Pubmed du 23/10/19

mercredi 23 octobre 2019

1. Crowell C, Sayis B, Benitez JP, Pares N. Mixed Reality, Full-Body Interactive Experience to Encourage Social Initiation for Autism : Comparison with a Control Nondigital Intervention. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ;2019 (Oct 23)

Despite a proliferation in digital intervention tools for autism, many studies lack comparison with standard intervention tools, and are not evaluated with objective and standardized measures. In this article, we present research on the potential of mixed reality (MR) experiences using full-body interaction to foster social initiation behaviors in children with autism while playing with a child without autism, in a face-to-face colocated configuration. The primary goal was to test whether practicing socialization in a virtual environment catered toward individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) could be a way to reduce anxiety while simultaneously forming collaborative behavioral patterns. Building on the results of a preliminary study, this second phase compares our system with a typical LEGO social intervention strategy using construction tools and toys as an aid to the psychologist, therapist, or caregiver. Results are based on four data sources : (a) video coding of the externally observed behaviors during the video-recorded play sessions, (b) log files of our system showing the events triggered and the real-time decisions taken, (c) physiologic data (heart rate variability and electrodermal activity) gathered through child-appropriate wearable, (d) and a standardized anxiety questionnaire. The results obtained show that the MR setting generated as many social initiations as the control condition, and no significant difference existed in the reported anxiety levels of the children after playing in the two conditions.

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2. Dow D, Day TN, Kutta TJ, Nottke C, Wetherby AM. Screening for autism spectrum disorder in a naturalistic home setting using the systematic observation of red flags (SORF) at 18-24 months. Autism Res ;2019 (Oct 23)

The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Systematic Observation of Red Flags (SORF ; Dow et al., 2016) as a level 2 screener for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers during a naturalistic video-recorded home observation. Psychometric properties of the SORF were examined in a sample of 228 toddlers-84 with ASD, 82 with developmental delay (DD), and 62 with typical development (TD). Trained undergraduate research assistants blind to diagnosis rated 22 red flags (RF) of ASD associated with DSM-5 diagnostic criteria using a 4-point scale. The following scores were computed : a total score summing all items, domain scores summing social communication and restricted, repetitive behavior items, and number of RF counting items with scores of 2 or 3 indicating clear symptom presence. The performance of the total, domain, and RF scores and individual items were examined. A composite score was formed with six items with the best psychometric performance : poor eye gaze directed to faces, limited showing and pointing, limited coordination of nonverbal communication, less interest in people than objects, repetitive use of objects, and excessive interest in particular objects, actions, or activities. The 6-item composite provides a brief measure with optimal performance, while the RF may be instrumental for clinicians who are interested in characterizing the range of observed symptoms. The SORF shows promise as a practical alternative to currently available screening methods for implementation by nonexperts with the potential to increase feasibility and reduce common obstacles to access to care. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Research suggests that current autism spectrum disorder (ASD) screening tools are not accurate enough to use in routine screening. The Systematic Observation of Red Flags was developed as a practical option for children at high risk for ASD. It can be used with video-recorded samples of parent-child interactions in the home and by raters who are not experts in ASD. It shows promise in predicting ASD risk in toddlers to determine if a full diagnostic evaluation is necessary.

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3. Ferguson A, Vigil DC. A comparison of the ASD experience of low-SES hispanic and non-hispanic white parents. Autism Res ;2019 (Oct 22)

This study compared the experiences of Hispanic families, who were primarily of Mexican heritage, and non-Hispanic White families from the United States both from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds having a child with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that Hispanic children are diagnosed with ASD 2 years later than non-Hispanic White children [Baio et al., MMWR Surveillance Summaries 2018:67(SS-6) : 1-23]. However, there has been limited investigation in exploring how SES might impact both diagnosis and experience. A survey of basic demographic information and a qualitative survey were used for this study. Basic demographic information obtained included SES, parent educational level, age of diagnosis of the children, religious affiliation, and marital status. Hour-long interviews were conducted to gather information about the personal experiences of these families relating to diagnoses and treatment. Comparative results of basic demographic information showed no difference in age of diagnosis between the two groups when SES was controlled. Although SES was controlled, the non-Hispanic White families had a higher education level and were slightly wealthier. Qualitatively, similarities included family support, doctor response to parent concerns, and acceptance of diagnosis by family members and friends. Differences included religious views, acceptance of diagnosis, knowledge of developmental milestones, and finding resources. Most significantly, the findings indicate no difference in the age of diagnosis of ASD between the Hispanic and non-Hispanic White children, which could be attributed to increased awareness and having access to a proactive parent organization. Autism Res 2019, 00 : 1-11. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : This study showed that Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White children from poor backgrounds got a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) at the same age. Results show differences in religious views, acceptance of diagnosis, knowledge of milestones, and finding resources. This might be because people are more aware of ASD today and Hispanic families were involved with an active parent organization.

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4. Kalvin CB, Marsh CL, Ibrahim K, Gladstone TR, Woodward D, Grantz H, Ventola P, Sukhodolsky DG. Discrepancies between parent and child ratings of anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res ;2019 (Oct 23)

Co-occurring anxiety is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, inconsistencies across parent and child reports of anxiety may complicate the assessment of anxiety in this population. The present study examined parent and child anxiety ratings in children with ASD with and without anxiety disorders and tested the association between parent-child anxiety rating discrepancy and ASD symptom severity. Participants included children aged 8-16 years in three diagnostic groups : ASD with co-occurring anxiety disorders (ASD + Anxiety ; n = 34), ASD without co-occurring anxiety disorders (ASD ; n = 18), and typically developing healthy controls (TD ; n = 50). Parents and children completed ratings of child anxiety using the Multidimensional Anxiety Rating Scale. Patterns of parent and child anxiety ratings differed among the three groups, with parent ratings exceeding child ratings only in the ASD + Anxiety group. Parents reported higher levels of child anxiety in the ASD + Anxiety versus ASD group, whereas children reported comparable levels of anxiety in the two groups. Among children with ASD, ASD symptom severity was positively associated with the degree to which parent ratings exceeded child ratings. Results suggest that children with ASD and co-occurring anxiety disorders endorse some anxiety symptoms but may underreport overall levels of anxiety. In addition, ASD symptom severity might increase discrepancies in parent-child anxiety ratings. These findings suggest a unique and valuable role of child anxiety ratings and suggest that both parent and child anxiety ratings should be considered in light of children’s ASD symptom severity and used to guide further assessment. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience anxiety ; yet, their perceptions of their anxiety might differ from their parents’ perceptions. This study found that, while children with ASD and anxiety disorders acknowledge some anxiety, their parents report them as having higher levels of anxiety. Also, child and parent perceptions of anxiety may differ more for children with more severe ASD symptoms. How these findings may guide research and clinical practice is discussed.

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5. Khullar V, Singh HP, Bala M. IoT based assistive companion for hypersensitive individuals (ACHI) with autism spectrum disorder. Asian J Psychiatr ;2019 (Sep 27) ;46:92-102.

OBJECTIVE : Today, most of the individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have atypical sensory behaviors. The main aim of this study is to propose an assistive intervention for supporting the overloaded sensory responses in hypersensitive individuals with ASD. METHODS : The vision, auditory, smell, and physical balance related multi-sensors based hardware prototype, namely Assistive Companion for Hypersensitive Individuals (ACHI) has been designed for individuals with ASD. The proposed ACHI prototype is an assistive-technology based companion for hypersensitive individuals with ASD which is able to ’fetch/detect the sensory information using electronic sensors’, ’making the decision using fuzzy logic on the basis of fetched sensory information’ and then, ’transmit the generated information over the internet through the Internet of Things (IoT)’, and also able for ’generating alerts to caregivers’. The proposed design is also capable of providing audio & video feedback to calm down individuals with ASD. RESULTS : After testing, it is observed that 93% percent of the caregivers rated the proposed ACHI intervention on the scale of above average. The remarkable reduction in hyperactive states related triggering incidents in ASD has been found with the use of ACHI. CONCLUSION : The present work and the proposed prototype can identify and control the sensory overload triggers in ASD and it can guide the caregiver or clinicians to optimize the responsible surrounding causes of explosive behavior in ASD and would help the individuals with ASD to become calm.

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6. King BH. Fluoxetine and Repetitive Behaviors in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Jama ;2019 (Oct 22) ;322(16):1557-1558.

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7. Kuhaneck H, Spitzer SL, Bodison SC. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Improve the Occupation of Play in Children With Autism. OTJR (Thorofare N J) ;2019 (Oct 23):1539449219880531.

Play in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often atypical, yet consensus regarding effective occupational therapy strategies for improving play is not established. To examine the efficacy of strategies used in occupational therapy to improve play in ASD, authors completed a systematic review of papers from January 1980 through January 2019. Search terms included autism, Asperger’s, ASD, autistic in combination with play, playfulness, pretend, imagination, praxis, creativity, and generativity. Twenty papers met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed interventions included parent education, modified play materials or environments, imitation of the child, and modeling by an adult, a peer, or video. Moderate to strong support exists for the specific strategies of imitation of the child and modeling for the child, with lesser or mixed support for other strategies. Certain strategies commonly used in occupational therapy may be effective in improving the occupation of play in ASD.

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8. McDaniel J, Woynaroski T, Keceli-Kaysili B, Watson LR, Yoder P. Vocal Communication With Canonical Syllables Predicts Later Expressive Language Skills in Preschool-Aged Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Speech Lang Hear Res ;2019 (Oct 22):1-8.

Purpose We examined associations between vocal communication with canonical syllables and expressive language and then examined 2 potential alternative explanations for such associations. Method Specifically, we tested whether the associations remained when excluding canonical syllables in identifiable words and controlling for the number of communication acts. Participants included 68 preverbal or low verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (M age = 35.26 months). Results Vocal communication with canonical syllables and expressive language were concurrently and longitudinally associated with moderate to strong (R (2)s = .13-.70) and significant (ps < .001) effect sizes. Even when excluding spoken words from the vocal predictor and controlling for the number of communication acts, vocal communication with canonical syllables predicted expressive language. Conclusions The findings provide increased support for measuring vocal communication with canonical syllables and for examining a causal relation between vocal communication with canonical syllables and expressive language in children with ASD who are preverbal or low verbal. In future studies, it may be unnecessary to eliminate identifiable words when measuring vocal communication in this population. Following replication, vocal communication with canonical syllables may be considered when making intervention- planning decisions.

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9. Meeking MM, MacFabe DF, Mepham JR, Foley KA, Tichenoff LJ, Boon FH, Kavaliers M, Ossenkopp KP. Propionic acid induced behavioural effects of relevance to autism spectrum disorder evaluated in the hole board test with rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ;2019 (Oct 19):109794.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal social interactions, impaired language, and stereotypic and repetitive behaviours. Among genetically susceptible subpopulations, gut and dietary influences may play a role in etiology. Propionic acid (PPA), produced by enteric gut bacteria, crosses both the gut-blood and the blood-brain barrier. Previous research has demonstrated that repeated intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of PPA in adult rats produce behavioural and neuropathological changes similar to those seen in ASD patients, including hyperactivity, stereotypy, and repetitive movements. The current study examined dose and time related changes of exploratory and repetitive behaviours with the use of the hole-board task. Adult male Long-Evans rats received ICV infusions twice a day, 4h apart, of either buffered PPA (low dose 0.052M or high dose 0.26M, pH7.5, 4muL/infusion) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 0.1M) for 7 consecutive days. Locomotor activity and hole-poke behaviour were recorded daily in an automated open field apparatus (Versamax), equipped with 16 open wells, for 30min immediately after the second infusion. In a dose dependent manner PPA infused rats displayed significantly more locomotor activity, stereotypic behaviour and nose-pokes than PBS infused rats. Low-dose PPA animals showed locomotor activity levels similar to those of PBS animals at the start of the infusion schedule, but gradually increased to levels comparable to those of high-dose PPA animals by the end of the infusion schedule, demonstrating a dose and time dependent effect of the PPA treatments.

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10. Nakata M, Kimura R, Funabiki Y, Awaya T, Murai T, Hagiwara M. MicroRNA profiling in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Mol Brain ;2019 (Oct 21) ;12(1):82.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. Owing to the difficulty of clinical diagnosis, ASD without intellectual disability (i.e., high-functioning ASD) is often overlooked. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently recognized as potential biomarkers of ASD as they are dysregulated in various tissues of individuals with ASD. However, it remains unclear whether miRNA expression is altered in individuals with high-functioning ASD. Here, we investigated the miRNA expression profile in peripheral blood from adults with high-functioning ASD, and age and gender-matched healthy controls. We identified miR-6126 as being robustly down-regulated in ASD and correlated with the severity of social deficits. Enrichment analysis of predicted target genes revealed potential association with neurons, synapses, and oxytocin signaling pathways. Our findings may provide insights regarding the molecular clues for recognizing high-functioning ASD.

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11. Raatikainen V, Korhonen V, Borchardt V, Huotari N, Helakari H, Kananen J, Raitamaa L, Joskitt L, Loukusa S, Hurtig T, Ebeling H, Uddin LQ, Kiviniemi V. Dynamic lag analysis reveals atypical brain information flow in autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res ;2019 (Oct 22)

This study investigated whole-brain dynamic lag pattern variations between neurotypical (NT) individuals and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by applying a novel technique called dynamic lag analysis (DLA). The use of 3D magnetic resonance encephalography data with repetition time = 100 msec enables highly accurate analysis of the spread of activity between brain networks. Sixteen resting-state networks (RSNs) with the highest spatial correlation between NT individuals (n = 20) and individuals with ASD (n = 20) were analyzed. The dynamic lag pattern variation between each RSN pair was investigated using DLA, which measures time lag variation between each RSN pair combination and statistically defines how these lag patterns are altered between ASD and NT groups. DLA analyses indicated that 10.8% of the 120 RSN pairs had statistically significant (P-value <0.003) dynamic lag pattern differences that survived correction with surrogate data thresholding. Alterations in lag patterns were concentrated in salience, executive, visual, and default-mode networks, supporting earlier findings of impaired brain connectivity in these regions in ASD. 92.3% and 84.6% of the significant RSN pairs revealed shorter mean and median temporal lags in ASD versus NT, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that altered lag patterns indicating atypical spread of activity between large-scale functional brain networks may contribute to the ASD phenotype. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by atypical neurodevelopment. Using an ultra-fast neuroimaging procedure, we investigated communication across brain regions in adults with ASD compared with neurotypical (NT) individuals. We found that ASD individuals had altered information flow patterns across brain regions. Atypical patterns were concentrated in salience, executive, visual, and default-mode network areas of the brain that have previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder.

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12. Reddihough DS, Marraffa C, Mouti A, O’Sullivan M, Lee KJ, Orsini F, Hazell P, Granich J, Whitehouse AJO, Wray J, Dossetor D, Santosh P, Silove N, Kohn M. Effect of Fluoxetine on Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders : A Randomized Clinical Trial. Jama ;2019 (Oct 22) ;322(16):1561-1569.

Importance : Selective serotonin receptor inhibitors are prescribed to reduce the severity of core behaviors of autism spectrum disorders, but their efficacy remains uncertain. Objective : To determine the efficacy of fluoxetine for reducing the frequency and severity of obsessive-compulsive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants : Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants aged 7.5-18 years with autism spectrum disorders and a total score of 6 or higher on the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, modified for pervasive developmental disorder (CYBOCS-PDD) were recruited from 3 tertiary health centers across Australia. Enrollment began November 2010 and ended April 2017. Follow-up ended August 2017. Interventions : Participants were randomized to receive fluoxetine (n = 75) or placebo (n = 71). Study medication was commenced at 4 or 8 mg/d for the first week, depending on weight, and then titrated to a maximum dose of 20 or 30 mg/d over 4 weeks. Treatment duration was 16 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures : The primary outcome was the total score on the CYBOCS-PDD (scores range from 0-20 ; higher scores indicate higher levels of maladaptive behaviors ; minimal clinically important difference, 2 points) at 16 weeks postrandomization, analyzed with a linear regression model adjusted for stratification factors (site, age at baseline, and intellectual disability), with an additional prespecified model that included additional adjustment for baseline score, sex, communication level, and imbalanced baseline and demographic variables. Results : Among the 146 participants who were randomized (85% males ; mean age, 11.2 years), 109 completed the trial ; 31 in the fluoxetine group and 21 in the placebo group dropped out or did not complete treatment. The mean CYBOCS-PDD score from baseline to 16 weeks decreased in the fluoxetine group from 12.80 to 9.02 points (3.72-point decrease ; 95% CI, -4.85 to -2.60) and in the placebo group from 13.13 to 10.89 points (2.53-point decrease ; 95% CI, -3.86 to -1.19). The between-group mean difference at 16 weeks was -2.01 (95% CI, -3.77 to -0.25 ; P = .03) (adjusted for stratification factors), and in the prespecified model with further adjustment, it was -1.17 (95% CI, -3.01 to 0.67 ; P = .21). Conclusions and Relevance : In this preliminary study of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders, treatment with fluoxetine compared with placebo resulted in significantly lower scores for obsessive-compulsive behaviors at 16 weeks. Interpretation is limited by the high dropout rate, null findings of prespecified analyses that accounted for potentially confounding factors and baseline imbalances, and CIs for the treatment effect that included the minimal clinically important difference. Trial Registration : Identifier : ACTRN12608000173392.

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13. Zhao H, Wang Q, Yan T, Zhang Y, Xu HJ, Yu HP, Tu Z, Guo X, Jiang YH, Li XJ, Zhou H, Zhang YQ. Maternal valproic acid exposure leads to neurogenesis defects and autism-like behaviors in non-human primates. Transl Psychiatry ;2019 (Oct 21) ;9(1):267.

Despite the substantial progress made in identifying genetic defects in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the etiology for majority of ASD individuals remains elusive. Maternal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a commonly prescribed antiepileptic drug during pregnancy in human, has long been considered a risk factor to contribute to ASD susceptibility in offspring from epidemiological studies in humans. The similar exposures in murine models have provided tentative evidence to support the finding from human epidemiology. However, the apparent difference between rodent and human poses a significant challenge to extrapolate the findings from rodent models to humans. Here we report for the first time the neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes of maternal VPA exposure in non-human primates. Monkey offspring from the early maternal VPA exposure have significantly reduced NeuN-positive mature neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cerebellum and the Ki67-positive proliferating neuronal precursors in the cerebellar external granular layer, but increased GFAP-positive astrocytes in PFC. Transcriptome analyses revealed that maternal VPA exposure disrupted the expression of genes associated with neurodevelopment in embryonic brain in offspring. VPA-exposed juvenile offspring have variable presentations of impaired social interaction, pronounced stereotypies, and more attention on nonsocial stimuli by eye tracking analysis. Our findings in non-human primates provide the best evidence so far to support causal link between maternal VPA exposure and neurodevelopmental defects and ASD susceptibility in humans.

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