Pubmed du 31/10/19

jeudi 31 octobre 2019

1. Agarwal R, Burke SL, Maddux M. Current state of evidence of cannabis utilization for treatment of autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry ;2019 (Oct 29) ;19(1):328.

The core symptoms and co-morbidities associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect daily living and quality of life. Existing pharmacological interventions are only able to attenuate some related symptoms but are unable to address the underlying etiologies associated with ASD. Anecdotal evidence, which claims benefit from the use of cannabis to treat symptoms among this population, has been gaining popularity as families seek solutions.This paper analyzed recent peer-reviewed literature to identify the current state of evidence regarding cannabis use for the ASD population. Systematic reviews, reports, and experimental studies were assessed to understand the current extent and nature of the evidence on the risks and benefits of cannabis use for ASD. At this time, three large-scale clinical trials are currently at varying stages of progress and publication of results. Only five small studies were identified that have specifically examined cannabis use in ASD. Given the sparse state of evidence directly assessed in this population, studies which examined effects of cannabis on shared pathological symptoms of ASD such as hyperactivity, sleep disorders, self-injury, anxiety, behavioral problems, and communication were also reviewed.Studies revealed mixed and inconclusive findings of cannabis effects for all conditions, except epilepsy. Adverse outcomes were also reported, which included severe psychosis, increased agitation, somnolence, decreased appetite, and irritability. In addition, a wide range of cannabis compositions and dosage were identified within the studies, which impact generalizability.There is currently insufficient evidence for cannabis use in ASD, which creates an urgent need for additional large-scale controlled studies to increase understanding of risks and benefits and also to examine the impact of "entourage effects." This will support discussions of treatment options between health care providers and ASD patients and their families. Evidence may lead to a desired new line of treatment or prevent adverse outcomes from unsubstantiated use amongst families aiming for symptom reduction.

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2. Camodeca A, Todd KQ, Croyle J. Utility of the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale in the Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Oct 31)

Investigated internal consistency reliability and criterion validity of the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS) in a well-characterized sample of 120 children ([Formula : see text] = 9.91 ; autism [AUT] n = 54 ; non-autism [NOT] n = 66) who completed comprehensive outpatient evaluations with a gold-standard measure, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2. With the exception of a low Cognitive alpha in the AUT group, internal consistency reliabilities ranged from moderate to high. Significant between-group mean differences were observed for all scores. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated Area Under the Curve in the fair range (.71). Cutoff points and interpretation are discussed. The ASDS appears most useful in cases of either low or high scores or as an adjuvant to gold-standard measures.

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3. Chown N, Hughes L, Baker-Rogers J. What About the Other Side of Double Empathy ? A Response to Alkhaldi, Sheppard and Mitchell’s JADD Article Concerning Mind-Reading Difficulties in Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Oct 31)

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4. El-Ansary A, Zayed N, Al-Ayadhi L, Qasem H, Anwar M, Meguid NA, Bhat RS, Dosa MD, Chirumbolo S, Bjorklund G. GABA synaptopathy promotes the elevation of caspases 3 and 9 as pro-apoptotic markers in Egyptian patients with autism spectrum disorder. Acta Neurol Belg ;2019 (Oct 31)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by reduced social communication as well as repetitive behaviors. Many studies have proved that defective synapses in ASD influence how neurons in the brain connect and communicate with each other. Synaptopathies arise from alterations that affecting the integrity and/or functionality of synapses and can contribute to synaptic pathologies. This study investigated the GABA levels in plasma being an inhibitory neurotransmitter, caspase 3 and 9 as pro-apoptotic proteins in 20 ASD children and 20 neurotypical controls using the ELISA technique. Analysis of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) of the data that was obtained to evaluate the diagnostic value of the aforementioned evaluated biomarkers. Pearson’s correlations and multiple regressions between the measured variables were also done. While GABA level was reduced in ASD patients, levels of caspases 3 and 9 were significantly higher when compared to neurotypical control participants. ROC and predictiveness curves showed that caspases 3, caspases 9, and GABA might be utilized as predictive markers in autism diagnosis. The present study indicates that the presence of GABAergic dysfunction promotes apoptosis in Egyptian ASD children. The obtained GABA synaptopathies and their connection with apoptosis can both relate to neuronal excitation, and imbalance of the inhibition system, which can be used as reliable predictive biomarkers for ASD.

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5. Hung CC, Lee CN, Wang YC, Chen CL, Lin TK, Su YN, Lin MW, Kang J, Tai YY, Hsu WW, Lin SY. Fragile X syndrome carrier screening in pregnant women in Chinese Han population. Sci Rep ;2019 (Oct 29) ;9(1):15456.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). It was previously believed that the FXS prevalence was low in Chinese population, and the cost-efficiency of FXS carrier screening was questioned. This retrospective observational study was conducted between September 2014 and May 2017 to determine the prevalence of FXS carriers in a large Chinese cohort of pregnant women. The FMR1 CGG repeat status was determined in 20,188 pregnant Taiwanese women and we identified 26 women with premutation (PM). The PM allele was transmitted to the fetus in 17 pregnancies (56.6%), and six of 17 expanded to full mutation (FM). One asymptomatic woman had a FM allele with 280 CGG repeats. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of her first fetus revealed a male carrying a FMR1 gene deletion of 5’ UTR and exon 1. Her second fetus was a female carrying a FM allele as well. This is so far the largest study of the FXS carrier screening in Chinese women. The prevalence of premutation allele for FXS in normal asymptomatic Taiwanese women was found to be as high as 0.13% (1 in 777) in this study. The empirical evidence suggests that reproductive FXS carrier screening in Taiwan might be cost-effective.

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6. Ivashko-Pachima Y, Hadar A, Grigg I, Korenkova V, Kapitansky O, Karmon G, Gershovits M, Sayas CL, Kooy RF, Attems J, Gurwitz D, Gozes I. Discovery of autism/intellectual disability somatic mutations in Alzheimer’s brains : mutated ADNP cytoskeletal impairments and repair as a case study. Mol Psychiatry ;2019 (Oct 30)

With Alzheimer’s disease (AD) exhibiting reduced ability of neural stem cell renewal, we hypothesized that de novo mutations controlling embryonic development, in the form of brain somatic mutations instigate the disease. A leading gene presenting heterozygous dominant de novo autism-intellectual disabilities (ID) causing mutations is activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), with intact ADNP protecting against AD-tauopathy. We discovered a genomic autism ADNP mutation (c.2188C>T) in postmortem AD olfactory bulbs and hippocampi. RNA-Seq of olfactory bulbs also identified a novel ADNP hotspot mutation, c.2187_2188insA. Altogether, 665 mutations in 596 genes with 441 mutations in AD patients (389 genes, 38% AD-exclusive mutations) and 104 genes presenting disease-causing mutations (OMIM) were discovered. OMIM AD mutated genes converged on cytoskeletal mechanisms, autism and ID causing mutations (about 40% each). The number and average frequencies of AD-related mutations per subject were higher in AD subjects compared to controls. RNA-seq datamining (hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, fusiform gyrus and superior frontal gyrus-583 subjects) yielded similar results. Overlapping all tested brain areas identified unique and shared mutations, with ADNP singled out as a gene associated with autism/ID/AD and presenting several unique aging/AD mutations. The large fusiform gyrus library (117 subjects) with high sequencing coverage correlated the c.2187_2188insA ADNP mutation frequency to Braak stage (tauopathy) and showed more ADNP mutations in AD specimens. In cell cultures, the ADNP-derived snippet NAP inhibited mutated-ADNP-microtubule (MT) toxicity and enhanced Tau-MT association. We propose a paradigm-shifting concept in the perception of AD whereby accumulating mosaic somatic mutations promote brain pathology.

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7. Ji Y, Azuine RE, Zhang Y, Hou W, Hong X, Wang G, Riley A, Pearson C, Zuckerman B, Wang X. Association of Cord Plasma Biomarkers of In Utero Acetaminophen Exposure With Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Childhood. JAMA Psychiatry ;2019 (Oct 30):1-11.

Importance : Prior studies have raised concern about maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy and increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their children ; however, most studies have relied on maternal self-report. Objective : To examine the prospective associations between cord plasma acetaminophen metabolites and physician-diagnosed ADHD, ASD, both ADHD and ASD, and developmental disabilities (DDs) in childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants : This prospective cohort study analyzed 996 mother-infant dyads, a subset of the Boston Birth Cohort, who were enrolled at birth and followed up prospectively at the Boston Medical Center from October 1, 1998, to June 30, 2018. Exposures : Three cord acetaminophen metabolites (unchanged acetaminophen, acetaminophen glucuronide, and 3-[N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl]-acetaminophen) were measured in archived cord plasma samples collected at birth. Main Outcomes and Measures : Physician-diagnosed ADHD, ASD, and other DDs as documented in the child’s medical records. Results : Of 996 participants (mean [SD] age, 9.8 [3.9] years ; 548 [55.0%] male), the final sample included 257 children (25.8%) with ADHD only, 66 (6.6%) with ASD only, 42 (4.2%) with both ADHD and ASD, 304 (30.5%) with other DDs, and 327 (32.8%) who were neurotypical. Unchanged acetaminophen levels were detectable in all cord plasma samples. Compared with being in the first tertile, being in the second and third tertiles of cord acetaminophen burden was associated with higher odds of ADHD diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] for second tertile, 2.26 ; 95% CI, 1.40-3.69 ; OR for third tertile, 2.86 ; 95% CI, 1.77-4.67) and ASD diagnosis (OR for second tertile, 2.14 ; 95% CI, 0.93-5.13 ; OR for third tertile, 3.62 ; 95% CI, 1.62-8.60). Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses found consistent associations between acetaminophen buden and ADHD and acetaminophen burden and ASD across strata of potential confounders, including maternal indication, substance use, preterm birth, and child age and sex, for which point estimates for the ORs vary from 2.3 to 3.5 for ADHD and 1.6 to 4.1 for ASD. Conclusions and Relevance : Cord biomarkers of fetal exposure to acetaminophen were associated with significantly increased risk of childhood ADHD and ASD in a dose-response fashion. Our findings support previous studies regarding the association between prenatal and perinatal acetaminophen exposure and childhood neurodevelopmental risk and warrant additional investigations.

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8. Krans A, Skariah G, Zhang Y, Bayly B, Todd PK. Neuropathology of RAN translation proteins in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. Acta Neuropathol Commun ;2019 (Oct 30) ;7(1):152.

CGG repeat expansions in FMR1 cause the neurodegenerative disorder Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS). Ubiquitinated neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs) are the neuropathological hallmark of FXTAS. Both sense strand derived CGG repeats and antisense strand derived CCG repeats support non-AUG initiated (RAN) translation of homopolymeric proteins in potentially 6 different reading frames. However, the relative abundance of these proteins in FXTAS brains and their co-localization with each other and NIIs is lacking. Here we describe rater-blinded assessment of immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining with newly generated antibodies to different CGG RAN translation products in FXTAS and control brains as well as co-staining with ubiquitin, p62/SQSTM1, and ubiquilin 2. We find that both FMRpolyG and a second CGG repeat derived RAN translation product, FMRpolyA, accumulate in aggregates in FXTAS brains. FMRpolyG is a near-obligate component of both ubiquitin-positive and p62-positive NIIs in FXTAS, with occurrence of aggregates in 20% of all hippocampal neurons and > 90% of all inclusions. A subset of these inclusions also stain positive for the ALS/FTD associated protein ubiquilin 2. Ubiquitinated inclusions and FMRpolyG+ aggregates are rarer in cortex and cerebellum. Intriguingly, FMRpolyG staining is also visible in control neuronal nuclei. In contrast to FMRpolyG, staining for FMRpolyA and CCG antisense derived RAN translation products were less abundant and less frequent components of ubiquitinated inclusions. In conclusion, RAN translated FMRpolyG is a common component of ubiquitin and p62 positive inclusions in FXTAS patient brains.

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9. Lamash L, Josman N. A metacognitive intervention model to promote independence among individuals with autism spectrum disorder : Implementation on a shopping task in the community. Neuropsychol Rehabil ;2019 (Oct 31):1-22.

Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder show low independence levels and difficulty performing complex daily activities. The many intervention approaches for these individuals include deconstructing complex activities into basic components, processing and practicing tasks, and developing compensation strategies. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a short-term metacognitive intervention combined with virtual supermarket practice to improve the independent implementation of a shopping task among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. The study included 56 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, of whom 33 performed the metacognitive intervention and 23 served as controls. Outcome measures included assessments of cognitive and metacognitive functions and a performance-based evaluation of a shopping task in the natural environment. Compared to the control group, the intervention group experienced significant improvement in accuracy and efficiency while performing a shopping task. In addition, the executive functions domain was found to be the main predictor of accuracy and efficiency in performing the shopping task. These findings indicate the short-term metacognitive intervention, reinforced by a technology-based training programme, may effectively enhance the independent execution of a shopping task by adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and expand their potential participation in the community.

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10. Lind SE, Williams DM, Nicholson T, Grainger C, Carruthers P. The self-reference effect on memory is not diminished in autism : Three studies of incidental and explicit self-referential recognition memory in autistic and neurotypical adults and adolescents. J Abnorm Psychol ;2019 (Oct 31)

Three experiments investigated the extent to which (a) individuals with autism show a self-reference effect (i.e., better memory for self-relevant information), and (b) the size of the self-reference effect is associated with autism traits. Participants studied trait adjectives in relation to their own name (self-referent) or a celebrity’s name (other-referent) under explicit and incidental/implicit encoding conditions. Explicit encoding involved judging whether the adjectives applied to self or other (denoted by proper names). Implicit encoding involved judging whether the adjectives were presented to the right or left of one’s own or a celebrity’s name. Recognition memory for the adjectives was tested using a yes/no procedure. Experiment 1 (individual differences ; N = 257 neurotypical adults) employed the Autism-spectrum Quotient as a measure of autistic traits. Experiments 2 (n = 60) and 3 (n = 52) involved case-control designs with closely matched groups of autistic and neurotypical adults and children/adolescents, respectively. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-spectrum Quotient and Social Responsiveness Scale, respectively. In all experiments, a significant self-reference effect was observed in both explicit and implicit encoding conditions. Most importantly, however, there was (a) no significant relation between size of the self-reference effect and number of autistic traits (Experiments 1, 2, and 3), and (b) no significant difference in the size of the self-reference effect between autistic and neurotypical participants (Experiments 2 and 3). In these respects, Bayesian analyses consistently suggested that the data supported the null hypothesis. These results challenge the notion that subjective or objective self-awareness are impaired in autism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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11. Liu X, Lu S, Song K, Shen Q, Ni D, Li Q, He X, Zhang H, Wang Q, Chen Y, Li X, Wu J, Sheng C, Chen G, Liu Y, Lu X, Zhang J. Unraveling allosteric landscapes of allosterome with ASD. Nucleic Acids Res ;2019 (Oct 29)

Allosteric regulation is one of the most direct and efficient ways to fine-tune protein function ; it is induced by the binding of a ligand at an allosteric site that is topographically distinct from an orthosteric site. The Allosteric Database (ASD, available online at http://mdl.shsmu.edu.cn/ASD) was developed ten years ago to provide comprehensive information related to allosteric regulation. In recent years, allosteric regulation has received great attention in biological research, bioengineering, and drug discovery, leading to the emergence of entire allosteric landscapes as allosteromes. To facilitate research from the perspective of the allosterome, in ASD 2019, novel features were curated as follows : (i) >10 000 potential allosteric sites of human proteins were deposited for allosteric drug discovery ; (ii) 7 human allosterome maps, including protease and ion channel maps, were built to reveal allosteric evolution within families ; (iii) 1312 somatic missense mutations at allosteric sites were collected from patient samples from 33 cancer types and (iv) 1493 pharmacophores extracted from allosteric sites were provided for modulator screening. Over the past ten years, the ASD has become a central resource for studying allosteric regulation and will play more important roles in both target identification and allosteric drug discovery in the future.

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12. Mostert-Kerckhoffs MAL, Willems AE, Tenback DE, Koning JP, Van Harten P, Staal WG. Motor Disturbance in ASD : A Pilot Study Showing Hypokinetic Behavior ?. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Oct 31)

Data supporting theoretical models linking autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to motor disturbance are inconclusive. In the present study, children and adolescents with ASD (n = 44) were compared with a matched group of typically developing individuals (n = 49) on both instrumental and observational assessments of motor abnormalities. No group differences were found in the instrumental data. However, more bradykinetic motor behavior was found using an observational scale in the ASD groups. More rigid motor behavior was found in the adolescents with ASD but not in the children. Individuals with ASD show significantly more hypokinetic behavior, which may not be strictly dopaminergic in origin, but may reflect a weak central coherency in neuronal networks related to the motor system in which developmental changes are present.

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13. Postema MC, van Rooij D, Anagnostou E, Arango C, Auzias G, Behrmann M, Filho GB, Calderoni S, Calvo R, Daly E, Deruelle C, Di Martino A, Dinstein I, Duran FLS, Durston S, Ecker C, Ehrlich S, Fair D, Fedor J, Feng X, Fitzgerald J, Floris DL, Freitag CM, Gallagher L, Glahn DC, Gori I, Haar S, Hoekstra L, Jahanshad N, Jalbrzikowski M, Janssen J, King JA, Kong XZ, Lazaro L, Lerch JP, Luna B, Martinho MM, McGrath J, Medland SE, Muratori F, Murphy CM, Murphy DGM, O’Hearn K, Oranje B, Parellada M, Puig O, Retico A, Rosa P, Rubia K, Shook D, Taylor MJ, Tosetti M, Wallace GL, Zhou F, Thompson PM, Fisher SE, Buitelaar JK, Francks C. Altered structural brain asymmetry in autism spectrum disorder in a study of 54 datasets. Nat Commun ;2019 (Oct 31) ;10(1):4958.

Altered structural brain asymmetry in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been reported. However, findings have been inconsistent, likely due to limited sample sizes. Here we investigated 1,774 individuals with ASD and 1,809 controls, from 54 independent data sets of the ENIGMA consortium. ASD was significantly associated with alterations of cortical thickness asymmetry in mostly medial frontal, orbitofrontal, cingulate and inferior temporal areas, and also with asymmetry of orbitofrontal surface area. These differences generally involved reduced asymmetry in individuals with ASD compared to controls. Furthermore, putamen volume asymmetry was significantly increased in ASD. The largest case-control effect size was Cohen’s d = -0.13, for asymmetry of superior frontal cortical thickness. Most effects did not depend on age, sex, IQ, severity or medication use. Altered lateralized neurodevelopment may therefore be a feature of ASD, affecting widespread brain regions with diverse functions. Large-scale analysis was necessary to quantify subtle alterations of brain structural asymmetry in ASD.

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14. Ramassamy E, Gajula Shivashankarappa P, Adimoulame S, Meena R, Elangovan H, Govindasamy E. Yoga therapy as an adjunct to traditional tooth brushing training methods in children with autism spectrum disorder. Spec Care Dentist ;2019 (Oct 30)

AIM : To evaluate if yoga could be an adjunct to regular training methods in training brushing skill to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS : Seventy-two children with ASD aged 7-15 years were selected and divided into two groups (N = 36). Children in Group I received visual pedagogy and video modeling and children in Group II received visual pedagogy and video modeling with yoga. Plaque and gingival indices (PI and GI) were recorded at baseline and at the end of first, second, third, and sixth month. The scores were summarized as mean and standard deviation and inter-group comparison was done using independent t-test. RESULTS : Inter-group comparison of mean plaque and gingival indices scores were statistically significant at second month (P = .039 for PI and P = .009 for GI). The scores were statistically significant even at third month (P = .001 for PI and P = .002 for GI) and sixth month (P = .001 PI and GI), with children in Group II demonstrating better oral hygiene. CONCLUSION : Yoga training can be used as an adjunct to enhance tooth brushing learning capabilities of children with ASD in addition to visual modeling and pedagogy.

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15. Rattaz C, Munir K, Michelon C, Picot MC, Baghdadli A. School Inclusion in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders in France : Report from the ELENA French Cohort Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Oct 29)

Children and adolescents with ASD are increasingly included in regular school settings, however little is known about how placement decisions are made. In the present study, we examined the types and duration of school attendance among children and adolescents in the ELENA Cohort, a multi-center study of children and adolescents with ASD, ages 2-16 years, in France. Results showed that 88% of subjects were attending school and that children and adolescents with more severe adaptive and cognitive deficits were less likely to attend school. The results provide a topography on school inclusion and ASD in France. Challenging behaviors and sensory processing difficulties were associated with partial-inclusion ; and co-occurring anxiety symptoms were associated with inclusion on a full-time basis.

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16. Romano A, Capri T, Semino M, Bizzego I, Di Rosa G, Fabio RA. Gross Motor, Physical Activity and Musculoskeletal Disorder Evaluation Tools for Rett Syndrome : A Systematic Review. Dev Neurorehabil ;2019 (Oct 31):1-17.

In recent years, much attention has been paid to motor impairment of persons with Rett Syndrome (RTT), with increasing literature aimed to describe gross motor functioning and musculoskeletal disorders of the RTT population. The aim of this systematic review is to describe clinical evaluation tools used in the last decade to assess motor functioning and musculoskeletal abnormalities of patients with RTT. Thirty-four studies were reviewed and 20 tools were presented. Results showed that only two tools were used to measure functional change after rehabilitative or therapeutic interventions. This review underlies the lack of adequate evaluation tools to assess musculoskeletal abnormalities and deformities in RTT population. The absence of these assessments could be due to a statistical difficulty as it is challenging to build an evaluation tool that can score the entities of the abnormalities related to the amount of disability they cause.

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17. Sacino AN, Prokop S, Walsh MA, Adamson J, Subramony SH, Krans A, Todd PK, Giasson BI, Yachnis AT. Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome with co-occurrent progressive supranuclear palsy-like neuropathology. Acta Neuropathol Commun ;2019 (Oct 30) ;7(1):158.

Co-occurrence of multiple neuropathologic changes is a common phenomenon, most prominently seen in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), complicating clinical diagnosis and patient management. Reports of co-occurring pathological processes are emerging in the group of genetically defined repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN)-translation related diseases. Here we report a case of Fragile X-associated tremor-ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) with widespread and abundant nuclear inclusions of the RAN-translation related FMRpolyG-peptide. In addition, we describe prominent neuronal and glial tau pathology representing changes seen in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The highest abundance of the respective pathological changes was seen in distinct brain regions indicating an incidental, rather than causal correlation.

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18. Sagi-Dain L, Kedar R, Bardicef M, Riskin S. Numerous Confounders Affecting the Alleged Association Between Cesarean Deliveries Under General Anesthesia and Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Oct 31)

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19. Sharpe RA, Curry W, Brown R, Shankar R. A public health approach to reducing health inequalities among adults with autism. Br J Gen Pract ;2019 (Nov) ;69(688):534-535.

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20. Zhang L, Yan G, Zhou L, Lan Z, Benson V. The Influence of Irrelevant Visual Distractors on Eye Movement Control in Chinese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : Evidence from the Remote Distractor Paradigm. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Oct 31)

The current study examined eye movement control in autistic (ASD) children. Simple targets were presented in isolation, or with central, parafoveal, or peripheral distractors synchronously. Sixteen children with ASD (47-81 months) and nineteen age and IQ matched typically developing children were instructed to look to the target as accurately and quickly as possible. Both groups showed high proportions (40%) of saccadic errors towards parafoveal and peripheral distractors. For correctly executed eye movements to the targets, centrally presented distractors produced the longest latencies (time taken to initiate eye movements), followed by parafoveal and peripheral distractor conditions. Central distractors had a greater effect in the ASD group, indicating evidence for potential atypical voluntary attentional control in ASD children.

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