Pubmed du 17/11/19

dimanche 17 novembre 2019

1. Ben-David BM, Ben-Itzchak E, Zukerman G, Yahav G, Icht M. The Perception of Emotions in Spoken Language in Undergraduates with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Preserved Social Skill. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Identifying emotions in speech is based on the interaction of lexical content and prosody. This may be disrupted in individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HF-ASD). Undergraduates with HF-ASD (n = 20) and matched typically developed peers (n = 20) were tested using the (Hebrew) Test for Rating of Emotions in Speech. Participants rated the degree to which a target-emotion is present in spoken sentences, in which the emotional-lexical and -prosodic content appear in different combinations from trial to trial. No group differences were found in measures of emotion-identification, selective-attention (focusing on one target-channel) and integration. These preserved abilities can partially explain the high levels of independence and self-control characterizing students with HF-ASD. Support programs may rely on such skills to improve social interactions.

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2. Linke AC, Kinnear MK, Kohli JS, Fong CH, Lincoln AJ, Carper RA, Muller RA. Impaired motor skills and atypical functional connectivity of the sensorimotor system in 40- to 65-year-old adults with autism spectrum disorders. Neurobiology of aging. 2019.

Impairments in fine and gross motor function, coordination, and balance in early development are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is unclear whether these deficits persist into adulthood and whether they may be exacerbated by additional motor problems that often emerge in typical aging. We assessed motor skills and used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to study intrinsic functional connectivity of the sensorimotor network in 40- to 65-year-old adults with ASDs (n = 17) and typically developing matched adults (n = 19). Adults with ASDs scored significantly lower on assessments of motor skills compared with an age-matched group of typical control adults. In addition, functional connectivity of the sensorimotor system was reduced and the pattern of connectivity was more heterogeneous in adults with ASDs. A negative correlation between functional connectivity of the motor system and motor skills, however, was only found in the typical control group. Findings suggest behavioral impairment and atypical brain organization of the motor system in middle-age adults with ASDs, accompanied by pronounced heterogeneity.

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3. Rabany L, Brocke S, Calhoun VD, Pittman B, Corbera S, Wexler BE, Bell MD, Pelphrey K, Pearlson GD, Assaf M. Corrigendum to "Dynamic functional connectivity in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder : Convergence, divergence and classification" [NeuroImage : Clinical, 24, 2019 / 101966]. Neuroimage Clin. 2019 : 102012.

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4. Thrower E, Bretherton I, Pang KC, Zajac JD, Cheung AS. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Amongst Individuals with Gender Dysphoria : A Systematic Review. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can compromise health and may be more prevalent amongst individuals with gender dysphoria (GD). Symptoms such as attention or social difficulties can impact assessment of GD, understanding of health information, and engagement in clinical care. To ensure neurodevelopmental conditions are adequately considered in gender health services, we aimed to systematically review the literature examining the prevalence of ASD and ADHD amongst individuals with GD. In this systematic review based on the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies examining the prevalence of ASD and/or ADHD in individuals with GD or investigated the rate of GD in cohorts with ASD or ADHD. All English peer-reviewed publications were included. The search strategy identified 179 studies. After applying exclusion criteria, a total of 30 studies were identified, 22 studies which examined the prevalence of ASD or ADHD in people with GD. A further 8 studies examined the reverse ; prevalence of GD in people with ASD. The few studies employing diagnostic criteria for ASD suggest a prevalence of 6-26% in transgender populations, higher than the general population, but no different from individuals attending psychiatry clinics. Few studies examine prevalence of ADHD. Low-level evidence exists to suggest a link between ASD and GD. Further population-based and controlled studies using diagnostic criteria for ASD and ADHD are required.

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