Pubmed du 02/12/19

lundi 2 décembre 2019

1. Adams D, Simpson K, Keen D. Exploring Anxiety at Home, School, and in the Community Through Self-Report From Children on the Autism Spectrum. Autism Res ;2019 (Dec 2)

Research investigating anxiety in children on the autism spectrum usually reports caregiver rather than self-report perspectives. This study aimed to document children’s own descriptions of their anxiety symptomatology by combining profiles on a standardized autism-specific self-report measure of anxiety (ASC-ASD-C) with the answers from closed- and open-answer questions about anxiety across home, school, and community settings. Across the sample of 113 children on the spectrum aged 6-14 years, the two most frequently endorsed items on the ASC-ASD-C were from the Uncertainty and Performance Anxiety subscales, and the least endorsed were both from the Anxious Arousal subscale. Almost all (96.5%) of the children on the spectrum reported experiencing anxiety in at least one setting, with 40.7% reporting anxiety in all three contexts (home, school, and community). Approximately half of the sample felt their anxiety goes unrecognized by others at school and almost 60% felt it was unrecognized by others when out in the community. The proportion of children reporting having someone to help reduce their anxiety differed across home (86%), school (76%), and community (45%) settings. This highlights the importance of understanding anxiety and its impact, not only within the context of autism but also for each particular child. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : There has been a lot of research focusing on anxiety and autism, but most of it has used parent reports, rather than asking the child themselves. This study summarizes data from 113 children on the autism spectrum, aged 6-14 years. It reports the symptoms of anxiety that these children most and least commonly experience. The results suggest only 40-50% of children feel that others are able to recognize their anxiety at school and when out in the community, suggesting that more training is needed to help adults in these settings to recognize and support anxiety.

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2. Gregory A, Hastings RP, Kovshoff H. Academic self-concept and sense of school belonging of adolescent siblings of autistic children. Res Dev Disabil ;2019 (Dec 2) ;96:103519.

BACKGROUND : Whilst there is a growing body of research on the psychological outcomes for siblings of autistic children (autism siblings), few studies have considered the school context. AIMS : To explore group differences on two school-related self-reported outcomes for autism siblings and siblings of non-autistic children : sense of school belonging, and academic self-concept. Data on self- and parent/carer-reported behavioural and emotional problems were also collected. METHODS AND PROCEDURES : 65 autism siblings and a comparison group of 57 siblings of non-autistic children aged 11-16 years completed questionnaires measuring sense of school belonging, academic self concept, and behaviour problems. 73 parents in the autism sibling and 67 parents in the comparison sibling group completed the behaviour problems measure. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS : Autism siblings reported significantly lower school belonging and academic self-concept, and had significantly poorer self- and parent- reported behaviour problems. When controlling for demographic variables and internalising and externalizing behaviour, robust sibling group differences on academic variables remained. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS : Autism siblings reported poorer school-related outcomes and increased behavioural difficulties relative to siblings of non-autistic children. There was wide variation in autism siblings’ outcomes, highlighting the importance of taking an individualised and contextualised approach to understanding the varying needs of autism siblings.

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3. Haggarty CJ, Malinowski P, McGlone FP, Walker SC. Autistic traits modulate cortical responses to affective but not discriminative touch. Eur J Neurosci ;2019 (Dec 2)

The sense of touch is primarily considered a discriminative and exteroceptive sense, facilitating the detection, manipulation and exploration of objects, via an array of low threshold mechanoreceptors and fast conducting Abeta afferents. However, a class of unmyelinated, low threshold mechanoreceptors identified in the hairy skin of mammals have been proposed to constitute a second, anatomically distinct system coding the affective qualities of touch. Unlike Abetas, which increase their firing rate linearly with the velocity of a stimulus moving across their receptive field, the response of these C-tactile afferents (CTs) is described by an inverted ’U’ curve fit, responding optimally to a skin temperature stimulus moving at between 1-10cm/s. Given the distinct velocity tuning of these fast and slow touch fibres, here we used ERPs to compare the time course of neural responses to 1st (fast) and 2nd (slow) touch systems. We identified a higher amplitude P300 in response to fast, Abeta targeted, versus slow CT-targeted, stroking touch. In contrast, we identified a previously described, C-fibre specific, ultra-late-potential (ULP) associated with CT-targeted input. Of special note as regards the function of CTs is that the amplitude of the ULP was negatively correlated with self-reported levels of autistic traits, which is consistent with the hypothesised affective and social significance of this response. Taken together these findings provide further support for distinct discriminative and affective touch systems and suggests the temporal resolution of EEG provides an as yet underutilised tool for exploring individual differences in response sensitivity to CT targeted touch.

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4. Healy LI, Forbes E, Rice J, Leonard JM, Crushell E. The risk of malnutrition in children with autism spectrum disorder. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed ;2019 (Dec 2)

A 9-year-old boy presented with a 2-day history of vomiting, ataxia and reduced consciousness. He had vomited intermittently in the two preceding months, without headaches, visual disturbance or early morning symptoms. He had autism spectrum disorder, and restricted eating since aged 2 years, eating only corn-crisps, Rich Tea biscuits and chips (French fries), and drinking Coca-Cola (containing 10% glucose ; figure 1). Recently a dietician had prescribed a multivitamin.edpract ;archdischild-2019-317453v1/F1F1F1Figure 1The patient’s complete daily food intake over approximately 7 years (2-3 biscuits per day).Dietary analysis revealed an extremely low protein (0.37 g/kg/day) and low fat (0.77 g/kg/day) diet for over 7 years with a caloric intake of 1200 kCal. Estimated requirements were 1512 kCal,(1) 0.92 mg/kg/day of protein(2) and 1.94 mg/kg of fat (based on 35% of daily calorie intake(3)).On examination he was encephalopathic, with hepatomegaly and ascites. His height and weight were on the 0.4th-2nd and 9th centiles, respectively. Laboratory results demonstrated glucose 2.7 mmol/L, mild anaemia, raised urea (10.7 mmol/L) with normal creatinine and raised hepatic transaminases, low albumin and elevated creatinine kinase (peak 7809 IU/L). He remained encephalopathic and was intubated for poor respiratory function. Ammonia and blood pH were normal. QUESTION 1 : What nutritional/metabolic test(s) would be the next best step ?Vitamin B1 (thiamine) levelsCopper and caeruloplasmin levelsBlood spot for acylcarnitine profilePlasma amino acid profileUrine organic acids QUESTION 2 : What potentially dangerous feeding issues in paediatric intensive care exist here ?Electrolyte levels and supplementationFat composition of feedsAmino acid composition of feedsVitamin levels QUESTION 3 : Why might this patient have had preserved vitamin E levels ?Vitamin E is added to rancherosSome vitamin E is obtained from sunlightFrench fries are relatively high in vitamin EMultivitamin preparations QUESTION 4 : What metabolic disorders are associated with very low carnitine levels ?Organic acidaemiasFatty acid oxidation disordersMitochondrial disorders (disorders of respiratory chain)Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) Answers can be found on page 01.

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5. Kado Y, Sanada S, Oono S, Ogino T, Nouno S. Children with autism spectrum disorder comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder examined by the Wisconsin card sorting test : Analysis by age-related differences. Brain Dev ;2019 (Nov 27)

The DSM-5 confirmed that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might be comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated the executive function of ASD comorbid with ADHD (ASD + ADHD), ASD, and typically developed (TD) children using the Keio version of the modified Wisconsin card sorting test (KWCST). Children with ASD + ADHD (n = 43), ASD (n = 69), and TD (n = 69) were examined in two age groups : 5-9 years and 10-15 years. Both of the younger clinical groups showed significantly unfavorable scores for many indices in the second step compared to the TD group. As for the older groups, the ASD children showed significantly unfavorable scores in total errors in the second step, while the ASD + ADHD children did not show significant differences in either step. However, some index scores of the two older clinical groups were comparable to the older TD group in the second step. For the cognitive differences between clinical groups, the younger ASD + ADHD showed unfavorable scores in numbers of response cards until the first category achieved in the second step, while the older ASD showed unfavorable scores in categories achieved and perseverative errors of Nelson in the first step. For the degree of improvements in the second step, the older groups did not show significant group differences, while the younger ASD group showed significantly fewer improvements compared to the TD group. Based on these results, it is presumed that younger ASD + ADHD individuals are not sufficiently able to sustain attention and/or memory, and that the older ASD patients have difficulty in terms of flexibility.

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6. Kaneko S, Kato TA, Makinodan M, Komori T, Ishida R, Kishimoto N, Takahashi M, Yasuda Y, Hashimoto R, Iwasaka H, Tanaka A, Uchida Y, Kanba S, Kishimoto T. The Self-Construal Scale : A Potential Tool for Predicting Subjective Well-Being of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res ;2019 (Dec 2)

Despite accumulating evidence that culture shapes the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no studies have yet applied the Self-Construal Scale to individuals with ASD. We compared the self-construals (measured using the Self-Construal Scale) of 31 high-functioning Japanese individuals with ASD with those of 60 typically developing (TD) individuals. We also examined how the self-construals of individuals with ASD related to their intelligence quotient, adverse childhood experiences, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ASD symptoms during adulthood and preschool years, and subjective well-being. Individuals with ASD were more likely to display independent self-construals than were TD individuals ; unexpectedly, however, a substantial proportion of individuals with ASD (43.8%) displayed relatively interdependent self-construals. Among individuals with ASD, self-construals were significantly associated with ASD symptoms during preschool years, and with satisfaction of the need for autonomy and frustration of the need for relatedness. Evaluating self-construals can help predict the subjective well-being of high-functioning individuals with ASD. Moreover, the Self-Construal Scale may be useful for understanding the heterogeneous phenotypes of ASD, based on its association with autistic symptoms during preschool years, suggesting that the scale is a potential tool to develop efficient interventions for high-functioning individuals with ASD. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of disorders presenting a variety of symptoms and biological origins that can complicate choosing an intervention best suited for improving well-being. Results indicate that a self-construal scale could help understand individuals with high-functioning ASD by independent and interdependent self-construals that are associated with ASD symptoms during preschool years and adult subjective well-being. Our findings suggest that this scale can help understand ASD and select appropriate interventions.

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7. Kim H, Song DH. Comparison of the K-WISC-IV profiles of boys with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Res Dev Disabil ;2019 (Dec 2) ;97:103539.

AIMS : This study aimed to compare the intelligence profiles of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (K-WISC-IV) scores to differentiate between their cognitive characteristics. METHODS : Subjects were boys with ASD (n = 49) and ADHD (n = 44). The index and subtest scores of the ASD and ADHD groups were compared using MANOVA. Repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to investigate the cognitive strengths and weaknesses within the ASD and ADHD groups. RESULTS : Verbal comprehension was significantly lower in the ASD group compared to the ADHD group. The ASD group also scored lower than the ADHD group on Vocabulary, Comprehension, Picture Concepts, Picture Completion, and Symbol Search. The ADHD group scored lower than the ASD group on Digit Span. The ASD group displayed slower processing speed and social judgment, while the ADHD group exhibited poor working memory and graphomotor processing. CONCLUSION : The WISC-IV profiles might help distinguishing between the cognitive characteristics of ASD and ADHD boys.

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8. Kirsch AC, Huebner ARS, Mehta SQ, Howie FR, Weaver AL, Myers SM, Voigt RG, Katusic SK. Association of Comorbid Mood and Anxiety Disorders With Autism Spectrum Disorder. JAMA Pediatr ;2019 (Dec 2)

Importance : It is critical to evaluate the risk of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses to meet the needs of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Objective : To examine whether individuals with ASD are at greater risk for comorbid diagnoses of depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants : This cohort study used data from a population-based birth cohort of 31 220 individuals born in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1976, to December 31, 2000. Patients with research-identified ASD were previously identified using a multistep process that evaluated signs and symptoms abstracted from medical and educational records. For each of the 1014 patients with ASD, 2 age- and sex-matched referents who did not meet criteria for ASD were randomly selected from the birth cohort (n = 2028). Diagnosis codes for anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorders were electronically obtained using the Rochester Epidemiological Project records-linkage system. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2018, to April 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures : Cumulative incidence of clinically diagnosed depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder through early adulthood in individuals with ASD compared with referents. Results : A total of 1014 patients with ASD (median age at last follow-up, 22.8 years [interquartile range, 18.4-28.0 years] ; 747 [73.7%] male ; 902 [89.0%] white) and 2028 referents (median age at last follow-up, 22.4 years [interquartile range, 18.8-26.2 years] ; 1494 [73.7%] male ; 1780 [87.8%] white) participated in the study. Patients with ASD were significantly more likely to have clinically diagnosed bipolar disorder (hazard ratio [HR], 9.34 ; 95% CI, 4.57-19.06), depression (HR, 2.81 ; 95% CI, 2.45-3.22), and anxiety (HR, 3.45 ; 95% CI, 2.96-4.01) compared with referents. Among individuals with ASD, the estimates of cumulative incidence by 30 years of age were 7.3% (95% CI, 4.8%-9.7%) for bipolar disorder, 54.1% (95% CI, 49.8%-58.0%) for depression, and 50.0% (95% CI, 46.0%-53.7%) for anxiety. Among referents, cumulative incidence estimates by 30 years of age were 0.9% (95% CI, 0.1%-1.7%) for bipolar disorder, 28.9% (95% CI, 25.7%-32.0%) for depression, and 22.2% (95% CI, 19.3%-25.0%) for anxiety. Conclusions and Relevance : The findings suggest that individuals with ASD may be at increased risk for clinically diagnosed depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder compared with age- and sex-matched referents. This study supports the importance of early, ongoing surveillance and targeted treatments to address the psychiatric needs of individuals with ASD.

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9. Lu H, Yi L, Zhang H. Autistic traits influence the strategic diversity of information sampling : Insights from two-stage decision models. PLoS Comput Biol ;2019 (Dec 2) ;15(12):e1006964.

Information sampling can reduce uncertainty in future decisions but is often costly. To maximize reward, people need to balance sampling cost and information gain. Here we aimed to understand how autistic traits influence the optimality of information sampling and to identify the particularly affected cognitive processes. Healthy human adults with different levels of autistic traits performed a probabilistic inference task, where they could sequentially sample information to increase their likelihood of correct inference and may choose to stop at any moment. We manipulated the cost and evidence associated with each sample and compared participants’ performance to strategies that maximize expected gain. We found that participants were overall close to optimal but also showed autistic-trait-related differences. Participants with higher autistic traits had a higher efficiency of winning rewards when the sampling cost was zero but a lower efficiency when the cost was high and the evidence was more ambiguous. Computational modeling of participants’ sampling choices and decision times revealed a two-stage decision process, with the second stage being an optional second thought. Participants may consider cost in the first stage and evidence in the second stage, or in the reverse order. The probability of choosing to stop sampling at a specific stage increases with increasing cost or increasing evidence. Surprisingly, autistic traits did not influence the decision in either stage. However, participants with higher autistic traits inclined to consider cost first, while those with lower autistic traits considered cost or evidence first in a more balanced way. This would lead to the observed autistic-trait-related advantages or disadvantages in sampling optimality, depending on whether the optimal sampling strategy is determined only by cost or jointly by cost and evidence.

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10. Michael D, Kuint J, Lerner-Geva L, Zaslavsky-Paltiel I, Shmuel RR, Chodick G, Shalev V, Reichman B. Postnatal steroid therapy is associated with autism spectrum disorder in children and adolescents of very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Res ;2019 (Dec 2)

OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the association between major neonatal morbidities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adolescents born of very low birth weight (VLBW). STUDY DESIGN : Historical cohort study using the Israel national VLBW infant database linked with the Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) medical records. The study cohort comprised 4963 VLBW subjects born from 1999 to 2012, >1 year of age. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with ASD. RESULTS : The diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in 113 children (2.3%). Infants with major neonatal morbidities had higher rates of ASD ; however, in the multivariable analyses these were not significantly associated with ASD : severe intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 1.21 [95% CI 0.60-2.45]), post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (OR 1.77 [0.73-4.29]), periventricular leukomalacia (OR 1.02 [0.42-2.51]), severe retinopathy of prematurity (OR 1.91 [0.995-3.67]), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR 1.44 [0.84-2.45]). Postnatal steroid therapy when included separately was associated with an OR of 1.97 [1.18-3.29] for ASD. This association remained significant when postnatal steroid therapy was included with each of the neonatal morbidities (ORs ranging from 1.91 to 2.11). CONCLUSIONS : This study suggests a significant association between postnatal steroid therapy and ASD in VLBW infants. This possible association should be considered in future studies evaluating potential risk factors for ASD in preterm infants.

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11. O’Hearn K, Larsen B, Fedor J, Luna B, Lynn A. Representational similarity analysis reveals atypical age-related changes in brain regions supporting face and car recognition in autism. Neuroimage ;2019 (Nov 28):116322.

BACKGROUND : Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with atypical activation in the ventral stream during face processing. The current study further characterizes the development of face processing in ASD using a multivoxel pattern analysis, which assesses the similarity in the representation of exemplars from the same category. METHODS : Ninety-two children, adolescents and adults - with and without ASD - performed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Australian Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test. Regions of interest during these tasks included Fusiform Face Area (FFA), based on the literature, and additional, structurally-defined regions in the ventral stream. Group differences in the patterns of activity within these ROIs when memorizing exemplars were examined using a representational similarity analysis (RSA). RESULTS : The RSA revealed significant interactions between age group and diagnostic group in R FFA, with increasing similarity within category across stimulus types into adulthood typically but not in those with ASD. This pattern was also evident in structurally defined ventral stream regions, namely L inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), L inferior temporal lobule, and the R fusiform gyrus. CONCLUSIONS : The specialization of face and object processing from adolescence to adulthood evident in typical development may be impaired in ASD, undermining the ability to reach adult level processing in those with ASD.

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12. Tian ZX, Wan M, Gao YL, Wu BF, Xie Y, Liu J, Su RZ, Tian LL, Hu YQ. Gestational weight gain and risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring : a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Obstet Gynaecol ;2019 (Dec 2):1-8.

It has been revealed that gestational weight gain (GWG) influences the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring, but the findings are inconsistent. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between GWG and risk of ASD in offspring. Four electronic databases were searched up to August 28 2018 to identify observational studies reporting the association between GWG and risk of ASD in the offspring. Nine studies which met the inclusion criteria were included in the systematic review. Finally, five studies with a total of 3793 children with ASD were included in the meta-analysis. The-results indicated that excessive GWG might increase the risk of ASD in offspring (p = .0008, OR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.38). More high quality cohort studies are needed to confirm this result. This research has the potential to inspire new research on ASD and promote efforts to design appropriate interventions against excessive GWG.Impact statementWhat is already known on this subject ? It has been revealed that gestational weight gain (GWG) influences the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring, but the findings are inconsistent.What the results of this study add ? This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between GWG and ASDs in offspring. This study suggested that excessive GWG was associated with higher risk of ASD in offspring.What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research ? More high quality cohort studies are needed to confirm this result. This research has the potential to inspire new research on ASD and promote efforts to design appropriate interventions against excessive GWG.

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