Pubmed du 15/01/10

vendredi 15 janvier 2010

1. Baron-Cohen S, Auyeung B, Ashwin E, Knickmeyer R. Fetal testosterone and autistic traits : a response to three fascinating commentaries. Br J Psychol ;2009 (Feb) ;100(Pt 1):39-47.

This article is an author response to three previous commentaries on ’Fetal testosterone and autistic traits’ (Auyeung et al., 2009).

2. Fernandes FD, Cardoso C, Sassi FC, Amato CL, Sousa-Morato PF. Language therapy and autism : results of three different models. Pro Fono ;2008 (Oct-Dec) ;20(4):267-272.

BACKGROUND : language and communication disorders are essential features of the autistic spectrum disorders, and are part of the diagnostic criteria. AIM : to verify the existence of observable differences in the functional communicative profile and in the social cognitive performance of autistic children and adolescents receiving language therapy in three different situations. Assessment focused on the period of modified intervention and on the following period. METHOD : subjects were children and adolescents with psychiatric diagnosis within the autistic spectrum. Participants were divided in three groups according to the intervention received during a period of six months. RESULTS : determined observable differences, but not statistically significant. The group that presented the most progress was the one in which the subjects received therapy in pairs. The fact that none of groups presented a decrease in their progress indicators, as well as the fact that in a few situations the number of subjects who presented progress increased after this period was not expected. CONCLUSION : the results of the present study reinforce that the procedures used to determine the individual abilities and inabilities were useful in planning the intervention procedures.

3. Gomes E, Pedroso FS, Wagner MB. Auditory hypersensitivity in the autistic spectrum disorder. Pro Fono ;2008 (Oct-Dec) ;20(4):279-284.

BACKGROUND : auditory hypersensitivity in the autistic spectrum disorder has been described in the literature since the very first reports. However, this symptom has not been sufficiently explored, especially regarding possible causes, diagnosis and consequences. AIM : to study sensory-perceptual abnormalities in the autistic spectrum disorder, emphasizing auditory hypersensitivity and to discuss their effects in speech therapy based on the literature found until September 2007 in the following database : Scielo, Lilacs, Web of Science, and Medline. CONCLUSION : sensory-perceptual abnormalities are present in approximately 90% of individuals with autism ; no theory has been found to explain this fact. Although the cause of auditory hypersensitivity remains unknown, it is the most common sensory-perceptual abnormality—its prevalence ranges between 15% to 100%. A few rare studies exist on behavioral, electroacoustic and electrophysiological hearing evaluation of autistic children ; these studies discuss auditory hypersensitivity. The early diagnosis of this alteration is considered relevant for the possible identification of atypical sensorial markers, especially in hearing and for the better understanding of their impact on the development of communication in autistic individuals.

4. Menezes CG, Perissinoto J. Joint attention ability in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Pro Fono ;2008 (Oct-Dec) ;20(4):273-279.

BACKGROUND : joint attention in children with autistic spectrum disorders. AIM : to evaluate joint attention ability in subjects with autistic spectrum disorders in different contexts and with different interlocutors. METHOD : twenty subjects with ages between four and twelve years, diagnosed with autism or asperger syndrome (DSM-IV-TR, 2002) by a multidisciplinary team, with no associated disorders, and who were enrolled in language therapy for at least six months were assessed. The Symbolic Maturity Assessment Test was used to evaluate joint attention behaviors. An adaptation that included the Semi-Structured Play situations was carried out for this research. For all of the studied situations (free play ; semi-structured play with speech and language therapist and the caregiver ; imitation) the following joint attention behaviors were observed : alternate, point, show (by child’s initiative or in response to adult’s action) and look at adult’s action (response behavior). The last included the differentiation of the ways by which the adult drew the child’s attention (talking ; gesturing ; or both). RESULTS : the different situations changed the way these subjects shared attention. The adult’s intervention proved to be effective in triggering an increase in the occurrence of joint attention behaviors, mainly in response to the adult. No differences were found between interlocutors (speech therapist and mother) in semi-structured situations, probably because both interlocutors synchronized their behaviors with the children. CONCLUSION : the evaluation of joint attention behaviors in play contexts was effective and the interference of a known adult was reflected in the increase of the occurrence of these behaviors in semi-structured and imitation situations.

5. Noonan SK, Haist F, Muller RA. Aberrant functional connectivity in autism : evidence from low-frequency BOLD signal fluctuations. Brain Res ;2009 (Mar 25) ;1262:48-63.

A number of recent studies have examined functional connectivity in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), generally converging on the finding of reduced interregional coordination, or underconnectivity. Underconnectivity has been reported between many brain regions and across a range of cognitive tasks, and has been proposed to underlie behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with ASD. The current study employed functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to examine interregional correlations of low-frequency BOLD signal fluctuations in 10 high-functioning participants with ASD and 10 typically developing control participants. Whole-brain connectivity with three seed regions of interest (left middle frontal, left superior parietal, and left middle occipital cortex) was evaluated using fMRI datasets acquired during performance of a source recognition task. While fcMRI patterns were found to be largely similar across the two groups, including many common areas, effects for the ASD group were generally more extensive. These findings, although inconsistent with generalized underconnectivity in ASD, are compatible with a model of aberrant connectivity in which the nature of connectivity disturbance (i.e., increased or reduced) may vary by region. Taking into consideration methodological factors that might influence measured fcMRI effects, we suggest that ASD is associated with an inefficiency in optimizing network connections to achieve task performance.

6. Ortega F. [Disability, autism and neurodiversity]. Cien Saude Colet ;2009 (Jan-Feb) ;14(1):67-77.Deficiencia, autismo e neurodiversidade.

This article analyzes the emergence of the neurodiversity movement in the context of studies about disabilities and the political organization of disabled people. The neurodiversity movement is organized by the so-called high functioning autists, who believe that autism is not a disease to be treated and, if possible, cured. It is instead a human difference that has to be respected just like other differences (sexual, racial, among others). The activists of the neurodiversity movement oppose the groups of parents of autistic children and professionals seeking for a cure for autism. This article presents the arguments of the pro- and anti-cure groups and analyzes both positions as well as their impact upon the field of health and the development of public policies for autists.

7. Rapin I, Dunn MA, Allen DA, Stevens MC, Fein D. Subtypes of language disorders in school-age children with autism. Dev Neuropsychol ;2009 ;34(1):66-84.

Cluster analysis of test scores on expressive phonology and comprehension of words and sentences in 7-9-year-old children with preschool diagnosis of Autistic Disorder yielded 4 clusters. Cluster 1 (N = 11) : phonology and comprehension both low ; Cluster 2 (N = 4) : phonology low, near average comprehension ; Cluster 3 (N = 40) : average phonology, comprehension low to low average ; Cluster 4 (N = 7) : average or better phonology and comprehension. The clusters support two major types of language disorders in autism driven by impaired expressive phonology, each divisible by comprehension ability. The clusters refute a single language disorder in autism and are consonant with earlier-defined clinical subtypes.

8. Sullivan KM. Iodine deficiency as a cause of autism. J Neurol Sci ;2009 (Jan 15) ;276(1-2):202 ; author reply 203.


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