Pubmed du 13/11/19

mercredi 13 novembre 2019

1. Alfageh BH, Man KKC, Besag FMC, Alhawassi TM, Wong ICK, Brauer R. Psychotropic Medication Prescribing for Neuropsychiatric Comorbidities in Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the UK. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Nov 13)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disorder. In the UK, risperidone is the only psychotropic medication approved for the management of the behavioural symptoms that may accompany autism. This is a population-based study aimed to provide an evaluation of the changing trend in the incidence and prevalence of ASD and to analyse the pattern of psychotropic medication prescribing in the UK. 20,194 patients with ASD were identified. The prevalence increased 3.3-fold from 0.109 per 100 persons in 2009 to 0.355 per 100 persons in 2016. Approximately one-third of the identified cohort was prescribed at least one psychotropic medication. Although the medications approved to manage the symptoms of ASD are limited, the prescribing of such medications is increasing.

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2. Andreo-Martinez P, Garcia-Martinez N, Sanchez-Samper EP, Martinez-Gonzalez AE. An approach to gut microbiota profile in children with autism spectrum disorder. Environ Microbiol Rep ;2019 (Nov 11)

In recent years, there has been an increase in studies on the implications of gut microbiota (GM) on the behavior of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) due to a dysbiosis in GM that can trigger onset, development or progression of ASD through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The aim of this study is to carry out a systematic review of articles from the last 6 years that analyze GM in children with ASD compared to GM in control groups. Children with ASD showed higher abundance of Roseburia and Candida genera, and lower abundance of Dialister, Bilophila, Veillonella, Streptococcus, Coprococcus and Prevotella genera. Those differences can be attributed to factors such as different nationalities, nature of control groups, place where the sample was taken, gastro-intestinal (GI) problems or bacterial detection methods. It is still too early to define a specific GM profile of children with ASD, and future studies should focus on homogenizing the characteristics of samples and control groups. Further, new multicenter studies should also focus on the impact of GM on : GI physiology, neurophysiology and behavior of children with ASD, and on performing psychometric analyses of the correlation between the severity of ASD behavioral symptoms and GM profiles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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3. Barzy M, Black J, Williams D, Ferguson HJ. Autistic adults anticipate and integrate meaning based on the speaker’s voice : Evidence from eye-tracking and event-related potentials. J Exp Psychol Gen ;2019 (Nov 11)

Typically developing (TD) individuals rapidly integrate information about a speaker and their intended meaning while processing sentences online. We examined whether the same processes are activated in autistic adults and tested their timecourse in 2 preregistered experiments. Experiment 1 employed the visual world paradigm. Participants listened to sentences where the speaker’s voice and message were either consistent or inconsistent (e.g., "When we go shopping, I usually look for my favorite wine," spoken by an adult or a child), and concurrently viewed visual scenes including consistent and inconsistent objects (e.g., wine and sweets). All participants were slower to select the mentioned object in the inconsistent condition. Importantly, eye movements showed a visual bias toward the voice-consistent object, well before hearing the disambiguating word, showing that autistic adults rapidly use the speaker’s voice to anticipate the intended meaning. However, this target bias emerged earlier in the TD group compared to the autism group (2240 ms vs. 1800 ms before disambiguation). Experiment 2 recorded ERPs to explore speaker-meaning integration processes. Participants listened to sentences as described above, and ERPs were time-locked to the onset of the target word. A control condition included a semantic anomaly. Results revealed an enhanced N400 for inconsistent speaker-meaning sentences that was comparable to that elicited by anomalous sentences, in both groups. Overall, contrary to research that has characterized autism in terms of a local processing bias and pragmatic dysfunction, autistic people were unimpaired at integrating multiple modalities of linguistic information and were comparably sensitive to speaker-meaning inconsistency effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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4. Cucchiara F, Frumento P, Banfi T, Sesso G, Di Galante M, D’Ascanio P, Valvo G, Sicca F, Faraguna U. Electrophysiological features of sleep in children with Kir4.1 channel mutations and Autism-Epilepsy phenotype : a preliminary study. Sleep ;2019 (Nov 13)

STUDY OBJECTIVES : Recently, a role for gain-of-function (GoF) mutations of the astrocytic potassium channel Kir4.1 (KCNJ10 gene) has been proposed in subjects with Autism-Epilepsy phenotype (AEP). Epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are common and complexly related to sleep disorders. We tested whether well characterized mutations in KCNJ10 could result in specific sleep electrophysiological features, paving the way to the discovery of a potentially relevant biomarker for Kir4.1-related disorders. METHODS : For this case-control study, we recruited seven children with ASD either comorbid or not with epilepsy and/or EEG paroxysmal abnormalities (AEP) carrying GoF mutations of KCNJ10 and seven children with similar phenotypes but wild-type for the same gene, comparing period-amplitude features of slow waves detected by fronto-central bipolar EEG derivations (F3-C3, F4-C4, and Fz-Cz) during daytime naps. RESULTS : Children with Kir4.1 mutations displayed longer slow waves periods than controls, in Fz-Cz (mean period = 112,617 ms +/- SE = 0.465 in mutated versus mean period = 105,249 ms +/- SE = 0.375 in controls, p < 0.001). An analog result was found in F3-C3 (mean period = 125,706 ms +/- SE = 0.397 in mutated versus mean period = 120,872 ms +/- SE = 0.472 in controls, p < 0.001) and F4-C4 (mean period = 127,914 ms +/- SE = 0.557 in mutated versus mean period = 118,174 ms +/- SE = 0.442 in controls, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION : This preliminary finding suggests that period-amplitude slow wave features are modified in subjects carrying Kir4.1 GoF mutations. Potential clinical applications of this finding are discussed.

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5. Dana H, Bayramov KK, Delibasi N, Tahtasakal R, Bayramov R, Hamurcu Z, Sener EF. Disregulation of Autophagy in the Transgenerational Cc2d1a Mouse Model of Autism. Neuromolecular Med ;2019 (Nov 13)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneously childhood neurodevelopmental disorder, believed to be under development of various genetic and environmental factors. Autophagy and related pathways have also been implicated in the etiology of ASD. We aimed to investigate autophagic markers by generating the transgenerational inheritance of ASD-like behaviors in the Cc2d1a animal model of ASD. Cc2d1a (+/-) mouse model of ASD was built in two different groups by following three generations. After behavior test, bilateral hippocampus was sliced. Western Blot assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) were used for measurement of LC3 and Beclin-1 as key regulators of autophagy. All of the animal and laboratory studies were conducted in the Erciyes University Genome and Stem Cell Center (GENKOK). Significant LC3 and Beclin-1 mRNA expression levels were observed in mouse hippocampus between groups and generations. Western blot confirmed the changes of the proteins in the hippocampus. LC3 expressions were increased for females and decreased for males compared to the control group. Beclin-1 expression levels were found to be significantly decreased in males and females compared to controls. This study could help explain a new pathway of autophagy in ASD mouse models. Future animal studies need to investigate sex differences in mouse modeling autism-relevant genes like CC2D1A. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for more comprehensive autophagy studies in this mouse model of ASD.

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6. Dandil Y, Smith K, Adamson J, Tchanturia K. Individual cognitive remediation therapy benefits for patients with anorexia nervosa and high autistic features. Eur Eat Disord Rev ;2019 (Nov 11)

Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is an increasingly implemented intervention in psychiatric conditions. The majority of randomized treatment trials in psychiatry reports cognitive improvements resulting in better functional outcomes in CRT groups. This brief report from the national inpatient treatment programme for eating disorders demonstrates cognitive performance task-based improvements in patients with high and low autistic characteristics. This preliminary study shows feasibility and benefits of individual CRT in patients who have autism spectrum disorder features.

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7. Gabriel T, Paul S, Berger A, Massoubre C. Anorexia Nervosa and Autism Spectrum Disorders : Future Hopes Linked to Mucosal Immunity. Neuroimmunomodulation ;2019 (Nov 12):1-11.

Mental health is becoming a public health priority worldwide. Anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorders are 2 important types of childhood disorders with a bad prognosis. They share cognitive impairments and, in both cases, the microbiota appears to be a crucial factor. Alteration of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is an appealing hypothesis to define new pathophysiological mechanisms. Mucosal immunity plays a key role between the microbiota and the brain. The mucosal immune system receives and integrates messages from the intestinal microenvironment and the microbiota and then transmits the information to the nervous system. Abnormalities in this sensorial system may be involved in the natural history of mental diseases and might play a role in their maintenance. This review aims to highlight data about the relationship between intestinal mucosal immunity and these disorders. We show that shared cognitive impairments could be found in these 2 disorders, which both present dysbiosis. This literature review provides details on the immune status of anorexic and autistic patients, with a focus on intestinal mucosal factors. Finally, we suggest future research hypotheses that seem important for understanding the implication of the gut-brain-axis in psychiatric diseases.

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8. Ghanouni P, Jarus T, Zwicker JG, Lucyshyn J, Fenn B, Stokley E. Design Elements During Development of Videogame Programs for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : Stakeholders’ Viewpoints. Games Health J ;2019 (Nov 13)

Introduction : Research has demonstrated that videogame programs can be an effective intervention targeting social challenges among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite the rapid growth in developing videogame programs, incorporation of stakeholders’ views has been limited. Objective : This project aimed to identify the design elements that should be considered during development of videogame programs for children with ASD, from the perspectives of stakeholders. Materials and Methods : We involved 26 stakeholders, including parents of children with ASD, youth with ASD, and clinicians working with individuals with ASD in focus groups and interviews. Results : Thematic analysis yielded three themes : (1) addressing heterogeneity and diverse needs ; (2) mirroring real world ; and (3) teaching strategies. Conclusion : Incorporating these elements during development of videogame programs can help enhance the outcomes for children with ASD. By including stakeholders’ voices, it is assumed that the developed videogame programs may serve as user-friendly and engaging tools to potentially complement traditional interventions when overcoming social difficulties in individuals with ASD.

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9. Hendouei F, Sanjari Moghaddam H, Mohammadi MR, Taslimi N, Rezaei F, Akhondzadeh S. Resveratrol as adjunctive therapy in treatment of irritability in children with autism : A double-blind and placebo-controlled randomized trial. J Clin Pharm Ther ;2019 (Nov 12)

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE : The underlying pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been linked to immune dysregulation, oxidative stress and excitation-inhibition imbalance. Among associated symptoms of ASD, management of irritability has gained considerable attention as it complicates adjustment of ASD patients and thus necessitates its pharmacological treatment. Resveratrol is a plant phytoalexin, which has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial was designed to assess the potential therapeutic effects of resveratrol plus risperidone on irritability of ASD patients. METHODS : Sixty-two patients were assigned randomly into two groups of resveratrol and placebo. Both groups were treated with risperidone twice daily starting at a dose of 0.5 mg with a dose increase of 0.5 mg per week (for the first 3 weeks). Resveratrol dosage was 250 mg twice per day from the beginning of the study. Using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C), patients were assessed for ASD-related behavioural symptoms at baseline, week 5 and week 10. The frequency of adverse events was recorded using a checklist containing 25 possible side effects, including general, gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular complications. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION : Improvements in primary outcome measure (irritability) and three secondary outcome measures (lethargy/social withdrawal, stereotypic behaviour and inappropriate speech subscales) in the resveratrol group were statistically similar to those in the placebo group. The repeated measures analysis showed no time x treatment interaction on these subscale scores. In contrast, patients in the resveratrol group showed greater decline in hyperactivity/non-compliance score as a secondary outcome measure (mean difference [CI = 95%] = 4.51 [0.10-8.92], t = 2.04 ; P = .04), and repeated measures analysis showed significant effect for time x treatment effect on this subscale score (F = 3.81 ; df = 1.30 ; P = .043). There was no significant difference in number and severity of adverse events between the two groups. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION : This clinical trial demonstrated no significant effect for adjunctive treatment with resveratrol on irritability of patients with ASD. However, it provided preliminary evidence indicating that resveratrol could improve hyperactivity/non-compliance of ASD patients.

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10. Lovell B, Wetherell MA. Affiliate stigma, perceived social support and perceived stress in caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder : A multiple mediation study. Arch Psychiatr Nurs ;2019 (Oct) ;33(5):31-35.

BACKGROUND : Affiliate stigma negatively predicts social support, and positively predicts psychological distress, in caregivers of children with ASD. Whether the affiliate stigma-distress relationship occurs indirectly via social support however has not been explored. METHODS : A correlational design was used. A sample of n=124 caregivers of children with ASD completed an online survey assessing affiliate stigma, perceived support from family, friends and significant others, and perceived stress. RESULTS : The relationship between greater affiliate stigma and increased perceived stress occurred indirectly via lower perceived support from family, but not from friends or significant others. CONCLUSIONS : These findings underscore the importance of increasing caregivers’ perceived family support. Whether interventions that alleviate affiliate stigma are beneficial for reducing perceived stress, and whether this effect is mediated by increased perceived availability of support, might be the subject of future research.

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11. Nakashima S, Nacher JC, Song J, Akutsu T. An Overview of Bioinformatics Methods for Analyzing Autism Spectrum Disorders. Curr Pharm Des ;2019 (Nov 11)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders and are well recognized to be biologically heterogeneous in which various factors are associated including genetic, metabolic, and environmental ones. Despite its high prevalence, only a few drugs have been approved for the treatment of ASD. There-fore, extensive studies have been conducted to identify ASD risk genes and novel drug targets. Since many genes and many other factors are associated with ASD, var-ious bioinformatics methods have also been developed for analysis of ASD. In this paper, we review bioinformatics methods for analyzing ASD data with the focus on computational aspects. We classify existing methods into two categories : (i) meth-ods based on genomic variants and gene expression data, and (ii) methods using bio-logical networks, which include gene co-expression networks and protein-protein in-teraction networks. Next, for each method, we provide an overall flow and elaborate on the computational techniques used. We also briefly review other approaches and discuss possible future directions and strategies for developing bioinformatics ap-proaches to analyze ASD.

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12. Pedapati EV, Mooney LN, Wu SW, Erickson CA, Sweeney JA, Shaffer RC, Horn PS, Wink LK, Gilbert DL. Motor cortex facilitation : a marker of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder co-occurrence in autism spectrum disorder. Transl Psychiatry ;2019 (Nov 13) ;9(1):298.

The neural correlates distinguishing youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-) and ASD with co-occurring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ASD+) are poorly understood despite significant phenotypic and prognostic differences. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures, including intracortical facilitation (ICF), short interval cortical inhibition (SICI), and cortical silent period (CSP) were measured in an age matched cohort of youth with ASD- (n = 20), ASD + (n = 29), and controls (TDC) (n = 24). ASD- and ASD+ groups did not differ by IQ or social functioning ; however, ASD+ had significantly higher inattention and hyperactivity ratings. ICF (higher ratio indicates greater facilitation) in ASD+ (Mean 1.0, SD 0.19) was less than ASD- (Mean 1.3, SD 0.36) or TDC (Mean 1.2, SD 0.24) (F2,68 = 6.5, p = 0.003 ; post-hoc tests, ASD+ vs either TDC or ASD-, p

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13. Sauer T, Lawrence L, Mayo-Ortega L, Oyama-Ganiko R, Schroeder S. Refractive error and ocular findings among infants and young children with severe problem behavior and developmental disabilities. J Ment Health Res Intellect Disabil ;2018 ;11(4):251-265.

The prevalence of refractive error and ocular disorders among infants and young children with severe behavioral problems and developmental disorders is not well defined, particularly in developing countries. We performed a retrospective review of ophthalmic examinations performed during a National Institutes of Health-funded cohort study of very young children in Peru with behavioral problems and at risk for developmental disorders. 222 children between the ages of 0 and 4 years (mean 2.2 +/- 0.9 years) were examined and 100 (45.0%) had an abnormal ocular exam. Overall, the prevalence of refractive error was 33.3%, nystagmus was 12.2%, and strabismus was 10.9%. Among children with Down syndrome, refractive error ranged from 46.2% at age 2 to 85.7% at age 4. Refractive error and ocular disorders are highly prevalent even at a young age in children with behavioral problems and developmental disorders. Much of the visual impairment in this population is treatable ; early identification and intervention can have a lifelong positive impact on neurodevelopment.

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14. Shorey S, Ng ED, Haugan G, Law E. The parenting experiences and needs of Asian primary caregivers of children with autism : A meta-synthesis. Autism ;2019 (Nov 13):1362361319886513.

Parents of children with autism are faced with higher risks of unemployment, divorce, and poorer mental health than parents of children with other disorders. Such parenting stress can be further exacerbated by cultural and environmental factors such as the more conservative and collectivistic Asian values. Therefore, this review identifies and synthesizes literature on the parenting experiences and needs of Asian primary caregivers of children with autism using a critical interpretive method. A qualitative meta-summary was conducted. Seven electronic databases (CINAHL, Embase, ProQuest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched from each database’s date of inception to November 2018. In total, 44 studies were included in this review. Thirteen studies examined Asian immigrant parents’ experiences, and 31 studies were done among Asia-based parents. Six domains were identified : "personal parenting journey" ; "adaptation and coping strategies" ; "family, community, and social support" ; "experiences with healthcare, education, and social services" ; "future hopes and recommendations" ; and "unique experiences of immigrants." The distinctive influence of religious beliefs, cultural values, and environmental factors on Asian parenting experiences were discussed, and recommendations were proposed to better meet the needs of parents with autistic children.

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15. Smith O, Jones SC. ’Coming Out’ with Autism : Identity in People with an Asperger’s Diagnosis After DSM-5. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Nov 11)

Asperger’s Syndrome was introduced as a separate diagnostic category in the DSM-4 (1994). Its subsequent absorption into autism spectrum disorder in the DSM-5 (2013) led to vigorous debate and concerns about the loss of the unique Asperger’s identity. Existing research has identified that adults previously diagnosed with Asperger’s have expressed a diverse range of opinions regarding the DSM-5 changes. This Australian study explored the role of disability identity development in responses to the change through semi-structured interviews with 12 adults diagnosed with Asperger’s under the DSM-4. Their different views did not appear to be a function of demographic variables ; a connection was identified between participants’ views of the change and differing stages of integration with the Asperger’s and/or autism identities.

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16. Stephens K, O’Loughlin R, Green JL, Anderson V, Rinehart N, Nicholson JM, Hazell P, Silk TJ, Efron D, Sciberras E. The Association Between Autism Symptoms and Child Functioning in a Sample With ADHD Recruited From the Community. J Atten Disord ;2019 (Nov 11):1087054719886352.

Objective : Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are associated with poorer functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is unclear which ASD symptom domains are most impairing. This study investigated whether specific ASD symptom domains were associated with child functioning in children with ADHD. Method : Parents of 164 children with ADHD completed a diagnostic interview to assess ADHD and comorbidities. Parents reported on ASD symptoms (Social Communication Questionnaire) and child quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0). Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (emotional, conduct, and peer problems). Results : Repetitive and stereotyped behaviors were independently associated with emotional (p = .02) and conduct (p = .03) problems, and poorer quality of life (p = .004). Reciprocal social interaction deficits were independently associated with peer problems (p = .03). Conclusion : Reciprocal social interaction deficits and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors are important areas that should be focused on in ADHD assessment and treatment.

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17. Tencza M, Forsythe L. Transition-of-care planning : Preparing for the future care of the individual with intellectual and developmental disabilities. J Intellect Disabil ;2019 (Nov 12):1744629519883453.

Individuals with an intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) are often harmed when faced with changes in their living or care circumstances. Their inability to make sudden quality of life choices puts them at a disadvantage due to cognitive and communication difficulties. A quality improvement project was conducted with adult habilitation agency clients with IDD. Use of evidence-based methods, team collaborative communication, patient safety guidelines, and adherence to agency mission and policies were instrumental in development of a transition-of-care plan form given to clients on admission or during scheduled manager visits. A follow-up survey resulted in significant quantitative data results showing the importance of future planning to the client and guardian.

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18. Wichers RH, Findon JL, Jelsma A, Giampietro V, Stoencheva V, Robertson DM, Murphy CM, McAlonan G, Ecker C, Rubia K, Murphy DGM, Daly EM. Modulation of brain activation during executive functioning in autism with citalopram. Transl Psychiatry ;2019 (Nov 11) ;9(1):286.

Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are frequently prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, there is limited evidence to support this practice. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the impact of SSRIs on brain function abnormalities in ASD. It has been suggested that some core symptoms in ASD are underpinned by deficits in executive functioning (EF). Hence, we investigated the role of the SSRI citalopram on EF networks in 19 right-handed adult males with ASD and 19 controls who did not differ in gender, age, IQ or handedness. We performed pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activity during two EF tasks (of response inhibition and sustained attention) after an acute dose of 20 mg citalopram or placebo using a randomised, double-blind, crossover design. Under placebo condition, individuals with ASD had abnormal brain activation in response inhibition regions, including inferior frontal, precentral and postcentral cortices and cerebellum. During sustained attention, individuals with ASD had abnormal brain activation in middle temporal cortex and (pre)cuneus. After citalopram administration, abnormal brain activation in inferior frontal cortex was ’normalised’ and most of the other brain functional differences were ’abolished’. Also, within ASD, the degree of responsivity in inferior frontal and postcentral cortices to SSRI challenge was related to plasma serotonin levels. These findings suggest that citalopram can ’normalise’ atypical brain activation during EF in ASD. Future trials should investigate whether this shift in the biology of ASD is maintained after prolonged citalopram treatment, and if peripheral measures of serotonin predict treatment response.

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19. Woods R, Waldock KE, Keates N, Morgan H. Empathy and a Personalised Approach in Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Nov 11)

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