Pubmed du 07/12/19

samedi 7 décembre 2019

1. Arnold S, Foley KR, Hwang YIJ, Richdale AL, Uljarevic M, Lawson LP, Cai RY, Falkmer T, Falkmer M, Lennox NG, Urbanowicz A, Trollor J. Cohort profile : the Australian Longitudinal Study of Adults with Autism (ALSAA). BMJ Open ;2019 (Dec 4) ;9(12):e030798.

PURPOSE : There is a significant knowledge gap regarding the lives of adults on the autism spectrum. Some literature suggests significant health and mental health inequalities for autistic adults, yet there is a lack of comprehensive longitudinal studies exploring risk factors. Further, most research does not include the perspective of autistic adults in its conduct or design. Here, we describe the baseline characteristics and inclusive research approach of a nationwide longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS : The Autism Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism’s Australian Longitudinal Study of Adults with Autism (ALSAA) is a questionnaire-based longitudinal study of autistic adults (25+ years old) with follow-up at 2-year intervals. Autistic advisors were involved in each stage of research apart from data analysis. Three questionnaires were developed : self-report, informant report (ie, proxy report) and carers (ie, carer experiences and characteristics). FINDINGS TO DATE : An inclusive research protocol was developed and agreed with autistic advisors. Baseline data were collected from 295 autistic adults (M=41.8 years, SD=12.0) including 42 informant responses, 146 comparison participants and 102 carers. The majority of autistic participants (90%) had been diagnosed in adulthood (M=35.3 years, SD=15.1). When compared with controls, autistic adults scored higher on self-report measures of current depression and anxiety. Participant comments informed ongoing data gathering. Participants commented on questionnaire length, difficulty with literal interpretation of forced response items and expressed gratitude for research in this area. FUTURE PLANS : A large comprehensive dataset relating to autistic adults and their carers has been gathered, creating a good platform for longitudinal follow-up repeat surveys and collaborative research. Several outputs are in development, with focus on health service barriers and usage, caregivers, impact of diagnosis in adulthood, further scale validations, longitudinal analyses of loneliness, suicidal ideation, mental illness risk factors and other areas. Baseline data confirm poorer mental health of autistic adults. The ALSAA demonstrates a working approach to inclusive research.

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2. Griffioen RE, van der Steen S, Verheggen T, Enders-Slegers MJ, Cox R. Changes in behavioural synchrony during dog-assisted therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder and children with Down syndrome. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ;2019 (Dec 6)

BACKGROUND : Dog-assisted therapy (DAT) is hypothesized to help children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down syndrome (DS). METHODS : The present authors compared synchronous movement patterns of these children (n = 10) and their therapy dogs during the first and last session of a DAT programme, and their post-therapy changes in emotional and behavioural problems. RESULTS : The present authors found a significant increase in synchrony between child and therapy dog over time. Exploratory analyses suggest more synchrony between children with ASD and their therapy dogs, compared to the children with DS. CONCLUSIONS : This study is the first to test the synchrony hypothesis, shedding light upon a mechanism that may underlie the effect of DAT and how this may be different for children with ASD and DS.

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3. Liu D, Cao H, Kural KC, Fang Q, Zhang F. Integrative Analysis of shared Genetic Pathogenesis by Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Biosci Rep ;2019 (Dec 6)

Many common pathological features have been observed for both autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, no systematic analysis of the common gene markers associated with both ASD and OCD has been conducted so far. Here, two batches of large-scale literature-based disease-gene relation data (updated in 2017 and 2019, respectively) and gene expression data were integrated to study the possible association between OCD and ASD at the genetic level. Genes linked to OCD and ASD present significant overlap (p-value<2.64e-39). A genetic network of over 20 genes was constructed, through which OCD and ASD may exert influence on each other. The 2017-based analysis suggested six potential common risk genes for OCD and ASD (CDH2, ADCY8, APOE, TSPO, TOR1A, and OLIG2), and the 2019-based study identified two more genes (DISP1 and SETD1A). Notably, the gene APOE identified by the 2017-based analysis has been implicated to have an association with ASD in a recent study (2018) with DNA methylation analysis. Our results support the possible complex genetic associations between OCD and ASD. Genes linked to one disease is worthy of further investigation as potential risk factors for the other.

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4. Mundy P. INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR AUTISM RESEARCH NEWS President’s Message - December 2019 Updates on Seattle 2020, New Web Design and App, Board Elections, Journal News and a Report from the Strategic Planning Meeting. Autism Res ;2019 (Dec) ;12(12):1891.

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5. Schaffler MD, Middleton LJ, Abdus-Saboor I. Mechanisms of Tactile Sensory Phenotypes in Autism : Current Understanding and Future Directions for Research. Curr Psychiatry Rep ;2019 (Dec 5) ;21(12):134.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW : This review aims to summarize the current body of behavioral, physiological, and molecular knowledge concerning tactile sensitivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a focus on recent studies utilizing rodent models. RECENT FINDINGS : Mice with mutations in the ASD-related genes, Shank3, Fmr1, UBE3A, and Mecp2, display tactile abnormalities. Some of these abnormalities appear to be caused by mutation-related changes in the PNS, as opposed to changes in the processing of touch stimuli in the CNS, as previously thought. There is also growing evidence suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may contribute to some of the core symptoms and common comorbidities of ASD. Researchers are therefore beginning to assess the therapeutic potential of targeting the PNS in treating some of the core symptoms of ASD. Sensory abnormalities are common in rodent models of ASD. There is growing evidence that sensory hypersensitivity, especially tactile sensitivity, may contribute to social deficits and other autism-related behaviors.

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6. Seymour M, Giallo R, Wood CE. Perceptions of social support : comparisons between fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder and fathers of children without developmental disabilities. J Intellect Disabil Res ;2019 (Dec 5)

BACKGROUND : Research highlights the need for ongoing social support of mothers of children with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite recognised differences between mothers and fathers, little is known about the particular social support needs of fathers of children with ASD. Broadly, this study aimed to explore the support needs of fathers of children with ASD compared with fathers of children without a disability (W/OD) and the relation between social support, psychological distress and sociodemographic factors. METHOD : Drawing from a large, nationally representative community sample of children, 159 fathers of children with ASD were identified, where 6578 fathers of children W/OD were used as a comparison sample. RESULTS : Over 70% of fathers of children with ASD reported that support was inaccessible and were significantly more likely to report so compared with fathers of children W/OD. Emotional/informational social support was the strongest social support domain associated with fathers’ experiences of psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS : This study provided important insight into the social support needs of fathers of children with ASD.

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7. Zhang L, Wang XH, Li L. Diagnosing autism spectrum disorder using brain entropy : A fast entropy method. Comput Methods Programs Biomed ;2019 (Nov 27):105240.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Previous resting-state fMRI-based diagnostic models for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were based on traditional linear features. The complexity of the ASD brain remains unexplored. METHODS : To increase our understanding of the nonlinear neural mechanisms in ASD, entropy (i.e., approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn)) method was used to analyze the resting-state fMRI datasets collected from 21 ASD patients and 26 typically developing (TD) individuals. Here, a fast entropy algorithm was proposed through matrix computation. We combined entropy with a support-vector machine and selected "important entropy" as features to diagnose ASD. The classification performance of the fast entropy method was compared to the state-of-the-art functional connectivity (FC) method. RESULTS : The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve based on FC was 0.62. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves based on ApEn and SampEn were 0.79 and 0.89, respectively. The results showed that the proposed fast entropy method was more efficacious than the FC method. In addition, lower entropy was found in the ASD patients. The ApEn of the left postcentral gyrus (rs = -0.556, p = 0.009) and the SampEn of the right lingual gyrus (rs = -0.526, p = 0.014) were both significantly negatively related to Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule total scores in the ASD patients. The proposed algorithm for entropy computation was faster than the traditional entropy method. CONCLUSIONS : Our study provides a new perspective to better understand the neural mechanisms of ASD. Brain entropy based on a fast algorithm was applied to distinguish ASD patients from TD individuals. ApEn and SampEn could be potential biomarkers in ASD investigations.

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8. Zhou HY, Shi LJ, Yang HX, Cheung EFC, Chan RCK. Audiovisual temporal integration and rapid temporal recalibration in adolescents and adults : Age-related changes and its correlation with autistic traits. Autism Res ;2019 (Dec 6)

Temporal structure is a key factor in determining the relatedness of multisensory stimuli. Stimuli that are close in time are more likely to be integrated into a unified perceptual representation. To investigate the age-related developmental differences in audiovisual temporal integration and rapid temporal recalibration, we administered simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks to a group of adolescents (11-14 years) and young adults (18-28 years). No age-related changes were found in the width of the temporal binding window within which participants are highly likely to combine multisensory stimuli. The main distinction between adolescents and adults was audiovisual temporal recalibration. Although participants of both age groups could rapidly recalibrate based on the previous trial for speech stimuli (i.e., syllable utterances), only adults but not adolescents showed short-term recalibration for simple and non-speech stimuli. In both adolescents and adults, no significant correlation was found between audiovisual temporal integration ability and autistic or schizotypal traits. These findings provide new information on the developmental trajectory of basic multisensory function and may have implications for neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism) with altered audiovisual temporal integration. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Utilizing temporal cues to integrate and separate audiovisual information is a fundamental ability underlying higher order social communicative functions. This study examines the developmental changes of the ability to detect audiovisual asynchrony and rapidly adjust sensory decisions based on previous sensory input. In healthy adolescents and young adults, the correlation between autistic traits and audiovisual integration ability failed to reach a significant level. Therefore, more research is needed to examine whether impairment in basic sensory functions is correlated with broader autism phenotype in nonclinical populations. These results may help us understand altered multisensory integration in people with autism.

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