Pubmed du 21/10/19

lundi 21 octobre 2019

1. Bottema-Beutel K, Cuda J, Kim SY, Crowley S, Scanlon D. High School Experiences and Support Recommendations of Autistic Youth. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Oct 19)

We used an online survey to gather perspectives of autistic youth (n = 248) on the impacts of autism, school professionals, family members, and peers on their high school experiences ; what each stakeholder group could have done better ; and what future high school professionals and autistic youth should know. Two-thirds of participants viewed autism as negatively impacting their school experience, and this was more prevalent in women. The majority viewed impacts of school professionals, family, and peers as positive. Women were more likely to view school professional contributions as positive than men, and LGBT youth were more likely to view school professional and peer contributions as negative than non-LGBT youth. Suggestions for stakeholders included providing more help, care, and quality time.

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2. Dajani D, Burrows C, Nebel MB, Mostofsky S, Gates K, Uddin LQ. Parsing heterogeneity in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with individual connectome mapping. Brain Connect ;2019 (Oct 21)

Traditional diagnostic systems for neurodevelopmental disorders define diagnostic categories that are heterogeneous in behavior and underlying neurobiological alterations. The goal of this study was to parse heterogeneity in a core executive function, cognitive flexibility, in children with a range of abilities (N=132 ; children with autism spectrum disorder [ASD], attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], and typically developing [TD] children) using directed functional connectivity profiles derived from resting-state fMRI data. Brain regions activated in response to a cognitive flexibility task in adults were used to guide region-of-interest (ROI) selection to estimate individual connectivity profiles in this study. We expected to find subgroups of children who differed in their network connectivity metrics and symptom measures. Unexpectedly, we did not find a stable or valid subgrouping solution, which suggests that categorical models of the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility in children may be invalid. Exploratory analyses revealed dimensional associations between network connectivity metrics and ADHD symptomatology and executive function ability across the entire sample. Results shed light on the validity of conceptualizing the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility categorically in children. Ultimately, this work may provide a foundation for the development of a revised nosology focused on neurobiological substrates as an alternative to traditional symptom-based classification systems.

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3. Hong M, Lee SM, Park S, Yoon SJ, Kim YE, Oh IH. Prevalence and Economic Burden of Autism Spectrum Disorder in South Korea Using National Health Insurance Data from 2008 to 2015. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Oct 19)

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing worldwide. We investigated the economic burden of ASD in South Korea using a nationally representative data source. The direct medical and non-medical costs, and indirect costs resulting from ASD were estimated. The total prevalence was 5.04 (per 100,000) in 2008, and 10.97 in 2015. The economic cost of ASD was estimated to be $2,700,596 in 2008 and $9,645,503 in 2015. Of the total economic cost in 2015, 72.3% was from direct costs and 27.7% from indirect costs, and 87.5% related to male patients and 12.5% to female patients. The results suggest that the increase in economic costs was greater than the increase in prevalence.

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4. Karaminis T, Arrighi R, Forth G, Burr D, Pellicano E. Adaptation to the Speed of Biological Motion in Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Oct 19)

Autistic individuals often present atypicalities in adaptation-the continuous recalibration of perceptual systems driven by recent sensory experiences. Here, we examined such atypicalities in human biological motion. We used a dual-task paradigm, including a running-speed discrimination task (’comparing the speed of two running silhouettes’) and a change-detection task (’detecting fixation-point shrinkages’) assessing attention. We tested 19 school-age autistic and 19 age- and ability-matched typical participants, also recording eye-movements. The two groups presented comparable speed-discrimination abilities and, unexpectedly, comparable adaptation. Accuracy in the change-detection task and the scatter of eye-fixations around the fixation point were also similar across groups. Yet, the scatter of fixations reliably predicted the magnitude of adaptation, demonstrating the importance of controlling for attention in adaptation studies.

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5. Serdarevic F, Tiemeier H, Jansen PR, Alemany S, Xerxa Y, Neumann A, Robinson E, Hillegers MHJ, Verhulst FC, Ghassabian A. Polygenic Risk Scores for Developmental Disorders, Neuromotor Functioning During Infancy, and Autistic Traits in Childhood. Biol Psychiatry ;2019 (Jun 18)

BACKGROUND : Impaired neuromotor development is often one of the earliest observations in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated whether a genetic predisposition to developmental disorders was associated with nonoptimal neuromotor development during infancy and examined the genetic correlation between nonoptimal neuromotor development and autistic traits in the general population. METHODS : In a population-based cohort in The Netherlands (2002-2006), we calculated polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using genome-wide association study summary statistics. In 1921 children with genetic data, parents rated autistic traits at 6 years of age. Among them, 1174 children (61.1%) underwent neuromotor examinations (tone, responses, senses, and other observations) during infancy (9-20 weeks of age). We used linear regressions to examine associations of PRSs with neuromotor scores and autistic traits. We performed a bivariate genome-based restricted maximum likelihood analysis to explore whether genetic susceptibility underlies the association between neuromotor development and autistic traits. RESULTS : Higher PRSs for ASD were associated with less optimal overall infant neuromotor development, in particular low muscle tone. Higher PRSs for ADHD were associated with less optimal senses. PRSs for ASD and those for ADHD both were associated with autistic traits. The single nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of overall motor development was 20% (SE = .21) and of autistic traits was 68% (SE = .26). The genetic correlation between overall motor development and autistic traits was .35 (SE = .21, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS : We found that genetic liabilities for ASD and ADHD covary with neuromotor development during infancy. Shared genetic liability might partly explain the association between nonoptimal neuromotor development during infancy and autistic traits in childhood.

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6. van Leeuwen TM, van Petersen E, Burghoorn F, Dingemanse M, van Lier R. Autistic traits in synaesthesia : atypical sensory sensitivity and enhanced perception of details. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ;2019 (Dec 9) ;374(1787):20190024.

In synaesthetes, specific sensory stimuli (e.g. black letters) elicit additional experiences (e.g. colour). Synaesthesia is highly prevalent among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the mechanisms of this co-occurrence are not clear. We hypothesized autism and synaesthesia share atypical sensory sensitivity and perception. We assessed autistic traits, sensory sensitivity and visual perception in two synaesthete populations. In Study 1, synaesthetes (N = 79, of different types) scored higher than non-synaesthetes (N = 76) on the Attention-to-detail and Social skills subscales of the autism spectrum quotient indexing autistic traits, and on the Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire indexing sensory hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity which frequently occur in autism. Synaesthetes performed two local/global visual tasks because individuals with autism typically show a bias towards detail processing. In synaesthetes, elevated motion coherence thresholds (MCTs) suggested reduced global motion perception, and higher accuracy on an embedded figures task suggested enhanced local perception. In Study 2, sequence-space synaesthetes (N = 18) completed the same tasks. Questionnaire and embedded figures results qualitatively resembled Study 1 results, but no significant group differences with non-synaesthetes (N = 20) were obtained. Unexpectedly, sequence-space synaesthetes had reduced MCTs. Altogether, our studies suggest atypical sensory sensitivity and a bias towards detail processing are shared features of synaesthesia and ASD. This article is part of the discussion meeting issue ’Bridging senses : novel insights from synaesthesia’.

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7. Wang M, Hossain F, Sulaiman R, Ren X. Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic and Lead and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Chem Res Toxicol ;2019 (Oct 21) ;32(10):1904-1919.

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and lead (Pb) rank first and second on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s priority list of hazardous substances. Both are known neurotoxic metals that cause detrimental effects on brain development and lead to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral performance in children. Studies have indicated a potential link between iAs and Pb exposure and a higher risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To provide further insight into whether developmental exposure to iAs or Pb is associated with ASD, we conducted a systematic review and combined data into a meta-analysis to evaluate the available human evidence on the relationships. We systematically reviewed relevant studies published through December 30, 2018 and identified 14 studies on iAs and 37 studies on Pb exposure and their respective associations with ASD. Among them, 8 (53.3%) and 19 (51.3%) studies reported a positive association for iAs and Pb, respectively, and none reported a sole inverse association. In the following meta-analysis, we found statistically significant higher iAs concentrations, in hair and in blood, for children diagnosed with ASD compared with controls across studies. However, the findings on Pb exposure were inconsistent, with a significant association for hair Pb, no association for urinary Pb, and an inverse association for blood Pb. After considering strengths and limitations of the body of research, we concluded that there is consistent evidence supporting a positive association between early life iAs exposure and diagnosis of ASD and inconsistent evidence for Pb exposure and ASD risk. We believe it is in the best interest of policy makers and the public to reduce exposures to iAs and Pb among pregnant women and children. Further, our research supports the need for large perspective human studies with accurate measurement and determination of the long-term body burden of iAs and Pb exposures to assess the impact of iAs and Pb exposures on ASD risk.

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