Pubmed du 08/10/19

mardi 8 octobre 2019

1. Cheung CC, Rong Y, Chen F, Leung MT, Tang TPY. Comprehension of presupposition triggers in cantonese-speaking children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Clin Linguist Phon ;2019 (Oct 7):1-19.

Built on a previous finding that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had difficulty comprehending presuppositions, a domain of knowledge which is crucial for successful communication, the present study investigated the comprehension of seven types of presupposition trigger - namely definite descriptions, factive predicates, change-of-state verbs, implicative verbs, iteratives, temporal clauses, and counterfactual conditionals - in Cantonese-speaking children with and without ASD. Twenty-seven children with ASD (mean age 9.07) were compared with 23 typically developing (TD) children matched on chronological age and 21 TD children matched on language ability (LA). Knowledge of presupposition triggers was evaluated on the basis of children’s ability to judge whether a given utterance was a correct presupposition of a preceding utterance. Children with ASD were found to perform significantly worse than TD children matched on chronological age in comprehending the seven types of presupposition trigger, but they performed similarly to TD children matched on language ability. After the effects of chronological age, language ability, and non-verbal intelligence were controlled for, children with ASD were still found to show a deficit in comprehending the presupposition triggered by a temporal clause, relative to the two groups of TD children. Future studies should investigate the factors contributing to this specific deficit in children with ASD, such as executive functioning and theory of mind.

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2. Corbett BA, Ioannou S, Key AP, Coke C, Muscatello R, Vandekar S, Muse I. Treatment Effects in Social Cognition and Behavior following a Theater-based Intervention for Youth with Autism. Dev Neuropsychol ;2019 (Oct 7):1-14.

This randomized clinical trial ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ID# NCT02276534) examined the impact of a peer-mediated, theater-based social skills intervention, SENSE Theater(R), on social cognition and behavior in 77 youth (ages 8-16) with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Analysis of Covariance models revealed that post-treatment, the experimental group (n = 44) performed significantly better than the controls (n = 33) on NEPSY theory of mind (verbal) subtest, demonstrated increased neural evidence of memory for faces, and engaged in more cooperative play and verbal interaction with novel peers. The study extends previous findings showing that SENSE Theater(R) contributes to improvement in social cognition and behavior.

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3. Elkhatib Smidt SD, Lu F, Rao SR, Asato M, Handen BL. Primary caregiver education level and sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Sleep Res ;2019 (Oct 7):e12932.

In children with autism spectrum disorder, there have been equivocal results regarding primary caregiver education level and its influence on sleep. Thus, we assessed if lower primary caregiver education level is associated with more sleep problems. We evaluated 4,636 children with autism spectrum disorder in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network’s United States and Canadian registry, whose caregivers completed the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Using regression analysis, there was an association between lower primary caregiver education level and more sleep problems. Secondary analyses demonstrated that younger age, Hispanic ethnicity, higher IQ, autism diagnosis and lower adaptive function were also associated with more sleep problems. The finding that lower primary caregiver education level was associated with increased sleep problems in a large sample of children with autism spectrum disorder highlights the importance of screening for risk factors affecting sleep to help moderate sleep problems.

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4. McDonald NM, Senturk D, Scheffler A, Brian JA, Carver LJ, Charman T, Chawarska K, Curtin S, Hertz-Piccioto I, Jones EJH, Klin A, Landa R, Messinger DS, Ozonoff S, Stone WL, Tager-Flusberg H, Webb SJ, Young G, Zwaigenbaum L, Jeste SS. Developmental Trajectories of Infants With Multiplex Family Risk for Autism : A Baby Siblings Research Consortium Study. JAMA Neurol ;2019 (Oct 7)

Importance : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with different genetic etiologies. Prospective examination of familial-risk infants informs understanding of developmental trajectories preceding ASD diagnosis, potentially improving early detection. Objective : To compare outcomes and trajectories associated with varying familial risk for ASD across the first 3 years of life. Design, Setting, and Participants : This longitudinal, prospective cohort study used data from 11 sites in the Baby Siblings Research Consortium database. Data were collected between 2003 and 2015. Infants who were younger siblings of children with ASD were followed up for 3 years. Analyses were conducted in April 2018. Of the initial 1008 infants from the database, 573 were removed owing to missing necessary data, diagnostic discrepancies, or only having 1 older sibling. Exposures : Number of siblings with ASD. Main Outcomes and Measures : Outcomes included ASD symptoms, cognitive abilities, and adaptive skills. Diagnosis (ASD or no ASD) was given at 36-month outcome. The no-ASD group was classified as atypical (developmental delays and/or social-communication concerns) or typical for some analyses. Generalized linear mixed models examined developmental trajectories by ASD outcome and familial-risk group. Results : In the 435 analyzed participants (age range at outcome, 32-43 months ; 246 male [57%]), 355 (82%) were from single-incidence families (1 sibling with ASD and >/=1 sibling without ASD) and 80 (18%) were from multiplex families (>/=2 siblings with ASD). There were no significant group differences in major demographics. Children from multiplex families were more likely than those from single-incidence families to be classified as having ASD (29 of 80 [36%] vs 57 of 355 [16%] ; 95% CI, 9%-31% ; P < .001) and less likely as typical (26 of 80 [33%] vs 201 of 355 [57%] ; 95% CI, -36% to -13% ; P < .001), with similar rates of atypical classifications (25 of 80 [31%] vs 97 of 355 [27%] ; 95% CI, -7% to 15% ; P = .49). There were no differences in ASD symptoms between multiplex and single-incidence groups after controlling for ASD outcome (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.20 ; P = .18). During infancy, differences in cognitive and adaptive abilities were observed based on ASD outcome in the single-incidence group only. At 36 months, the multiplex/no-ASD group had lower cognitive abilities than the single-incidence/no-ASD group (95% CI, -11.89 to -2.20 ; P = .02), and the multiplex group had lower adaptive abilities than individuals in the single-incidence group after controlling for ASD outcome (95% CI, -9.01 to -1.48 ; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance : Infants with a multiplex family history of ASD should be monitored early and often and referred for early intervention at the first sign of concern. Direct examination of genetic contributions to neurodevelopmental phenotypes in infants with familial risk for ASD is needed.

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5. Mobasheri L, Moossavi SZ, Esmaeili A, Mohammadoo-Khorasani M, Sarab GA. Association between vitamin D receptor gene FokI and TaqI variants with autism spectrum disorder predisposition in Iranian population. Gene ;2019 (Oct 4):144133.

BACKGROUND AND AIM : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the neurodevelopmental and cognitive conditions that involves 1 in 160 children around the world. Several studies showed that there is a relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms with the neurodevelopmental behavioral disorders. In the current study, we aimed to highlight the association of VDR gene polymorphisms (FokI and TaqI) with the risk of autism in Birjand population. MATERIAL AND METHODS : In this case-control study eighty-one patients recognized with ASD and one hundred-eight healthy controls were recruited to the study from 2017 to 2018. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique for all subjects. RESULTS : Calculated odds ratio and P-value for the alleles of VDR gene FokI and TaqI variants between autistic patients and controls did not show a significant difference (P>0.05). However, calculated homozygous recessive (tt) for TaqI polymorphism was statistically significant (P=0.015) in control group and there was also statistically meaningful difference in both case and control groups in ft haplotype (P=0.04). CONCLUSION : These results provide preliminary evidence that genetic variants of the VDR gene (FokI and TaqI) might have a possible reduced risk of ASD occurrence in children. The additional examination is needed to acquire more decisive and precise results in this area.

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6. Yoshida H, Cirino P, Mire SS, Burling JM, Lee S. Parents’ gesture adaptations to children with autism spectrum disorder. J Child Lang ;2019 (Oct 7):1-20.

The present study focused on parents’ social cue use in relation to young children’s attention. Participants were ten parent-child dyads ; all children were 36 to 60 months old and were either typically developing (TD) or were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children wore a head-mounted camera that recorded the proximate child view while their parent played with them. The study compared the following between the TD and ASD groups : (a) frequency of parent’s gesture use ; (b) parents’ monitoring of their child’s face ; and (c) how children looked at parents’ gestures. Results from Bayesian estimation indicated that, compared to the TD group, parents of children with ASD produced more gestures, more closely monitored their children’s faces, and provided more scaffolding for their children’s visual experiences. Our findings suggest the importance of further investigating parents’ visual and gestural scaffolding as a potential developmental mechanism for children’s early learning, including for children with ASD.

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