Pubmed du 20/10/19

dimanche 20 octobre 2019

1. Al-Batayneh OB, Nazer TS, Khader YS, Owais AI. Effectiveness of a tooth-brushing programme using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) on gingival health of children with autism spectrum disorders. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent ;2019 (Oct 18)

PURPOSE : The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a communication system for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a PECS-based tooth-brushing programme on gingival health in children with ASD and assess parents’ perception of PECS. METHODS : This was a prospective interventional study. Using PECS as a pictures/cards series showing a structured tooth-brushing method, 37 children with ASD (31 males, 6 females) (average age 9.49 +/- 4.10, 4-16 years) and their parents/caregivers were trained on tooth-brushing twice, 2 weeks apart. Data collected after examinations (baseline, 3, 6-months) included gingival and plaque indices (GI, PI) and two questionnaires (baseline, 6-months) for demographic data and parents’ perception of PECS including difficulty rating (easy, hard, very hard) and PECS usefulness. RESULTS : Most children with ASD had language abilities (64.9%) and prior PECS use (67.6%). Both GI and PI significantly dropped between baseline and both re-evaluations, (P < 0.001). Age, among studied factors, significantly affected PI only at all stages (P < 0.001). Most parents/caregivers (75.7%) rated PECS as hard, but useful (100%). Age and PECS prior use significantly affected PECS difficulty rating (P = 0.000 and 0.031, respectively), while sex did not (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION : PECS though rated as hard was useful in improving gingival health in children with ASD.

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2. Dell’Osso L, Carpita B, Bertelloni CA, Diadema E, Barberi FM, Gesi C, Carmassi C. Subthreshold autism spectrum in bipolar disorder : Prevalence and clinical correlates. Psychiatry Res ;2019 (Oct 7) ;281:112605.

BACKGROUND : While few previous studies highlighted a higher prevalence of autistic traits among adults with Bipolar Disorder (BD), little is known about their clinical significance in this population. METHOD : 143 subjects with BD were enrolled at the adult psychiatric inpatient clinic of the University of Pisa. Assessments included the SCID-5, the MOODS-SR, the AQ and the AdAS Spectrum. RESULTS : 42.7% of the sample scored positively for significant levels of autistic traits. Subjects with high autistic traits showed a greater likelihood of a very early onset of BD, greater length of current in-hospital stay, significantly higher rates of anxiety disorders and lower rates of substance use disorders compared to patients with low autistic traits. They also show significantly greater depressive symptoms and suicidality across the lifetime. Suicidality was associated with the altered responsiveness to sensory input and inversely related to adherence to routine and inflexibility. CONCLUSION : The study is a first exploration of the clinical significance of autistic traits among BD patients. Our results highlight the clinical significance of autistic traits in patients with BD, supporting the usefulness of a dimensional approach to the autism spectrum.

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3. Kordulewska NK, Kostyra E, Piskorz-Ogorek K, Moszynska M, Cieslinska A, Fiedorowicz E, Jarmolowska B. Serum cytokine levels in children with spectrum autism disorder : Differences in pro- and anti-inflammatory balance. J Neuroimmunol ;2019 (Sep 15) ;337:577066.

BACKGROUND : Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is a developmental and neurological disorder that affects all aspects of social communication, with limited and stereotypical interest, and atypical responses to sensory stimuli. Diagnosis of ASD is currently phenotype based with no reliable laboratory test available to assist clinicians. Researches have shown that individuals with autism often exhibit dysfunction of cytokines. METHODS : A total of 42 patients with ASD and 20 matched controls participants were recruited for the study. Diagnosis was conducted by medical specialists and based on the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders - ICD-10, DSM-5 and CARS sore. Whole blood samples were collected and serum IL’s and chemokin levels were made using ELISA kits. RESULTS : Results demonstrated that in comparison to the controls, the individuals with autism showed significantly higher concentration of IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-13. We also demonstrated significant correlations between the levels of cytokines which implies the presence of an interactive network between them. The results of ROC analysis indicated the 4-factors (IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-13) could be potential biomarkers in diagnosis of ASD. CONCLUSIONS : In this study, serum levels of cytokine differed among children with ASD. However, the findings of this support the possibility of using an appropriate selection of serum cytokine for the diagnosis ASD and emphasize the need to standardize quantitative methods for serum analysis.

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4. Oudin A, Frondelius K, Haglund N, Kallen K, Forsberg B, Gustafsson P, Malmqvist E. Prenatal exposure to air pollution as a potential risk factor for autism and ADHD. Environ Int ;2019 (Oct 16) ;133(Pt A):105149.

Genetic and environmental factors both contribute to the development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). One suggested environmental risk factor for ASD and ADHD is air pollution, but knowledge of its effects, especially in low-exposure areas, are limited. Here, we investigate risks for ASD and ADHD associated with prenatal exposure to air pollution in an area with air pollution levels generally well below World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines. We used an epidemiological database (MAPSS) consisting of virtually all (99%) children born between 1999 and 2009 (48,571 births) in the study area, in southern Sweden. MAPSS consists of data on modelled nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels derived from a Gaussian dispersion model ; maternal residency during pregnancy ; perinatal factors collected from a regional birth registry ; and socio-economic factors extracted from Statistics Sweden. All ASD and ADHD diagnoses in our data were undertaken at the Malmo and Lund Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, using standardized diagnostic instruments. We used logistic regression analyses to obtain estimates of the risk of developing ASD and ADHD associated with different air pollution levels, with adjustments for potential perinatal and socio-economic confounders. In this longitudinal cohort study, we found associations between air pollution exposure during the prenatal period and and the risk of developing ASD. For example, an adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.40 and its 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (95% CI : 1.02-1.93) were found when comparing the fourth with the first quartile of NOx exposure. We did not find similar associations on the risk of developing ADHD. This study contributes to the growing evidence of a link between prenatal exposure to air pollution and autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that prenatal exposure even below current WHO air quality guidelines may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders.

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