Pubmed du 24/10/19

jeudi 24 octobre 2019

1. Crowell C, Sayis B, Benitez JP, Pares N. Mixed Reality, Full-Body Interactive Experience to Encourage Social Initiation for Autism : Comparison with a Control Nondigital Intervention. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ;2019 (Oct 23)

Despite a proliferation in digital intervention tools for autism, many studies lack comparison with standard intervention tools, and are not evaluated with objective and standardized measures. In this article, we present research on the potential of mixed reality (MR) experiences using full-body interaction to foster social initiation behaviors in children with autism while playing with a child without autism, in a face-to-face colocated configuration. The primary goal was to test whether practicing socialization in a virtual environment catered toward individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) could be a way to reduce anxiety while simultaneously forming collaborative behavioral patterns. Building on the results of a preliminary study, this second phase compares our system with a typical LEGO social intervention strategy using construction tools and toys as an aid to the psychologist, therapist, or caregiver. Results are based on four data sources : (a) video coding of the externally observed behaviors during the video-recorded play sessions, (b) log files of our system showing the events triggered and the real-time decisions taken, (c) physiologic data (heart rate variability and electrodermal activity) gathered through child-appropriate wearable, (d) and a standardized anxiety questionnaire. The results obtained show that the MR setting generated as many social initiations as the control condition, and no significant difference existed in the reported anxiety levels of the children after playing in the two conditions.

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2. Dow D, Day TN, Kutta TJ, Nottke C, Wetherby AM. Screening for autism spectrum disorder in a naturalistic home setting using the systematic observation of red flags (SORF) at 18-24 months. Autism Res ;2019 (Oct 23)

The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Systematic Observation of Red Flags (SORF ; Dow et al., 2016) as a level 2 screener for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers during a naturalistic video-recorded home observation. Psychometric properties of the SORF were examined in a sample of 228 toddlers-84 with ASD, 82 with developmental delay (DD), and 62 with typical development (TD). Trained undergraduate research assistants blind to diagnosis rated 22 red flags (RF) of ASD associated with DSM-5 diagnostic criteria using a 4-point scale. The following scores were computed : a total score summing all items, domain scores summing social communication and restricted, repetitive behavior items, and number of RF counting items with scores of 2 or 3 indicating clear symptom presence. The performance of the total, domain, and RF scores and individual items were examined. A composite score was formed with six items with the best psychometric performance : poor eye gaze directed to faces, limited showing and pointing, limited coordination of nonverbal communication, less interest in people than objects, repetitive use of objects, and excessive interest in particular objects, actions, or activities. The 6-item composite provides a brief measure with optimal performance, while the RF may be instrumental for clinicians who are interested in characterizing the range of observed symptoms. The SORF shows promise as a practical alternative to currently available screening methods for implementation by nonexperts with the potential to increase feasibility and reduce common obstacles to access to care. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Research suggests that current autism spectrum disorder (ASD) screening tools are not accurate enough to use in routine screening. The Systematic Observation of Red Flags was developed as a practical option for children at high risk for ASD. It can be used with video-recorded samples of parent-child interactions in the home and by raters who are not experts in ASD. It shows promise in predicting ASD risk in toddlers to determine if a full diagnostic evaluation is necessary.

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3. Kalvin CB, Marsh CL, Ibrahim K, Gladstone TR, Woodward D, Grantz H, Ventola P, Sukhodolsky DG. Discrepancies between parent and child ratings of anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res ;2019 (Oct 23)

Co-occurring anxiety is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, inconsistencies across parent and child reports of anxiety may complicate the assessment of anxiety in this population. The present study examined parent and child anxiety ratings in children with ASD with and without anxiety disorders and tested the association between parent-child anxiety rating discrepancy and ASD symptom severity. Participants included children aged 8-16 years in three diagnostic groups : ASD with co-occurring anxiety disorders (ASD + Anxiety ; n = 34), ASD without co-occurring anxiety disorders (ASD ; n = 18), and typically developing healthy controls (TD ; n = 50). Parents and children completed ratings of child anxiety using the Multidimensional Anxiety Rating Scale. Patterns of parent and child anxiety ratings differed among the three groups, with parent ratings exceeding child ratings only in the ASD + Anxiety group. Parents reported higher levels of child anxiety in the ASD + Anxiety versus ASD group, whereas children reported comparable levels of anxiety in the two groups. Among children with ASD, ASD symptom severity was positively associated with the degree to which parent ratings exceeded child ratings. Results suggest that children with ASD and co-occurring anxiety disorders endorse some anxiety symptoms but may underreport overall levels of anxiety. In addition, ASD symptom severity might increase discrepancies in parent-child anxiety ratings. These findings suggest a unique and valuable role of child anxiety ratings and suggest that both parent and child anxiety ratings should be considered in light of children’s ASD symptom severity and used to guide further assessment. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience anxiety ; yet, their perceptions of their anxiety might differ from their parents’ perceptions. This study found that, while children with ASD and anxiety disorders acknowledge some anxiety, their parents report them as having higher levels of anxiety. Also, child and parent perceptions of anxiety may differ more for children with more severe ASD symptoms. How these findings may guide research and clinical practice is discussed.

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4. Kuhaneck H, Spitzer SL, Bodison SC. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Improve the Occupation of Play in Children With Autism. OTJR (Thorofare N J) ;2019 (Oct 23):1539449219880531.

Play in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often atypical, yet consensus regarding effective occupational therapy strategies for improving play is not established. To examine the efficacy of strategies used in occupational therapy to improve play in ASD, authors completed a systematic review of papers from January 1980 through January 2019. Search terms included autism, Asperger’s, ASD, autistic in combination with play, playfulness, pretend, imagination, praxis, creativity, and generativity. Twenty papers met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed interventions included parent education, modified play materials or environments, imitation of the child, and modeling by an adult, a peer, or video. Moderate to strong support exists for the specific strategies of imitation of the child and modeling for the child, with lesser or mixed support for other strategies. Certain strategies commonly used in occupational therapy may be effective in improving the occupation of play in ASD.

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5. Machado AF, de Marigny LR, Schlittler LX. Satisfactory response to electroconvulsive therapy in an autistic patient with severe self-injurious behavior. Braz J Psychiatry ;2019 ;41(5):458-459.

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6. Pacifico MC, de Paula CS, Namur VS, Lowenthal R, Bosa CA, Teixeira M. Preliminary evidence of the validity process of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) : translation, cross-cultural adaptation and semantic equivalence of the Brazilian Portuguese version. Trends Psychiatry Psychother ;2019 ;41(3):218-226.

OBJECTIVES : To translate and back-translate the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) into Brazilian Portuguese, to assess its cross-cultural semantic equivalence, and to verify indicators of quality of the final version by analyzing the inter-rater reliability of the ADOS scores. METHODS : This study had three stages : 1) translation and back-translation ; 2) semantic equivalence analysis ; and 3) pre-test to verify the agreement between mental health specialists and an ADOS senior examiner regarding the scoring procedure. Authorization to translate and carry out the cultural adaptation of the instrument was first obtained from the Western Psychological Services, publishers of the instrument. RESULTS : The main preliminary results pointed to good equivalence between the original English version and the final version and the Brazilian version following the cultural adaptation process. Some semantic differences were found between the original version and the back-translation into English, but they did not interfere with the first translation into Portuguese or into the final version. One of the limitations of the study was the small sample size ; for that reason, the inter-rater reliability of the ADOS scores between the specialists and the senior examiner using the kappa coefficient was adequate for 7 out of 10 areas. CONCLUSIONS : We conclude that the creation of an official Brazilian version of ADOS will help to strengthen clinical and scientific research into ASD, and deter the use of other unauthorized versions of ADOS in the country.

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7. Peterson KM, Piazza CC, Ibanez VF, Fisher WW. Randomized controlled trial of an applied behavior analytic intervention for food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Appl Behav Anal ;2019 (Oct) ;52(4):895-917.

Food selectivity is a common problem for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD ; Schreck, Williams, & Smith, 2004). Behavior-analytic interventions have the most empirical support for feeding disorders (Sharp, Jaquess, Morton, & Miles, 2011). However, there are no randomized controlled trials that have evaluated its effects with a well-defined cohort of children with ASD. In the current investigation, we randomly assigned 6 young children with ASD and food selectivity to either an applied behavior analytic intervention or a wait-list control. We used a crossover randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a multicomponent applied behavior analytic intervention on independent acceptance and mouth clean of 16 novel foods. We subsequently exposed the wait-list control group to the intervention. We also evaluated the effects of the intervention on individual participants with single-case designs. The percentage of independent acceptance and mouth clean increased for the applied behavior analytic intervention group, but not for the wait-list control group until we implemented the intervention.

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8. Wagels L, Schneider I, Menke S, Ponge AK, Kohn N, Schneider F, Habel U. Autism and Reactions to Provocation in a Social and Non-social Context. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Oct 22)

Externalizing behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often either reduced or elevated compared to healthy controls (HCs). This study investigated the moderating role of context in ASD by comparing 32 individuals with ASD to 40 HCs during a social and a non-social provocation task. Compared to HCs, individuals with ASD showed similar externalizing behavior in the social context. In the non-social context reactions after provocation were enhanced relative to non-provoking situations. The findings implicate that the context is an important influencing variable when comparing individuals with ASD to HCs after being provoked. Impulsivity, trait aggression and empathy did not predict behavior in the ASD group but were partly related to observed behavior in HCs.

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