) scale. Psychiatry Res ;2019 (Sep 23) ;281:112576.

The Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum) has been developed to assess the wide spectrum of autistic-like clinical and non-clinical features in adults. Nevertheless, its psychometric properties have been analyzed only with clinical individuals so far. This study was aimed at investigating the dimensionality, reliability and validity of the AdAS Spectrum on a non-clinical sample. Participants were 395 Spanish undergraduate students (60% males ; mean age of 21.1 years, SD=2.6), who completed the AdAS Spectrum, the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and the Empathy Quotient (EQ). A confirmatory factor analysis supported the seven-factor structure of the questionnaire. Internal consistency was excellent for the total score and acceptable for five factors. Test-retest reliability over a 4-week period was good. Higher AdAS Spectrum scores significantly correlated with higher AQ and lower EQ scores, supporting the validity of the scale. Moreover, participants studying Science/Technology programs did significantly differ from students following Social/Humanities degree courses on all the AdAS Spectrum scores. Overall, findings support the psychometric properties of the AdAS in a non-clinical sample. Future research is needed to further examine the factorial structure and the internal consistency of the scale in larger samples of general population.

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4. Dutton E, Te Nijenhuis J, Metzen D, van der Linden D, Madison G. The Myth of the Stupid Believer : The Negative Religiousness-IQ Nexus is Not on General Intelligence (g) and is Likely a Product of the Relations Between IQ and Autism Spectrum Traits. J Relig Health ;2019 (Oct 5)

Numerous studies have found a negative relationship between religiousness and IQ. It is in the region of - 0.2, according to meta-analyses. The reasons for this relationship are, however, unknown. It has been suggested that higher intelligence leads to greater attraction to science, or that it helps to override evolved cognitive dispositions such as for religiousness. Either way, such explanations assume that the religion-IQ nexus is on general intelligence (g), rather than some subset of specialized cognitive abilities. In other words, they assume it is a Jensen effect. Two large datasets comparing groups with different levels of religiousness show that their IQ differences are not on g and must, therefore, be attributed to specialized abilities. An analysis of the specialized abilities on which the religious and non-religious groups differ reveals no clear pattern. We cautiously suggest that this may be explicable in terms of autism spectrum disorder traits among people with high IQ scores, because such traits are negatively associated with religiousness.

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5. Elkhatib Smidt SD, Lu F, Rao SR, Asato M, Handen BL. Primary caregiver education level and sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Sleep Res ;2019 (Oct 7):e12932.

In children with autism spectrum disorder, there have been equivocal results regarding primary caregiver education level and its influence on sleep. Thus, we assessed if lower primary caregiver education level is associated with more sleep problems. We evaluated 4,636 children with autism spectrum disorder in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network’s United States and Canadian registry, whose caregivers completed the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Using regression analysis, there was an association between lower primary caregiver education level and more sleep problems. Secondary analyses demonstrated that younger age, Hispanic ethnicity, higher IQ, autism diagnosis and lower adaptive function were also associated with more sleep problems. The finding that lower primary caregiver education level was associated with increased sleep problems in a large sample of children with autism spectrum disorder highlights the importance of screening for risk factors affecting sleep to help moderate sleep problems.

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6. Esmaiel NN, Ashaat EA, Mosaad R, Fayez A, Ibrahim M, Abdallah ZY, M YI, Salem S, Ramadan A, El Wakeel MA, Ashaat NA, Zaki MS, Ismail S. The potential Impact of COMT gene variants on dopamine regulation and phenotypic traits of ASD patients. Behav Brain Res ;2019 (Oct 3):112272.

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme has a major role in the adjustment of catechol-dependent functions, for example, cognition, cardiac function, and pain processing. The pathogenesis of autism may be related to dysfunction in the midbrain dopaminergic system. Therefore, we aimed to clarify how COMT gene variants affect dopamine level, and its potential impact on phenotype traits of autistic patients. 52 autistic patients were subjected to comprehensive clinical investigation, sequencing of exon 4 of the COMT gene by direct Sanger Sequencing, and measuring of dopamine levels. The clinical presentations of autistic subjects were correlated with detected COMT variants and dopamine level. Our molecular results revealed that three COMT variants were found : rs8192488 [C > T], rs4680 (Val158Met) and rs4818 [C > G]. Within autistic subjects, Val158Met rs4680 carriers were significantly distributed (71.2 % P = 0.014) accompanied with abnormal dopamine, abnormal Electroencephalogram (EEG) and increasing the severity of autistic behaviour. As regards the haplotypes, CC/VM/CG block was significantly distributed among the autistic subjects (30.8%) presented with low mean dopamine level (15.8 +/- 4.7 pg/ml, p = 0.05), while CC/MM/CC were presented with high mean level (77.8 +/- 8.6 pg/ml, p = 0.05). Evidence is currently limited and preliminary, further studies are necessary in order to set up a coherent dopaminergic model of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which would further pave the way for an adequate treatment.

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7. McDonald NM, Senturk D, Scheffler A, Brian JA, Carver LJ, Charman T, Chawarska K, Curtin S, Hertz-Piccioto I, Jones EJH, Klin A, Landa R, Messinger DS, Ozonoff S, Stone WL, Tager-Flusberg H, Webb SJ, Young G, Zwaigenbaum L, Jeste SS. Developmental Trajectories of Infants With Multiplex Family Risk for Autism : A Baby Siblings Research Consortium Study. JAMA Neurol ;2019 (Oct 7)

Importance : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with different genetic etiologies. Prospective examination of familial-risk infants informs understanding of developmental trajectories preceding ASD diagnosis, potentially improving early detection. Objective : To compare outcomes and trajectories associated with varying familial risk for ASD across the first 3 years of life. Design, Setting, and Participants : This longitudinal, prospective cohort study used data from 11 sites in the Baby Siblings Research Consortium database. Data were collected between 2003 and 2015. Infants who were younger siblings of children with ASD were followed up for 3 years. Analyses were conducted in April 2018. Of the initial 1008 infants from the database, 573 were removed owing to missing necessary data, diagnostic discrepancies, or only having 1 older sibling. Exposures : Number of siblings with ASD. Main Outcomes and Measures : Outcomes included ASD symptoms, cognitive abilities, and adaptive skills. Diagnosis (ASD or no ASD) was given at 36-month outcome. The no-ASD group was classified as atypical (developmental delays and/or social-communication concerns) or typical for some analyses. Generalized linear mixed models examined developmental trajectories by ASD outcome and familial-risk group. Results : In the 435 analyzed participants (age range at outcome, 32-43 months ; 246 male [57%]), 355 (82%) were from single-incidence families (1 sibling with ASD and >/=1 sibling without ASD) and 80 (18%) were from multiplex families (>/=2 siblings with ASD). There were no significant group differences in major demographics. Children from multiplex families were more likely than those from single-incidence families to be classified as having ASD (29 of 80 [36%] vs 57 of 355 [16%] ; 95% CI, 9%-31% ; P < .001) and less likely as typical (26 of 80 [33%] vs 201 of 355 [57%] ; 95% CI, -36% to -13% ; P < .001), with similar rates of atypical classifications (25 of 80 [31%] vs 97 of 355 [27%] ; 95% CI, -7% to 15% ; P = .49). There were no differences in ASD symptoms between multiplex and single-incidence groups after controlling for ASD outcome (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.20 ; P = .18). During infancy, differences in cognitive and adaptive abilities were observed based on ASD outcome in the single-incidence group only. At 36 months, the multiplex/no-ASD group had lower cognitive abilities than the single-incidence/no-ASD group (95% CI, -11.89 to -2.20 ; P = .02), and the multiplex group had lower adaptive abilities than individuals in the single-incidence group after controlling for ASD outcome (95% CI, -9.01 to -1.48 ; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance : Infants with a multiplex family history of ASD should be monitored early and often and referred for early intervention at the first sign of concern. Direct examination of genetic contributions to neurodevelopmental phenotypes in infants with familial risk for ASD is needed.

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8. Will EA, Bishop SL, Roberts JE. Developmental divergence : motor trajectories in children with fragile X syndrome with and without co-occurring autism. J Neurodev Disord ;2019 (Oct 5) ;11(1):23.

BACKGROUND : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly prevalent in fragile X syndrome (FXS), affecting 50-70% of males. Motor impairments are a shared feature across autism and FXS that may help to better characterize autism in FXS. As motor skills provide a critical foundation for various language, cognitive, and social outcomes, they may serve an important mechanistic role for autism in FXS. As such, this study aimed to identify differences in motor trajectories across direct assessment and parent-report measures of fine and gross motor development between FXS with and without autism, and typical development, while controlling for cognitive functioning. METHODS : This prospective longitudinal study included 42 children with FXS, 24 of whom also had ASD (FXS + ASD), as well as 40 typically developing children. The Mullen Scales of Early Learning provided a direct measure of fine and gross motor skills, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales provided a measure of parent-reported fine and gross motor skills. Random slopes and random intercepts multilevel models were tested to determine divergence in developmental motor trajectories between groups when controlling for cognitive level. RESULTS : Model results indicated the children with FXS + ASD diverged from TD children by 9-months on all measures of gross and fine motor skills, even when controlling for cognitive level. Results also indicated an early divergence in motor trajectories of fine and gross motor skills between the FXS + ASD and FXS groups when controlling for cognitive level. This divergence was statistically significant by 18 months, with the FXS + ASD showing decelerated growth in motor skills across direct observation and parent-report measures. CONCLUSIONS : This study is the first to examine longitudinal trends in motor development in children with FXS with and without comorbid ASD using both direct assessment and parent-report measures of fine and gross motor. Furthermore, it is among the first to account for nonverbal cognitive delays, a step towards elucidating the isolated role of motor impairments in FXS with and without ASD. Findings underscore the role of motor impairments as a possible signal representing greater underlying genetic liability, or as a potential catalyst or consequence, of co-occurring autism in FXS.

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9. Yoshida H, Cirino P, Mire SS, Burling JM, Lee S. Parents’ gesture adaptations to children with autism spectrum disorder. J Child Lang ;2019 (Oct 7):1-20.

The present study focused on parents’ social cue use in relation to young children’s attention. Participants were ten parent-child dyads ; all children were 36 to 60 months old and were either typically developing (TD) or were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children wore a head-mounted camera that recorded the proximate child view while their parent played with them. The study compared the following between the TD and ASD groups : (a) frequency of parent’s gesture use ; (b) parents’ monitoring of their child’s face ; and (c) how children looked at parents’ gestures. Results from Bayesian estimation indicated that, compared to the TD group, parents of children with ASD produced more gestures, more closely monitored their children’s faces, and provided more scaffolding for their children’s visual experiences. Our findings suggest the importance of further investigating parents’ visual and gestural scaffolding as a potential developmental mechanism for children’s early learning, including for children with ASD.

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