Pubmed du 21/11/19

jeudi 21 novembre 2019

1. Bebchuk MA, Khodyreva LA, Basova AY, Dovbysh DV, Dzhavadova EI, Konshina EE. [Art therapy in treatment, rehabilitation, micro- and macrosocial adaptation of children with autism spectrum disorders by means of a special rehabilitation and adaptation program "Art therapy (drama therapy) : ’Because You are Needed...’ for children with general disorders of psychological development and other mental disorders"]. Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ;2019 (Aug) ;27(Special Issue):536-542.

For the first time, the effectiveness of art therapy (drama therapy) in children with mental disorders has been studied on substantial clinical data. Psychotherapeutic work involved certain form of drama therapy that included patients watching Moscow theaters performances and then discussing them with family and in group therapy sessions with psychologists. Researchers have developed drama therapy methods for children with mental disorders, determined indications and contraindications for this treatment. The study shows effects of art therapy on the child adaptation to the conditions of the micro-social environment, particularly on his family adaptation, formation of harmonious, supportive, rehabilitative family relations. It is noted that art therapy influences adolescent’s adaptation to the conditions of the macrosocial environment, particularly his adaptation in a peer group, behavior in various situations and formation of normal behavioral patterns in different environmental conditions.

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2. Carpita B, Carmassi C, Calderoni S, Muti D, Muscarella A, Massimetti G, Cremone IM, Gesi C, Conti E, Muratori F, Dell’Osso L. The broad autism phenotype in real-life : clinical and functional correlates of autism spectrum symptoms and rumination among parents of patients with autism spectrum disorder. CNS Spectr ;2019 (Nov 21):1-9.

OBJECTIVE. : Increasing literature reported higher rates of psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as of autistic-like features in social and cognitive functioning. However, little attention has been paid to the association between autistic traits (AT) and global functioning in this population. The aim of the present work was to investigate clinical and functional correlates of AT among parents of ASD children, with a specific focus on ruminative thinking. METHODS. : One hundred and twenty parents of ASD children were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS), the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). RESULTS. : Subjects with at least 1 psychiatric disorder (39.2%) showed significantly higher AdAS Spectrum and RRS scores. Subjects with a history of school difficulties and with language development alterations scored significantly higher on specific AdAS Spectrum domains. A significant negative correlation was found between SOFAS and AdAS Spectrum scores, as well as between SOFAS and RRS scores. AdAS Spectrum nonverbal communication domain score was identified has a statistically predictive variable for the presence of psychiatric disorders and lower SOFAS scores. Finally, we found a significant indirect effect of AdAS total score on SOFAS score, which was fully mediated by RRS total score. CONCLUSIONS. : AT in parents of ASD children seem to be associated with a higher vulnerability toward psychopathology and with a lower global functioning. Ruminative thinking may play a role in the relationship between AT and functional outcome.

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3. Colombo-Dougovito AM, Block ME, Zhang X, Strehli I. A multiple-method review of accommodations to gross motor assessments commonly used with children and adolescents on the autism spectrum. Autism ;2019 (Nov 21):1362361319884400.

The purpose of this study is to understand the common accommodations used during standardized motor assessment of children on the autism spectrum. This study was completed in three parts : (1) a narrative review of the literature ; (2) an open-ended survey sent to the first authors of the identified articles ; and (3) a descriptive analysis of responses. Results revealed that 56.7% of the identified articles did not report enough information of assessment procedures, 18.9% followed the assessment manual, 16.9% provided accommodations on a needs basis, and 7.5% used a consistent modified protocol. Individual responses showed that extra demonstrations (n = 5) were the most frequent accommodation, followed by extra breaks (n = 3), picture cards (n = 2), and hand-over-hand assistance (n = 1) ; some respondents stated that they did not provide accommodations. The findings indicate that a clear set of accommodation for motor skill assessments does not exist, though some commonalities were reported. Further research is necessary to understand the impact of accommodations in the assessment process, as well as which accommodations are needed and/or effective.

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4. Contaldo A, Colombi C, Pierotti C, Masoni P, Muratori F. Outcomes and moderators of Early Start Denver Model intervention in young children with autism spectrum disorder delivered in a mixed individual and group setting. Autism ;2019 (Nov 21):1362361319888344.

Several studies have shown the efficacy and effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model, both in university and in community-based settings. However, a limited number of studies have investigated predictors of outcomes. In this study, we examined outcomes in 32 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder after 1 year of community-based Early Start Denver Model intervention, with the aim to identify predictors of treatment objectives acquisition, as measured by the Early Start Denver Model Curriculum Checklist. At a group level, the participants demonstrated improvement in their communication as well as adaptive functioning skills, while they showed a decrease in symptom severity. The large heterogeneity in outcomes identified was related to the pre-treatment non-verbal abilities, symptom severity, action and gesture repertoire, and lexical comprehension. We discussed our results in terms of implications for developing "personalized" interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder.

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5. Kraemer BR, Odom SL, Tomaszewski B, Hall LJ, Dawalt L, Hume KA, Steinbrenner JR, Szidon K, Brum C. Quality of high school programs for students with autism spectrum disorder. Autism ;2019 (Nov 21):1362361319887280.

The purpose of the study was to examine the quality of high school programs for students with autism spectrum disorder in the United States. The Autism Program Environment Rating Scale-Middle/High School was used to rate the quality of programs for students with autism spectrum disorder in 60 high schools located in three geographic locations in the United States (CA, NC, and WI). Findings indicated that the total quality rating across schools was slightly above the adequate criterion. Higher quality ratings occurred for program environment, learning climate, family participation, and teaming domains. However, quality ratings for intervention domains related to the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (e.g. communication, social, independence, functional behavior, and transition) were below the adequate quality rating level. Also, quality ratings for transition were significantly higher for modified (primarily self-contained) programs than standard diploma (primarily served in general education) programs. School urbanicity was a significant predictor of program quality, with suburban schools having higher quality ratings than urban or rural schools, controlling for race, school enrollment size, and Title 1 eligibility status. Implications for working with teachers and school teams that support high school students with autism spectrum disorder should include a targeted focus on transition programming that includes a breadth of work-based learning experiences and activities that support social-communication domains.

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6. Ma X, Qiu S. Control of cortical synapse development and plasticity by MET receptor tyrosine kinase, a genetic risk factor for autism. J Neurosci Res ;2019 (Nov 19)

The key developmental milestone events of the human brain, such as neurogenesis, synapse formation, maturation, and plasticity, are determined by a myriad of molecular signaling events, including those mediated by a number of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and their cognate ligands. Aberrant or mistimed brain development and plasticity can lead to maladaptive changes, such as dysregulated synaptic connectivity and breakdown of circuit functions necessary for cognition and adaptive behaviors, which are hypothesized pathophysiologies of many neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we review recent literature that supports autism spectrum disorder as a likely result of aberrant synapse development due to mistimed maturation and plasticity. We focus on MET RTK, a prominent genetic risk factor for autism, and discuss how a pleiotropic molecular signaling system engaged by MET exemplifies a genetic program that controls cortical circuit development and plasticity by modulating the anatomical and functional connectivity of cortical circuits, thus conferring genetic risk for neurodevelopmental disorders.

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7. Mahmoodifar E, Sotoodeh MS. Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Selective Motor Training Enhances Balance in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Percept Mot Skills ;2019 (Nov 19):31512519888072.

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8. Marquis SM, McGrail K, Hayes M. Mental health of parents of children with a developmental disability in British Columbia, Canada. J Epidemiol Community Health ;2019 (Nov 19)

BACKGROUND : There is evidence in the literature that parents of children who have a developmental disability experience an increased risk of mental health problems. METHODS : This study used population-level administrative data from the Ministry of Health, British Columbia, Canada, to assess the mental health of parents of children who have a developmental disability compared with the mental health of parents of children who do not have a developmental disability. Population-level and individual explanatory variables available in the data were included in the models. RESULTS : At a population level, the study found strong evidence that parents of children who have a developmental disability experience higher odds of depression or other mental health diagnoses compared with parents of children who do not have a developmental disability. Age of the parent at birth of the child, income and location of healthcare services were all associated with outcomes. CONCLUSION : Parents of children who have a developmental disability may be in need of programmes and services that support their mental health.

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9. Naito M, Hotta C, Toichi M. Development of Episodic Memory and Foresight in High-Functioning Preschoolers with ASD. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Nov 19)

To investigate the early development of episodic memory and future thinking in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we selected 94 participants each from a group of ASD and typically developing (TD) preschoolers. They were required to remember newly-acquired knowledge sources and anticipate action timings necessary for future events. Five-year-old children with ASD remembered their knowledge sources similar to TD children ; however, the 6-year-old children performed more poorly than their TD counterparts. ASD children failed to anticipate future action timings in comparison with TD children. Although source memory and future thinking were related in TD children, they were unrelated in children with ASD. The results suggest that episodic memory and foresight are deficient and unintegrated in ASD children during the preschool years.

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10. Nisar S, Hashem S, Bhat AA, Syed N, Yadav S, Azeem MW, Uddin S, Bagga P, Reddy R, Haris M. Association of genes with phenotype in autism spectrum disorder. Aging (Albany NY) ;2019 (Nov 19) ;11

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a genetic heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impairments in social interaction and speech development and is accompanied by stereotypical behaviors such as body rocking, hand flapping, spinning objects, sniffing and restricted behaviors. The considerable significance of the genetics associated with autism has led to the identification of many risk genes for ASD used for the probing of ASD specificity and shared cognitive features over the past few decades. Identification of ASD risk genes helps to unravel various genetic variants and signaling pathways which are involved in ASD. This review highlights the role of ASD risk genes in gene transcription and translation regulation processes, as well as neuronal activity modulation, synaptic plasticity, disrupted key biological signaling pathways, and the novel candidate genes that play a significant role in the pathophysiology of ASD. The current emphasis on autism spectrum disorders has generated new opportunities in the field of neuroscience, and further advancements in the identification of different biomarkers, risk genes, and genetic pathways can help in the early diagnosis and development of new clinical and pharmacological treatments for ASD.

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11. Ros-Demarize R, Bradley C, Kanne SM, Warren Z, Boan A, Lajonchere C, Park J, Carpenter LA. ASD Symptoms in Toddlers and Preschoolers : An Examination of Sex Differences. Autism Res ;2019 (Nov 20)

Although considerable work has documented higher prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in boys, fewer studies have focused on sex differences within samples of young children at-risk for ASD. This study examined sex differences in ASD symptom domains and ASD screening outcomes among toddlers (18-35 months) and preschoolers (36-72 months) with ASD-related concerns. Participants included 480 children between 18 and 72 months evaluated by university-based ASD specialty clinics. Results revealed significant sex differences in severity of social communication (SC) deficits across age groups. Within the toddler group, girls diagnosed with ASD displayed greater SC deficits according to standardized observation and clinician severity ratings. Within the preschool group, girls diagnosed with ASD were rated by parents as having more severe SC deficits, but these differences were not corroborated by standardized observations or clinician ratings. No sex differences emerged for severity of restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) for either age group. Across the entire referred sample, boys and girls did not differ in terms of scores on commonly used screening instruments. Importantly, results suggest that two of the most commonly used ASD screeners (i.e., Modified-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers-Revised with Follow-up and Social Communication Questionnaire ) may underidentify RRBs in toddler and preschool-aged girls as screening scores were only influenced by severity of SC deficits. Greater SC deficits in young girls with ASD along with its impact on screening status suggests greater attention be placed on the under-identification of ASD in girls as well as current screening measures’ ability to tap into the topography of ASD symptoms across genders. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : In this study, we found that young girls diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder tend to have greater social communication deficits than young boys and that these differences vary by age. Specifically, toddler-aged girls receive higher clinician ratings of social communication deficits when compared to boys, while preschool-aged girls receive higher parent ratings of social communication deficits. For girls, current screening tools seem to be more highly influenced by severity of social communication deficits than by restricted repetitive behaviors.

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12. Satkoske V, Migyanka JM, Kappel D. Autism and Advance Directives : Determining Capability and the Use of Health-Care Tools to Aid in Effective Communication and Decision-Making. Am J Hosp Palliat Care ;2019 (Nov 21):1049909119888621.

With the growing number of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) reaching the age of consent, health-care providers must be prepared to bridge gaps in their knowledge of ASD. This is especially true for clinicians who may have to determine if a person with ASD has the capacity to engage in end-of-life decision making, complete advance directives, or act as a surrogate decision maker for someone else. This paper provides an overview of the unique characteristics of autism as related to the communication, cognitive processing, and the capability to participate in advance care planning and, when acting as a surrogate decision maker, to consider the values and preferences of others. In addition, we examine the roles and responsibilities of clinician as facilitator of shared health-care decision making communication with the individual who has autism. Consideration is given to determining capacity, planning for atypical responses, the impact or lack of influence of the framing effect, and strategies for presenting information. Finally, we will offer health-care providers information and examples for adapting their existing end-of-life decision-making tools and conversation guides to meet the communication needs of persons with ASD.

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13. Teague SJ, Newman LK, Tonge BJ, Gray KM. Attachment and child behaviour and emotional problems in autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ;2019 (Nov 19)

BACKGROUND : Behaviour and emotional problems are highly prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In typically developing children, attachment quality acts as a risk/protective factor for behavioural outcomes and adjustment, warranting investigation in children with ASD. METHOD : We investigated the relationship between attachment and child behaviour and emotional problems in children with ASD and comorbid intellectual disability. Data were collected from parent-child dyads where children were diagnosed with ASD and ID (n = 28) or other developmental disabilities (n = 20). RESULTS : Children with ASD had higher levels of behaviour and emotional problems and more attachment difficulties than children with other developmental disabilities. Poorer attachment quality contributed uniquely to the variance in child behaviour and emotional problems. CONCLUSIONS : Interventions targeting behaviour and emotional problems in children with ASD may benefit from an attachment model which addresses the child’s difficulty in using caregivers as a coregulatory agent of emotions.

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14. Westphal A, Allely C. The Need for a Structured Approach to Violence Risk Assessment in Autism. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ;2019 (Nov 19)

The relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and violence is poorly understood. Several violence risk factors are either modified by or are unique to ASD ; clinicians conducting violence risk assessment of people with ASD must consider these factors. An ASD-specific risk assessment tool is clearly needed. In the absence of this, clinicians often use risk assessment tools designed for other populations, highlighting the importance of establishing their predictive validity in people with ASD. Girardi and colleagues have taken a very important step in this process in their paper, "Assessing the Risk of Inpatient Violence in Autism Spectrum Disorder," by examining whether the Historical Clinical Risk Management-20, Version 3, can predict violence in male patients with ASD in a forensic setting. Further research is needed to design a risk assessment tool specific to ASD and its unique features.

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