Pubmed du 30/11/19

samedi 30 novembre 2019

1. Aransih MP, Edison RE. The Naturalness of Biological Movement by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Conditions : Taking Neurotypical Individuals’ Viewpoint. Open Access Maced J Med Sci ;2019 (Aug 30) ;7(16):2574-2578.

BACKGROUND : When an action is being observed, it is matched to the observer’s internal representation of the action. The more similar, the more the action is perceived as natural. A factor influencing judgement of naturalness is the kinematic features of a movement. However, these features could be altered due to certain conditions that can modify movement such as Autism Spectrum Disorders. As a result, neurotypical observers may fail to interpret the action due to impaired naturalness. AIM : This work aims to investigate (1) whether neurotypical observers judge the autistic individuals’ movement as less natural, (2) which kinematic factors (jerk, acceleration, velocity and size) contribute to their perception and (3) whether cue reliance correlates with autistic traits. METHODS : Thirty neurotypical participants (20 - 33 years old ; 15 males) completed autistic trait screening questionnaires (ADC, TAS-20, AQ). They completed a computer task showing 2D side-to-side arm movements recorded from neurotypical and autistic individuals. Finally, they rated the naturalness of the observed movements, and how certain they were with their answer. RESULTS : There was a significant difference between the participants’ perception of naturalness of the two movement groups. Jerk, acceleration and velocity contributed to shaping the participants’ perception with a jerk as the most significant factor. The correlation between the participants’ autistic trait and both their perception of naturalness as well as of each kinematic cue were not significant. CONCLUSION : Our neurotypical participants perceived the autistic movements as less natural. Their perceptions were influenced mainly by the jerk as well as acceleration and velocity of the autistic movements. Autistic traits in the participants did not correlate to their perception of movement naturalness nor to any of the kinematic factors.

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2. Bejarano-Martin A, Canal-Bedia R, Magan-Maganto M, Fernandez-Alvarez C, Martin-Cilleros MV, Sanchez-Gomez MC, Garcia-Primo P, Rose-Sweeney M, Boilson A, Linertova R, Roeyers H, Van der Paelt S, Schendel D, Warberg C, Cramer S, Narzisi A, Muratori F, Scattoni ML, Moilanen I, Yliherva A, Saemundsen E, Loa Jonsdottir S, Efrim-Budisteanu M, Arghir A, Papuc SM, Vicente A, Rasga C, Roge B, Guillon Q, Baduel S, Kafka JX, Poustka L, Kothgassner OD, Kawa R, Pisula E, Sellers T, Posada de la Paz M. Correction to : Early Detection, Diagnosis and Intervention Services for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the European Union (ASDEU) : Family and Professional Perspectives. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Nov 28)

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in one of the co-author’s family name. The correct name should be Maria Victoria Martin-Cilleros instead of Maria Victoria Cilleros-Martin.

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3. Brazendale K, Brazendale A, Garcia JM, Leahy N, McDonald AA, Kenney M, Weaver RG, Beets MW. Breaking tradition : Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time of children with developmental disabilities. Disabil Health J ;2019 (Nov 20):100869.

BACKGROUND : Children with developmental disabilities (DD) are less active and more sedentary than their typically developing peers. There is a lack of research exploring strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time in children with DD. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS : The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time of children with DD attending a summer day camp in modified versus traditional physical activity sessions. It was hypothesized that youth with DD would spend a greater amount of time in MVPA and less time sedentary during modified compared to traditional activity sessions. METHODS : Fifty-two children (mean age 11.5 years, 84% male, 81% non-Hispanic white, 90% DD diagnosis) attending a specialized summer day camp participated in counterbalanced physical activity sessions for 8 weeks receiving either games/activities in their ’traditional’ manner versus a modified approach. The modified approach incorporated a physical activity promotion strategy with a social narrative. Repeated measures mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate accelerometer-derived MVPA and sedentary time. RESULTS : Children increased the percent of time spent in MVPA and reduced sedentary time in 3 out of the 4 modified physical activities compared to traditional activity physical sessions across (p < 0.05). Modified soccer and kickball presented the highest increase in MVPA (5.9, 95%CI : 2.9, 8.8%) and reduction in sedentary time (-8.9, 95%CI : -13.9, -4.0%), respectively. CONCLUSION : Modifying existing physical activities by combining a physical activity-promoting strategy with a social narrative is a promising approach to increase MVPA and reduce sedentary time in children with DD.

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4. Cardillo R, Lanfranchi S, Mammarella IC. A cross-task comparison on visuospatial processing in autism spectrum disorders. Autism ;2019 (Nov 28):1362361319888341.

This study aimed to draw a cross-task comparison on visuospatial processing in autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Participants with autism spectrum disorder were matched with typically developing individuals on general intelligence and perceptual reasoning index. The two groups were subsequently compared on visuospatial processing speed, visuo-perceptual, visuo-constructive, and visuospatial working memory tasks. Our results revealed similar performances between autism spectrum disorder and typically developing individuals on measures of visuospatial processing speed and visuospatial working memory. The autism spectrum disorder group showed slower reaction times than the typically developing group in the visuo-perceptual task, when stimuli were characterized by a minimum level of perceptual cohesiveness, revealing weaker spatial integration abilities. Concerning the visuo-constructive domain, no differences between the autism spectrum disorder and the typically developing group emerged for the unsegmented condition, revealing that our participants with autism spectrum disorder were similar to the typically developing group in the local analysis of the stimuli. The discussion takes into account the role of individual differences on visuospatial intelligence, task requirements, and cognitive domains to clarify the visuospatial processing skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

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5. Demetriou EA, DeMayo MM, Guastella AJ. Executive Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder : History, Theoretical Models, Empirical Findings, and Potential as an Endophenotype. Front Psychiatry ;2019 ;10:753.

This review presents an outline of executive function (EF) and its application to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of the EF construct, theoretical models of EF, and limitations in the study of EF are outlined. The potential of EF as a cognitive endophenotype for ASD is reviewed, and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework is discussed for researching EF in ASD given the multifaceted factors that influence EF performance. A number of executive-focused cognitive models have been proposed to explain the symptom clusters observed in ASD. Empirical studies suggest a broad impairment in EF, although there is significant inter-individual variability in EF performance. The observed heterogeneity of EF performance is considered a limiting factor in establishing EF as a cognitive endophenotype in ASD. We propose, however, that this variability in EF performance presents an opportunity for subtyping within the spectrum that can contribute to targeted diagnostic and intervention strategies. Enhanced understanding of the neurobiological basis that underpins EF performance, such as the excitation/inhibition hypothesis, will likely be important. Application of the RDoC framework could provide clarity on the nature of EF impairment in ASD with potential for greater understanding of, and improved interventions for, this disorder.

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6. Deste G, Vita A, Penn DL, Pinkham AE, Nibbio G, Harvey PD. Autistic symptoms predict social cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res ;2019 (Nov 25)

Schizophrenia spectrum disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) share many similarities. Among those features, social cognitive impairment is recognized as a key characteristic of both ASD and schizophrenia. In this study, the role of ASD symptoms, measured with the PANSS Autism Severity Score (PAUSS), was investigated as a predictor of social cognitive performance in patients with Schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Existent databases from 2 studies (SCOPE Phase 3 and SCOPE Phase 5), in which a total of 361 patients (mean age 41.7 years ; 117 females) were assessed with tests of mental state attribution and emotion recognition, were analyzed. Less severe ASD symptoms, as well as younger age, better premorbid IQ, and neurocognition were identified as individual predictors of better social cognitive performance. These results suggest a role of ASD symptoms in affecting social cognitive performance in schizophrenia.

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7. Garfield T, Yudell M. Commentary 2 : Participatory Justice and Ethics in Autism Research. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ;2019 (Dec) ;14(5):455-457.

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8. Grandgeorge M, Lemasson A, Hausberger M, Koda H, Masataka N. Enhanced cognitive processing by viewing snakes in children with autism spectrum disorder. A preliminary study. BMC Psychol ;2019 (Nov 27) ;7(1):74.

BACKGROUND : Prioritization of the processing of threatening stimuli induces deleterious effects on task performance. However, emotion evoked by viewing images of snakes exerts a facilitating effect upon making judgments of their color in neurotypical adults and schoolchildren. We attempted to confirm this in school and preschool children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). METHODS : Forty French children participated and corresponded to two age groups : a group of schoolchildren and a group of preschool children, each group including 10 children with typical development and 10 children with ASD. Each participant was exposed to 120 trials composed of 20 photographs of snakes and 20 photographs of flowers, each of which appeared 3 times (in red, green and blue). Participants were asked to indicate the color of each image as quickly as possible via key-press. A three-way analysis of variance test for reaction time (RT) considering image type (IMAGE), participant group (PARTICIPANT), and age (AGE) as main effects and its interaction terms was performed for each subject. RESULTS : When the reaction time required to respond to presented stimuli was measured, schoolchildren tended to respond faster when stimuli were snake images than when stimuli were flower images whether the children had or did not have ASD. For the 5-to-6-year-old preschool participants, the difference between reaction time for the color-naming of snake images and flower images was ambiguous overall. CONCLUSIONS : There were possible odd color-specific effects in children with ASD when images were presented to the children in green. Implications of the findings are argued with respect to active avoidance or attraction as one of the behavioral characteristics commonly noted in children with ASD.

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9. Kapitsa IG, Kalinina AP, Alymov AA, Voronina TA, Seredenin SB. Afobazole Alleviates Cognitive Rigidity in Experimental Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Bull Exp Biol Med ;2019 (Nov 27)

Afobazole (10 mg/kg) alleviated cognitive rigidity in BALB/c mice, a phenotypic model of autism spectrum disorders. It improved spatial memory and retraining in T-maze with drinking reinforcement and restored the retrieval of acquired skill during reversal learning in Morris water maze.

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10. Kasthurirathne R, Forrest K, Ross J, Patel R. Nasalance in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Int J Speech Lang Pathol ;2019 (Nov 27):1-9.

Purpose : Listener judgments indicate atypical nasal resonance in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) ; however, listener perceptions are susceptible to bias and may give unreliable information about a speaker’s production of nasal resonance. The current study used Nasometry to obtain an objective estimation of nasal resonance among adolescents with ASD and neurotypical controls.Method : The Nasometer II 6450 (PENTAX Medical, Lincoln Park, New Jersey) was used to collect nasalance from adolescents aged 15-17 years with ASD (n = 11) and matched controls (n = 11) across two separate speech tasks : (1) passage reading and (2) spontaneous speech.Result : Adolescents with ASD evidenced significantly higher nasalance scores compared to controls, particularly in the passage loaded with bilabial plosives and some nasals (Bobby) as well as non-nasal words extracted from spontaneous speech. In addition, adolescents with ASD had significantly higher nasalance ratios than controls. Significant group differences were driven by a subset of participants with ASD.Conclusion : Perceptual judgements of nasality noted in previous autism studies are quantified by an increase in nasal energy compared to oral energy. The current data suggest hypernasality is present in a subset of people with ASD rather than being a general feature of speech in autism.

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11. Lucas C, Mahler K, Tierney CD, Olympia RP. School Nurses on the Front Lines of Health Care : How to Help Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder Navigate a Meltdown in School. NASN Sch Nurse ;2019 (Nov 28):1942602x19890564.

Through a presented case scenario, this article describes the assessment and management of behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the pediatric population, with mnemonics as a memory tool. Although students present mainly to the school nurses’ office with physical complaints, there are many mental health concerns in the school-age population with emotional and physical consequences, particularly among students with ASD. Typically considered a developmental disorder, ASD affects communication and behavior with a wide range of symptoms that can vary in severity from person to person. It is important to understand the presentation and management of common pediatric mental health issues at school to be on the front line of your students’ health.

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12. Pellicano E, Stears M. Commentary 1 : Weksler-Derri et al.’s "Ethical Challenges in Participatory Research with Autistic Adults in Israel". J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ;2019 (Dec) ;14(5):452-454.

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13. Potter LA, Scholze DA, Biag HMB, Schneider A, Chen Y, Nguyen DV, Rajaratnam A, Rivera SM, Dwyer PS, Tassone F, Al Olaby RR, Choudhary NS, Salcedo-Arellano MJ, Hagerman RJ. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Sertraline in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Front Psychiatry ;2019 ;10:810.

Objective : Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like sertraline have been shown in observational studies and anecdotal reports to improve language development in young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS). A previous controlled trial of sertraline in young children with FXS found significant improvement in expressive language development as measured by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) among those with comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in post hoc analysis, prompting the authors to probe whether sertraline is also indicated in nonsyndromic ASD. Methods : The authors evaluated the efficacy of 6 months of treatment with low-dose sertraline in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 58 children with ASD aged 24 to 72 months. Results : 179 subjects were screened for eligibility, and 58 were randomized to sertraline (32) or placebo (26). Eight subjects from the sertraline arm and five from the placebo arm discontinued. Intent-to-treat analysis showed no significant difference from placebo on the primary outcomes (MSEL expressive language raw score and age equivalent combined score) or secondary outcomes. Sertraline was well tolerated, with no difference in side effects between sertraline and placebo groups. No serious adverse events possibly related to study treatment occurred. Conclusion : This randomized controlled trial of sertraline treatment showed no benefit with respect to primary or secondary outcome measures. For the 6-month period, treatment in young children with ASD appears safe, although the long-term side effects of low-dose sertraline in early childhood are unknown. Clinical Trial Registration : www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02385799.

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14. Prosperi M, Santocchi E, Muratori F, Narducci C, Calderoni S, Tancredi R, Morales MA, Guiducci L. Vocal and motor behaviors as a possible expression of gastrointestinal problems in preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. BMC Pediatr ;2019 (Nov 29) ;19(1):466.

BACKGROUND : Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are one of the most frequent comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but can be under-recognized due to the concomitant communication difficulties of this population. Accordingly, some associated behaviors (AB) such as verbal and motor behaviors (VB and MB, respectively) have been identified as a possible expression of an underlying GI problem and evaluated through an ad hoc questionnaire (the Associated Behaviors Questionnaire -ABQ-). The aims of this study were to investigate the presence and the type of AB in an Italian sample of ASD preschoolers, and to determine their correlations with GI problems. METHODS : We included 85 ASD preschoolers (mean age 4.14 years ; SD 1.08) splitted into two groups (GI and No-GI) through the GI Severity Index instrument. AB were evaluated through the ABQ that includes VB, MB and Changes in overall state (C) clusters. Specific tools were administered to evaluate the ASD core ad associated symptoms, as well as the intellective and adaptive functioning. RESULTS : The GI group (N = 30) showed significantly higher scores in all the three ABQ areas (VB, MB and C) than the No-GI group (N = 55), with a positive correlation between GI symptoms and some specific AB as well as ABQ Total score. By dividing the whole sample in verbal and non-verbal individuals, both specific and shared AB emerged in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS : Our results alert clinicians to consider behavioral manifestations as a possible expression of GI problems in ASD subjects. Therefore, the evaluation of AB may be useful to identify the presence of GI problems in the ASD populations, and especially in non-verbal ASD children.

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15. Riva V, Marino C, Piazza C, Riboldi EM, Mornati G, Molteni M, Cantiani C. Paternal-but Not Maternal-Autistic Traits Predict Frontal EEG Alpha Asymmetry in Infants with Later Symptoms of Autism. Brain Sci ;2019 (Nov 26) ;9(12)

Previous research found that the parental autism phenotype is associated with child autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even if the pathway between autistic traits in parents and child ASD is still largely unknown. Several studies investigated frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillation (FAA) as an early marker for ASD. However, no study has examined the mediational effect of FAA between parental autistic traits and child ASD symptoms in the general population. We carried out a prospective study of 103 typically developing infants and measured FAA as a mediator between both maternal and paternal autistic traits and child ASD traits. We recorded infant baseline electroencephalogram (EEG) at 6 months of age. Child ASD symptoms were measured at age 24 months by the Child Behavior Checklist 1(1/2)-5 Pervasive Developmental Problems Scale, and parental autistic traits were scored by the Autism spectrum Quotient questionnaire. The mediation model showed that paternal vs. maternal autistic traits are associated with greater left FAA which, in turn, is associated with more child ASD traits with a significant indirect effect only in female infants vs. male infants. Our findings show a potential cascade of effects whereby paternal autistic traits drive EEG markers contributing to ASD risk.

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16. Rossetti Z, Lee CE, Burke M, Hall S. Perspectives about adult sibling relationships : A dyadic analysis of siblings with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities. Res Dev Disabil ;2019 (Nov 26) ;96:103538.

Most siblings of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) report positive sibling relationships. However, extant research often only examines the perspective of the nondisabled sibling ; it is unclear whether siblings with IDD report close sibling relationships. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand adult sibling relationships from the perspectives of both siblings with and without IDD. Using dyadic interviews, we examined the perspectives of eight adult sibling dyads. The study was conducted in the United States. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis and cross-case analysis to identify themes within and across dyads. Overall, siblings with and without IDD reported enjoying spending time with one another. However, siblings with and without Down syndrome (versus autism spectrum disorder) reported more reciprocal sibling relationships, more frequent contact, and a greater range of shared activities. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

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17. Ruggeri A, Dancel A, Johnson R, Sargent B. The effect of motor and physical activity intervention on motor outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder : A systematic review. Autism ;2019 (Nov 29):1362361319885215.

Difficulty performing age-appropriate motor skills affects up to 83% of children with autism spectrum disorder. This systematic review examined the effect of motor and physical activity intervention on motor outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder and the effect of motor learning strategies on motor skill acquisition, retention, and transfer. Six databases were searched from 2000 to 2019. Forty-one studies were included : 34 intervention studies and 7 motor learning studies. The overall quality of the evidence was low. Participants included 1173 children with autism spectrum disorder ranging from 3 to 19 years. Results from level II and III intervention studies supported that participation outcomes improved with a physical education intervention ; activity outcomes improved with aquatic, motor activity, motor skill, and simulated horse riding interventions ; and body structure and function outcomes improved with aquatic, exergaming, motor activity, motor skill, and simulated horse riding interventions. Results from level II and III motor learning studies supported that motor skill acquisition improved with visual, versus verbal, instructions but was not influenced by differences in instructional personnel. More rigorous research on motor intervention is needed with well-controlled study designs, adequate sample sizes, and manualized protocols. In addition, research on motor learning strategies is warranted as it generalizes across motor interventions.

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18. Russell A, Gaunt DM, Cooper K, Barton S, Horwood J, Kessler D, Metcalfe C, Ensum I, Ingham B, Parr JR, Rai D, Wiles N. The feasibility of low-intensity psychological therapy for depression co-occurring with autism in adults : The Autism Depression Trial study - a pilot randomised controlled trial. Autism ;2019 (Nov 29):1362361319889272.

Low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy including behavioural activation is an evidence-based treatment for depression, a condition frequently co-occurring with autism. The feasibility of adapting low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy for depression to meet the needs of autistic adults via a randomised controlled trial was investigated. The adapted intervention (guided self-help) comprised materials for nine individual sessions with a low-intensity psychological therapist. Autistic adults (n = 70) with depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score 10) recruited from National Health Service adult autism services and research cohorts were randomly allocated to guided self-help or treatment as usual. Outcomes at 10-, 16- and 24-weeks post-randomisation were blind to treatment group. Rates of retention in the study differed by treatment group with more participants attending follow-up in the guided self-help group than treatment as usual. The adapted intervention was well-received, 86% (n = 30/35) of participants attended the pre-defined ’dose’ of five sessions of treatment and 71% (25/35) attended all treatment sessions. The findings of this pilot randomised controlled trial indicate that low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy informed by behavioural activation can be successfully adapted to meet the needs of autistic people. Evaluation of the effectiveness of this intervention in a full scale randomised controlled trial is now warranted.

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19. Talbott MR, Dufek S, Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson S, Brian J, Smith IM, Rogers SJ. Brief Report : Preliminary Feasibility of the TEDI : A Novel Parent-Administered Telehealth Assessment for Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in the First Year of Life. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Nov 27)

Families with early concerns about infant symptoms of ASD have limited access to experienced professionals for screening and guidance. Telehealth has been used to reduce access disparities in other pediatric populations and has shown promise in parent-implemented interventions for ASD. We investigated the feasibility of a novel level-2 telehealth assessment of infants’ early social communication and ASD symptoms, the Telehealth Evaluation of Development for Infants (TEDI). Parents of eleven infants aged 6-12 months were coached to administer specific semi-structured behavioral probes. Initial feasibility, reliability, and acceptability benchmarks were met. These findings suggest the feasibility of screening infants via telehealth, and are supportive of further large-scale efforts to validate this method for longitudinal monitoring of symptomatic infants in community settings.

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20. West MJ, Angwin AJ, Copland DA, Arnott WL, Nelson NL. Cross-modal emotion recognition and autism-like traits in typically developing children. J Exp Child Psychol ;2019 (Nov 26) ;191:104737.

The ability to explicitly recognize emotions develops gradually throughout childhood, and children usually have greater difficulty in recognizing emotions from the voice than from the face. However, little is known about how children integrate vocal and facial cues to recognize an emotion, particularly during mid to late childhood. Furthermore, children with an autism spectrum disorder often show a reduced ability to recognize emotions, especially when integrating emotion from multiple modalities. The current preliminary study explored the ability of typically developing children aged 7-9 years to match emotional tones of voice to facial expressions and whether this ability varies according to the level of autism-like traits. Overall, children were the least accurate when matching happy and fearful voices to faces, commonly pairing happy voices with angry faces and fearful voices with sad faces. However, the level of autism-like traits was not associated with matching accuracy. These results suggest that 7- to 9-year-old children have difficulty in integrating vocal and facial emotional expressions but that differences in cross-modal emotion matching in relation to the broader autism phenotype are not evident in this task for this age group with the current sample.

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21. Xu L, Geng X, He X, Li J, Yu J. Prediction in Autism by Deep Learning Short-Time Spontaneous Hemodynamic Fluctuations. Front Neurosci ;2019 ;13:1120.

This study aims to explore the possibility of using a multilayer artificial neural network for the classification between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children based on short-time spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations. Spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations were collected by a functional near-infrared spectroscopy setup from bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and temporal cortex in 25 children with ASD and 22 TD children. To perform feature extraction and classification, a multilayer neural network called CGRNN was used which combined a convolution neural network (CNN) and a gate recurrent unit (GRU), since CGRNN has a strong ability in finding characteristic features and acquiring intrinsic relationship in time series. For the training and predicting, short-time (7 s) time-series raw functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals were used as the input of the network. To avoid the over-fitting problem and effectively extract useful differentiation features from a sample with a very limited size (e.g., 25 ASDs and 22 TDs), a sliding window approach was utilized in which the initially recorded long-time (e.g., 480 s) time-series was divided into many partially overlapped short-time (7 s) sequences. By using this combined deep-learning network, a high accurate classification between ASD and TD could be achieved even with a single optical channel, e.g., 92.2% accuracy, 85.0% sensitivity, and 99.4% specificity. This result implies that the multilayer neural network CGRNN can identify characteristic features associated with ASD even in a short-time spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuation from a single optical channel, and second, the CGRNN can provide highly accurate prediction in ASD.

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