Pubmed du 29/10/19

mardi 29 octobre 2019

1. Whitney DG, Shapiro DN. National Prevalence of Pain Among Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders. JAMA Pediatr ;2019 (Oct 28)

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2. Warrier V, Baron-Cohen S. Childhood trauma, life-time self-harm, and suicidal behaviour and ideation are associated with polygenic scores for autism. Mol Psychiatry ;2019 (Oct 29)

Autistic individuals experience significantly elevated rates of childhood trauma, self-harm and suicidal behaviour and ideation (SSBI). Is this purely the result of negative environmental experiences, or does this interact with genetic predisposition ? In this study we investigated if a genetic predisposition for autism is associated with childhood trauma using polygenic scores (PGS) and genetic correlations in the UK Biobank (105,222 < N < 105,638), and tested potential mediators and moderators of the association between autism, childhood trauma and SSBI. Autism PGS were significantly associated with childhood trauma (max R(2) = 0.096%, P < 2 x 10(-16)), self-harm ideation (max R(2) = 0.108%, P < 2 x 10(-16)), and self-harm (max R(2) = 0.13%, P < 2 x 10(-16)). Supporting this, we identified significant genetic correlations between autism and childhood trauma (rg = 0.36 +/- 0.05, P = 8.13 x 10(-11)), self-harm ideation (rg = 0.49 +/- 0.05, P = 4.17 x 10(-21)) and self-harm (rg = 0.48 +/- 0.05, P = 4.58 x 10(-21)), and an over-transmission of PGS for the two SSBI phenotypes from parents to autistic probands. Male sex negatively moderated the effect of autism PGS on childhood trauma (beta = -0.023 +/- 0.005, P = 6.74 x 10(-5)). Further, childhood trauma positively moderated the effect of autism PGS on self-harm score (beta = 8.37 x 10(-3) +/- 2.76 x 10(-3), P = 2.42 x 10(-3)) and self-harm ideation (beta = 7.47 x 10(-3) +/- 2.76 x 10(-3), P = 6.71 x 10(-3)). Finally, depressive symptoms, quality and frequency of social interactions, and educational attainment were significant mediators of the effect of autism PGS on SSBI, with the proportion of effect mediated ranging from 0.23 (95% CI : 0.09-0.32) for depression to 0.008 (95% CI : 0.004-0.01) for educational attainment. Our findings identify that a genetic predisposition for autism is associated with adverse life-time outcomes, which represent complex gene-environment interactions, and prioritizes potential mediators and moderators of this shared biology. It is important to identify sources of trauma for autistic individuals in order to reduce their occurrence and impact.

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3. Soares N, White KE, Christensen RT, Christiansen A, Apple R. Collaborating with Families and Law Enforcement Agencies to Improve Outcomes for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Dev Behav Pediatr ;2019 (Oct 25)

Increased visibility of adverse encounters between individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and law enforcement (LE) has stimulated a dialog among providers. There are a variety of contributing factors to the increase, including the recognized lack of training of LE professionals on the needs of individuals with ASD and the paucity of awareness of resources by the families of these individuals. The aim of this article is to provide insight into developmental-behavioral pediatric professionals, to enhance safety and reduce adverse outcomes for individuals with ASD in schools and the community.

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4. Li YJ, Zhang X, Li YM. Antineuroinflammatory therapy : potential treatment for autism spectrum disorder by inhibiting glial activation and restoring synaptic function. CNS Spectr ;2019 (Oct 29):1-9.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by deficits in social interactions and perseverative and stereotypical behavior. Growing evidence points toward a critical role for synaptic dysfunction in the onset of ASD, and synaptic function is influenced by glial cells. Considering the evidence that neuroinflammation in ASD is mediated by glial cells, one hypothesis is that reactive glial cells, under inflammatory conditions, contribute to the loss of synaptic functions and trigger ASD. Ongoing pharmacological treatments for ASD, including oxytocin, vitamin D, sulforaphane, and resveratrol, are promising and are shown to lead to improvements in behavioral performance in ASD. More importantly, their pharmacological mechanisms are closely related to anti-inflammation and synaptic protection. We focus this review on the hypothesis that synaptic dysfunction caused by reactive glial cells would lead to ASD, and discuss the potentials of antineuroinflammatory therapy for ASD.

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5. Garel N, Joober R. Treatment of first-episode psychosis in patients with autism-spectrum disorder and intellectual deficiency. J Psychiatry Neurosci ;2019 (Nov 1) ;44(6):E31-e32.

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6. Foster NC, Bennett SJ, Causer J, Elliott D, Bird G, Hayes SJ. Getting Off to a Shaky Start : Specificity in Planning and Feedforward Control During Sensorimotor Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res ;2019 (Oct 29)

Whilst autistic individuals develop new internal action models during sensorimotor learning, the acquired movements are executed less accurately and with greater variability. Such movement profiles are related to differences in sensorimotor integration and/or altered feedforward/feedback sensorimotor control. We investigated the processes underlying sensorimotor learning in autism by quantifying accuracy and variability, relative timing, and feedforward and feedback control. Although autistic individuals demonstrated significant sensorimotor learning across trials, which was facilitated by processing knowledge-of-results feedback, motor execution was less accurate than non-autistic individuals. Kinematic analysis indicated that autistic individuals showed significantly greater spatial variability at peak acceleration, but comparable spatial variability at peak velocity. These kinematic markers suggest that autistic movement profiles are driven by specific differences in sensorimotor control processes (i.e., internal action models) associated with planning and regulating the forces required to execute the movement. The reduction of variability at peak velocity indicates intact early feedback-based sensorimotor control in autism. Understanding how feedforward and feedback-based control processes operate provides an opportunity to explore how these control processes influence the acquisition of socio-motor actions in autism. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Autistic adults successfully learned a new movement skill by physically practising it, and using feedback about how well they had done to become more accurate. When looking at the movements in detail, autistic adults were more variable than non-autistic adults when planning (e.g., how much force to use), and performing, the movement. These differences impact how autistic individuals learn different types of movement skills, which might influence how other behaviours (e.g., imitation) are acquired that support social interaction.

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