Pubmed du 25/11/19

lundi 25 novembre 2019

1. Berkovits LD, Moody CT, Blacher J. "I don’t feel different. But then again, I wouldn’t know what it feels like to be normal" : Perspectives of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2019:10.1007/s10803-10019-04309-10801.

There is minimal research regarding the personal experiences and perceptions of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet, the positive and negative perceptions that youth internalize about their diagnoses are crucial, as they may have a strong impact on individuals’ self-concept and well-being. This paper utilizes mixed methods to describe the perceptions of 38 adolescents with ASD about their diagnoses, as elicited via semi-structured interviews. Quantitative analyses explore links between youths’ perceptions and other aspects of their social-emotional well-being. Implications are highlighted regarding the importance of shifting the narrative that individuals with ASD develop about themselves and their diagnoses.

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2. Ghafouri-Fard S, Namvar A, Arsang-Jang S, Komaki A, Taheri M. Expression Analysis of BDNF, BACE1, and Their Natural Occurring Antisenses in Autistic Patients. Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN ;2019:10.1007/s12031-12019-01432-12037.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a multifaceted neurological syndrome affects many aspects of neuropsychologic functions. Dysregulated expressions of several genes have been documented in ASD patients. The current project aimed at comparison of transcript levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and their natural occurring antisenses in the peripheral blood of ASD individuals (n = 50, male/female = 38/12, age (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) : 6 ± 1.4, age range : 3-8) and matched healthy persons (n = 50, male/female = 37/13, age (mean ± SD) : 6 ± 1.74, age range : 3-8). We demonstrated remarkable higher levels of these genes in ASD patients. BACE1 transcript levels were correlated with transcript levels of BACE1-AS in all study participants. However, BACE1 transcript levels were not correlated with participants’ age. BACE1-AS and BDNF transcript levels were correlated with age in female participants. Significant correlations were detected between transcript levels of BDNF and those of other genes in all study groups. The current results render further indications for contribution of BDNF, BACE1, and their antisenses in the course of ASD and suggested expression levels of these transcripts as putative markers for this neurobehavioral disorder. Such results might be applied in clinical setting for diagnosis of complicated ASD cases.

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3. Girault JB, Piven J. The Neurodevelopment of Autism from Infancy Through Toddlerhood. Neuroimaging clinics of North America ;2020 ;30(1):97-114.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) emerges during early childhood and is marked by a relatively narrow window in which infants transition from exhibiting normative behavioral profiles to displaying the defining features of the ASD phenotype in toddlerhood. Prospective brain imaging studies in infants at high familial risk for autism have revealed important insights into the neurobiology and developmental unfolding of ASD. In this article, we review neuroimaging studies of brain development in ASD from birth through toddlerhood, relate these findings to candidate neurobiological mechanisms, and discuss implications for future research and translation to clinical practice.

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4. Houghton R, de Vries F, Loss G. Psychostimulants/Atomoxetine and Serious Cardiovascular Events in Children with ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder. CNS drugs ;2019:10.1007/s40263-40019-00686-40264.

BACKGROUND : Psychostimulants and atomoxetine have been shown to increase blood pressure, heart rate, and QT interval in children and adolescents ; however, based on current literature, it is unclear if these "attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications" are also associated with serious cardiovascular (SCV) events. We addressed this question in commonly exposed groups of children and adolescents with either ADHD or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS : Using commercial (years 2000-2016) and Medicaid (years 2012-2016) administrative claims data from the United States (US), we conducted two case-control studies, nested within respective cohorts of ADHD and ASD children aged 3-18 years. We defined cases by a composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, or serious cardiac arrhythmia. For each case, we matched ten controls on age, sex, and insurance type. We conducted conditional logistic regression models to test associations between SCV outcomes and a primary exposure definition of current ADHD medication use. Additionally, we controlled for resource use, cardiovascular and psychiatric comorbidities, and use of medications in a variety of sensitivity analyses. RESULTS : We identified 2,240,774 children for the ADHD cohort and 326,221 children for the ASD cohort. For ADHD, 33.9% of cases (63 of 186) versus 32.2% of controls (598 of 1860) were exposed, which yielded an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.08 (0.78-1.49). For ASD, 12.5% of cases (6 of 48) versus 22.1% of controls (106 of 480) were exposed [OR 0.49 (0.20-1.20)]. Covariate-adjusted results and results for individual outcomes and other exposure definitions were consistent with no increased risk of SCV events. CONCLUSION : Using large US claims data, we found no evidence of increased SCV risk in children and adolescents with ADHD or ASD exposed to ADHD medications.

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5. Kaur M, Bhat A. Creative Yoga Intervention Improves Motor and Imitation Skills of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Physical therapy ;2019 ;99(11):1520-1534.

BACKGROUND : There is growing evidence for motor impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including poor gross and fine motor performance, poor balance, and incoordination. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of motor interventions for this population. OBJECTIVE : In the present study, the effects of a physical therapy intervention using creative yoga on the motor and imitation skills of children with ASD were evaluated. DESIGN : This study had a pretest-posttest control group design. METHODS : Twenty-four children with ASD aged between 5 and 13 years received 8 weeks of a physical therapist-delivered yoga or academic intervention. Children were tested before and after the intervention using a standardized motor measure, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Performance-2nd Edition (BOT-2). The imitation skills of children using familiar training-specific actions (ie, poses for the yoga group and building actions for the academic group) were also assessed. RESULTS : After the intervention, children in the yoga group improved gross motor performance on the BOT-2 and displayed fewer imitation/praxis errors when copying training-specific yoga poses. In contrast, children in the academic group improved their fine motor performance on the BOT-2 and performed fewer imitation errors while completing the training-specific building actions. LIMITATIONS : The study limitations include small sample size and lack of long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS : Overall, creative interventions, such as yoga, are promising tools for enhancing the motor and imitation skills of children with ASD.

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6. Lanillos P, Oliva D, Philippsen A, Yamashita Y, Nagai Y, Cheng G. A review on neural network models of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Neural networks : the official journal of the International Neural Network Society ;2019 ;122:338-363.

This survey presents the most relevant neural network models of autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, from the first connectionist models to recent deep neural network architectures. We analyzed and compared the most representative symptoms with its neural model counterpart, detailing the alteration introduced in the network that generates each of the symptoms, and identifying their strengths and weaknesses. We additionally cross-compared Bayesian and free-energy approaches, as they are widely applied to model psychiatric disorders and share basic mechanisms with neural networks. Models of schizophrenia mainly focused on hallucinations and delusional thoughts using neural dysconnections or inhibitory imbalance as the predominating alteration. Models of autism rather focused on perceptual difficulties, mainly excessive attention to environment details, implemented as excessive inhibitory connections or increased sensory precision. We found an excessively tight view of the psychopathologies around one specific and simplified effect, usually constrained to the technical idiosyncrasy of the used network architecture. Recent theories and evidence on sensorimotor integration and body perception combined with modern neural network architectures could offer a broader and novel spectrum to approach these psychopathologies. This review emphasizes the power of artificial neural networks for modeling some symptoms of neurological disorders but also calls for further developing of these techniques in the field of computational psychiatry.

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7. Lomas Mevers J, Call NA, Gerencser KR, Scheithauer M, Miller SJ, Muething C, Hewett S, McCracken C, Scahill L, McElhanon BO. A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial of a Multidisciplinary Intervention for Encopresis in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2019:10.1007/s10803-10019-04305-10805.

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often delayed in achieving bowel continence, resulting in negative outcomes. In this pilot trial, 20 children with ASD and encopresis were randomly assigned to multidisciplinary intervention for encopresis (MIE ; n = 10) or a waitlist control group (n = 10). The MIE group was treated for constipation and received a 10-day behavioral intervention that utilized suppositories to produce predictable bowel movements that were reinforced. Caregivers were trained to implement the intervention. Results support the feasibility of clinical trials of MIE, with high enrolment, competition, attendance, and caregiver acceptability. Preliminary outcomes were positive, with six of 10 in the MIE group achieving continence by the end of treatment compared to 0 in the control group (p = 0.005).Registered at ( ; ID : NCT02383732.

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8. MacDuffie KE, Turner-Brown L, Estes AM, Wilfond BS, Dager SR, Pandey J, Zwaigenbaum L, Botteron KN, Pruett JR, Piven J, Peay HL. "If He Has it, We Know What to Do" : Parent Perspectives on Familial Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of pediatric psychology ;2019:jsz076.

OBJECTIVE : Predictive testing for familial disorders can guide healthcare and reproductive decisions. Familial disorders with onset in childhood (e.g., autism spectrum disorder [ASD]) are promising targets for presymptomatic prediction ; however, little is known about parent perceptions of risk to their children in the presymptomatic period. The current study examined risk perceptions in parents of infants at high familial risk for ASD enrolled in a longitudinal study of brain and behavior development. METHODS : Semistructured interviews were conducted with 37 parents of high-risk infants during the presymptomatic window (3-15 months) that precedes an ASD diagnosis. Infants were identified as high familial risk due to having an older sibling with ASD. Parent interview responses were coded and interpreted to distill emerging themes. RESULTS : The majority of parents were aware of the increased risk of ASD for their infants, and risk perceptions were influenced by comparisons to their older child with ASD. Parents reported a variety of negative emotions in response to perceived risk, including worry, fear, and sadness, and described impacts of perceived risk on their behavior : increased vigilance to emerging symptoms, altered reproductive and healthcare decisions, and seeking ongoing assessment through research. CONCLUSIONS : Parents of children at high familial risk for childhood-onset disorders like ASD face a period of challenging uncertainty during early development. In anticipation of a future in which presymptomatic testing for ASD is made available, it is important to understand how parents react to and cope with the elevated-but still highly uncertain-risk conveyed by family history.

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9. Nyrenius J, Billstedt E. The functional impact of cognition in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry ;2019:1-6.

Purpose and aim : The overall aim of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptive function and cognitive factors in young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adult age.Methods : The study included 30 adults (age 18-30) diagnosed with ASD in adulthood. All participants were clinically referred to an adult psychiatric clinic for assessment. Adaptive functioning was measured with Adaptive Behavior Assessment System - 2nd edition (parent version). Wechsler scales of intelligence and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System were used to measure intelligence and executive function.Results : We found considerable adaptive functioning deficits regardless of Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) level. FSIQ, working memory and processing speed were positively associated with adaptive functioning. No associations were found between adaptive functioning and cognitive flexibility, inhibition, word generation or shifting. Regression analysis showed that working memory and processing speed predicted 23% of the variance in adaptive functioning in this group.Conclusions : The results suggest that cognitive dysfunction could be an important area for intervention to improve adaptive functioning in ASD. years) diagnosed with ASD in adult age. We found considerable adaptive functioning deficits regardless of IQ level. IQ, working memory and processing speed were positively associated with adaptive functioning. No association was found between adaptive functioning and cognitive flexibility, inhibition, word generation or shifting. Our results suggest that working memory and processing speed predict 23% of the variance in adaptive functioning in this group. The results suggest that cognitive dysfunction could be an important area for targeted support in the ASD group.

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10. O’Sullivan OP. Autism spectrum disorder in prison and secure care. Irish journal of psychological medicine ;2019:1-3.

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11. Rynkiewicz A, Janas-Kozik M, Słopień A. Girls and women with autism. Psychiatria polska ;2019 ;53(4):737-752.

Girls and women with autism are often undiagnosed, misdiagnosed or receive a diagnosis of autism at later age. This can result in adverse outcomes in their well-being, mental health, education, employment, and independence. The diagnosis of autism spectrum condition/disorder (hereinafter referred to as autism), with its current features linked with descriptions in the major diagnostic classification systems, is based primarily on observations and research on males. The term ’Autism Spectrum Condition’ (ASC), used in this paper, has been coined by Simon Baron-Cohen and used in the professional literature for a decade to respect these individuals on the autism spectrum who feel that the term ’disorder’is stigmatizing, whereas ASC presents both the strengths of these people and difficulties they experience. The research shows that autism in females has unique symptomatology and manifests itself differently, more subtly, especially in high-functioning girls and women, i.e., those with fluent speech, average or above-average intelligence quotient. The research also shows diagnostic stereotypes and lack of required sensitivity to identify autistic females. Additionally they do not reflect the unique presentation of autism in females demonstrated by greater compensatory capacity and an ability to develop sophisticated methods of ’camouflaging’and masquerading. Furthermore, autism in females is associated with high comorbidity during adolescence including anxiety disorder, tic disorder, depression, high incidence of suicide, eating disorders, and high rates of other medical problems. Timely diagnosis, however, can reduce the difficulties that females with autism experience over their lifetime, allowing for the assessment of their needs regarding health, education, leisure, social relationships, and employment.

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12. Sandbank M, Bottema-Beutel K, Crowley S, Cassidy M, Dunham K, Feldman JI, Crank J, Albarran SA, Raj S, Mahbub P, Woynaroski TG. Project AIM : Autism intervention meta-analysis for studies of young children. Psychological bulletin ;2019:10.1037/bul0000215.

In this comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of group design studies of nonpharmacological early interventions designed for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we report summary effects across 7 early intervention types (behavioral, developmental, naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention [NDBI], TEACCH, sensory-based, animal-assisted, and technology-based), and 15 outcome categories indexing core and related ASD symptoms. A total of 1,615 effect sizes were gathered from 130 independent participant samples. A total of 6,240 participants, who ranged in age from 0-8 years, are represented across the studies. We synthesized effects within intervention and outcome type using a robust variance estimation approach to account for the nesting of effect sizes within studies. We also tracked study quality indicators, and report an additional set of summary effect sizes that restrict included studies to those meeting prespecified quality indicators. Finally, we conducted moderator analyses to evaluate whether summary effects across intervention types were larger for proximal as compared with distal effects, and for context-bound as compared to generalized effects. We found that when study quality indicators were not taken into account, significant positive effects were found for behavioral, developmental, and NDBI intervention types. When effect size estimation was limited to studies with randomized controlled trial (RCT) designs, evidence of positive summary effects existed only for developmental and NDBI intervention types. This was also the case when outcomes measured by parent report were excluded. Finally, when effect estimation was limited to RCT designs and to outcomes for which there was no risk of detection bias, no intervention types showed significant effects on any outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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13. Satterstrom FK, Walters RK, Singh T, Wigdor EM, Lescai F, Demontis D, Kosmicki JA, Grove J, Stevens C, Bybjerg-Grauholm J, Bækvad-Hansen M, Palmer DS, Maller JB, i P-BC, Nordentoft M, Mors O, Robinson EB, Hougaard DM, Werge TM, Bo Mortensen P, Neale BM, Børglum AD, Daly MJ. Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a similar burden of rare protein-truncating variants. Nature neuroscience ;2019:10.1038/s41593-41019-40527-41598.

The exome sequences of approximately 8,000 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 5,000 controls were analyzed, finding that individuals with ASD and individuals with ADHD had a similar burden of rare protein-truncating variants in evolutionarily constrained genes, both significantly higher than controls. This motivated a combined analysis across ASD and ADHD, identifying microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A) as a new exome-wide significant gene conferring risk for childhood psychiatric disorders.

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14. Tan M, Yang T, Zhu J, Li Q, Lai X, Li Y, Tang T, Chen J, Li T. Maternal folic acid and micronutrient supplementation is associated with vitamin levels and symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) ;2019:S0890-6238(0819)30523-30524.

To explore possible associations between maternal use of micronutrient supplements and the subsequent vitamin levels and symptoms in offspring with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a total of 416 children with ASD and 201 typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. The children born to mothers without folic acid (FA) and micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy had more severe social cognition impairments, social communication impairments, autism behaviour mannerisms, developmental delays in adaptive and gross motor behaviour and gastrointestinal problems than children born to mothers who used FA and micronutrient supplements (P<0.05). Interestingly, there was an association between maternal micronutrient supplementation and vitamin A (VA), vitamin D (VD) and folate levels in the ASD children (P<0.05), and levels of these vitamins also were associated with symptoms of ASD. Maternal FA and/or micronutrient supplementation may potentially moderate the symptoms of ASD. Interrupting the chain of micronutrient deficiencies between pregnant mothers and children may be beneficial in improving symptoms of ASD.

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15. Tan Y, Sgobio C, Arzberger T, Machleid F, Tang Q, Findeis E, Tost J, Chakroun T, Gao P, Höllerhage M, Bötzel K, Herms J, Höglinger G, Koeglsperger T. Loss of fragile X mental retardation protein precedes Lewy pathology in Parkinson’s disease. Acta neuropathologica ;2019:10.1007/s00401-00019-02099-00405.

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the gradual appearance of α-synuclein (α-syn)-containing neuronal protein aggregates. Although the exact mechanism of α-syn-mediated cell death remains elusive, recent research suggests that α-syn-induced alterations in neuronal excitability contribute to cell death in PD. Because the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) controls the expression and function of numerous neuronal genes related to neuronal excitability and synaptic function, we here investigated the role of FMRP in α-syn-associated pathological changes in cell culture and mouse models of PD as well as in post-mortem human brain tissue from PD patients. We found FMRP to be decreased in cultured DA neurons and in the mouse brain in response to α-syn overexpression. FMRP was, furthermore, lost in the SNc of PD patients and in patients with early stages of incidental Lewy body disease (iLBD). Unlike fragile X syndrome (FXS), FMR1 expression in response to α-syn was regulated by a mechanism involving Protein Kinase C (PKC) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Reminiscent of FXS neurons, α-syn-overexpressing cells exhibited an increase in membrane N-type calcium channels, increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, eIF4E and S6, increased overall protein synthesis, and increased expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). FMRP affected neuronal function in a PD animal model, because FMRP-KO mice were resistant to the effect of α-syn on striatal dopamine release. In summary, our results thus reveal a new role of FMRP in PD and support the examination of FMRP-regulated genes in PD disease progression.

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16. Turbé H, Waeckel L, Dechelotte B. Overview of prospects for inflammation pathways in autism spectrum disorders. L’Encephale ;2019:S0013-7006(0019)30275-30271.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders which are both severe and frequent. Understanding its pathophysiology could lead to identifying promising new markers and treatments. For years, a growing number of studies have pointed to an important involvement of the immuno-inflammatory system in ASD. Extensive reviews have already addressed this topic. Yet, this field of investigations is not well known to practitioners even those working with ASD patients. Our main objective is to provide an introduction to these new insights through a mini review of the literature. A first field of antenatal studies connects fetal features and maternal infections to ASD by means of the participation of maternal immune activation (MIA) associated with the production of a particular pro inflammatory cytokinic profile with IL-1, IL-6 and TNF and IL-17. Maternal autoantibodies and other immune-related disorders can also lead to impairment of fetal neurodevelopment. Other postnatal studies have shown the correlation between ASD and autoantibodies and between ASD and inflammatory environment through impaired interleukin levels (IL-6 being the most extensively investigated). Disruption of intestinal microbiota appears to be a possible pathogenic mechanism of ASD. The growing paths opened recently between immunology and psychiatry appear to be promising in the understanding of ASD. It could eventually participate in the development of diagnostic markers and help the emergence of new personalized therapeutics suitable for these patients.

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17. Waligóra A, Waligóra S, Kozarska M, Damasiewicz-Bodzek A, Gorczyca P, Tyrpień-Golder K. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - biomarkers of oxidative stress and methylation and transsulfuration cycle. Psychiatria polska ;2019 ;53(4):771-788.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects people from all regions of the globe, regardless of nationality, living standards or social group. Currently, it is assumed that ASD pathogenesis is multifactorial because there is no one specific cause of the disorder. According to literature, ASD may result from genetic defects, metabolic disorders or exposure to environmental factors. There is a number of hypotheses that attempt to explain the intensity of emotional and behavioral symptoms or the increased sensory threshold that is characteristic of ASD. It is suggested that neurological changes may be due to oxidative stress occurring in early brain tissue development and reduced antioxidative barrier. Due to the abnormalities in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, often occurring in ASD, autism is investigated for disorders of vital biochemical processes of methylation and transsulfuration. Finding a biomarker for a disturbed oxidative-reduction equilibrium, methylation pathway pathology, or other reason could be an important diagnostic tool and the base for individual treatment for patients with varying degrees of severity. This work provides a review of the potential biological indicators for ASD taking into account the occurrence of oxidative stress and the methylation and transsulfuration cycles.

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18. Waligórska A, Kucharczyk S, Waligórski M, Kuncewicz-Sosnowska K, Kalisz K, Odom SL. National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (NPDC) model - an integrated model of evidence-based practices for autism spectrum disorder. Psychiatria polska ;2019 ;53(4):753-770.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a serious neurodevelopmental condition requires intensive and comprehensive interventions, particularly interventions found to be effective through rigorous research. The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (NPDC) was formed in the USAin order to conduct a comprehensive review of ASD-related evidence-based practices (EBPs) and to create amodelof implementing such practices for children, adolescents and young adults (from preschool to high school education level). The NPDC final review, being the most comprehensive to date (the initial search included 29,105 articles) identified 27 ASD-focused EBPs. In addition to the resulting matrix of the autism-related EBPs, and the e-learning moduleson the identified interventions, the NPDC model includes as well the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale (APERS) for external evaluation and self-assessment, goal attainment scaling (GAS) and coaching program manual. To date, the model has been implemented in 12 states in the USAand is being introduced in several other countries including Australia, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, and Poland. The purpose of this article is to present the NPDC model and its components, along with the relevant research.

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19. Yang Y-C, Lu L, Jeng S-F, Tsao P-N, Cheong P-L, Li Y-J, Wang S-Y, Huang H-C, Wu Y-T. Multidimensional Developments and Free-Play Movement Tracking in 30- to 36-Month-Old Toddlers With Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Were Full Term. Physical therapy ;2019 ;99(11):1535-1550.

BACKGROUND : Few studies have investigated multidimensional developments and free-play movement performance in toddlers with an early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVE : This study compared cognitive, motor, and behavioral developments and free-play movement performance in toddlers with ASD who were full term (FT-ASD), toddlers who were full term and are typically developing (FT-TD), and toddlers who were born preterm and had a very low birth weight (VLBW-PT). DESIGN : This was a prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS : Forty-five 30- to 36-month-old age-matched toddlers were recruited and divided into FT-ASD, FT-TD, and VLBW-PT groups. Their developments were examined using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning ; the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition ; the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5 to 5 ; and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised. In addition, the toddlers’ free-play movements were tracked in laboratory settings using an automatic movement tracking system. RESULTS : Toddlers with FT-ASD exhibited lower cognitive and motor scores and a higher degree of behavioral problems compared with toddlers with FT-TD or VLBW-PT. Furthermore, the movement tracking data in a free-play setting revealed that toddlers with FT-ASD displayed a higher degree of turning velocity, a higher moving time, and a higher frequency of moving toward the peripheral region compared with toddlers with FT-TD or VLBW-PT. Moreover, several motor developmental and movement-tracking indicators were found to correlate with behavioral problems and cognitive scores in toddlers with FT-ASD. LIMITATIONS : The study results may have been affected by the small sample size, the cross-sectional design, and tracking only the whole body without subtle movements or segmental motions. CONCLUSIONS : The findings suggest varied aspects of co-occurring developmental conditions and movement-based problems in toddlers with FT-ASD. Using standardized and sensitive measures for the early assessment of perceptuo-motor impairments is necessary for timely early intervention for such toddlers.

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