Pubmed du 11/12/19

mercredi 11 décembre 2019

1. Aguillon-Hernandez N, Mofid Y, Latinus M, Roche L, Bufo MR, Lemaire M, Malvy J, Martineau J, Wardak C, Bonnet-Brilhault F. The pupil : a window on social automatic processing in autism spectrum disorder children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2019.

BACKGROUND : Faces are crucial social stimuli, eliciting automatic processing associated with increased physiological arousal in observers. The level of arousal can be indexed by pupil diameter (the ’Event-Related Pupil Dilation’, ERPD). However, many parameters could influence the arousal evoked by a face and its social saliency (e.g. virtual vs. real, neutral vs. emotional, static vs. dynamic). A few studies have shown an atypical ERPD in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients using several kinds of faces but no study has focused on identifying which parameter of the stimulus is the most interfering with face processing in ASD. METHODS : In order to disentangle the influence of these parameters, we propose an original paradigm including stimuli along an ecological social saliency gradient : from static objects to virtual faces to dynamic emotional faces. This strategy was applied to 186 children (78 ASD and 108 typically developing (TD) children) in two pupillometric studies (22 ASD and 47 TD children in the study 1 and 56 ASD and 61 TD children in the study 2). RESULTS : Strikingly, the ERPD in ASD children is insensitive to any of the parameters tested : the ERPD was similar for objects, static faces or dynamic faces. On the opposite, the ERPD in TD children is sensitive to all the parameters tested : the humanoid, biological, dynamic and emotional quality of the stimuli. Moreover, ERPD had a good discriminative power between ASD and TD children : ASD had a larger ERPD than TD in response to virtual faces, while TD had a larger ERPD than ASD for dynamic faces. CONCLUSIONS : This novel approach evidences an abnormal physiological adjustment to socially relevant stimuli in ASD.

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2. Carpita B, Muti D, Muscarella A, Dell’Oste V, Diadema E, Massimetti G, Signorelli MS, Fusar Poli L, Gesi C, Aguglia E, Politi P, Carmassi C, Dell’Osso L. Sex Differences in the Relationship between PTSD Spectrum Symptoms and Autistic Traits in a Sample of University Students. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health : CP & EMH. 2019 ; 15 : 110-9.

Background : While growing literature is stressing the link between Autistic Traits (AT) and trauma-/stress-related disorders, in both conditions significant differences have been separately reported. Objective : This study aims to evaluate the relationship between AT and trauma-/stress-related symptoms with respect to sex. Methods : 178 university students were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5, the Trauma and Loss Spectrum (TALS) and the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS). In order to evaluate sex differences in trauma-/stress-related symptoms among subjects with higher or lower AT, the sample was split in two groups with an equal number of subjects on the basis of the median score reported on AdAS Spectrum ("AdAS high scorers" and "AdAS low scorers"). Results : Females reported significantly higher TALS total score, Loss events and Grief reaction domain scores than males in the whole sample, while AdAS high scorers reported significantly higher TALS total and domain scores than AdAS low scorers. A significant interaction between high/low AdAS score and sex emerged for TALS domains, with females scoring significantly higher than males only among AdAS low scorers, specifically on Loss events, Grief reaction, Re-experiencing and Personal characteristics/Risk factors domains. Finally, among AdAS high scorers a significantly higher rate of subjects fulfilled symptomatological criteria for PTSD than among AdAS low scorers, without sex differences. Conclusion : Our results confirm a significant relationship between AT and trauma-/stress-related symptoms, which seems to prevail on sex differences among high-risk subjects.

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3. Cassidy SA, Gould K, Townsend E, Pelton M, Robertson AE, Rodgers J. Is Camouflaging Autistic Traits Associated with Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviours ? Expanding the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in an Undergraduate Student Sample. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

The current study explored whether people who camouflage autistic traits are more likely to experience thwarted belongingness and suicidality, as predicted by the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 160 undergraduate students (86.9% female, 18-23 years) completed a cross-sectional online survey from 8th February to 30th May 2019 including self-report measures of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, autistic traits, depression, anxiety, camouflaging autistic traits, and lifetime suicidality. Results suggest that camouflaging autistic traits is associated with increased risk of experiencing thwarted belongingness and lifetime suicidality. It is important for suicide theories such as the IPTS to include variables relevant to the broader autism phenotype, to increase applicability of models to both autistic and non-autistic people.

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4. Dell’Osso L, Lorenzi P, Carpita B. Autistic Traits and Illness Trajectories. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health : CP & EMH. 2019 ; 15 : 94-8.

In the framework of increasing attention towards autism-related conditions, a growing number of studies have recently investigated the prevalence and features of sub-threshold Autistic Traits (ATs) among adults. ATs span across the general population, being more pronounced in several clinical groups of patients affected by psychiatric disorders. Moreover, ATs seem to be associated with specific personality features in non-clinical population, implying both a higher vulnerability towards psychopathology and extraordinary talents in specific fields. In this framework, the DSM-5’s Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) presentations may be considered as the tip of an iceberg that features several possible clinical and non-clinical phenotypes. Globally, the autism spectrum may be considered as a trans-nosographic dimension, which may not only represent the starting point for the development of different psychopathological trajectories but also underlie non-psychopathological personality traits. These different trajectories might be shaped by the specific localization and severity of the neurodevelopmental alteration and by its interaction with the environment and lifetime events. In this wider framework, autistic-like neurodevelopmental alterations may be considered as a general vulnerability factor for different kinds of psychiatric disorders, but also the neurobiological basis for the development of extraordinary abilities, eventually underlying the concept of geniality. Moreover, according to recent literature, we hypothesize that ATs may also be involved in the functioning of human mind, featuring the peculiar sense of "otherness" which can be found, with different grades of intensity, in every human being.

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5. Engel CS, Sheppard E. Can Cartoons Which Depict Autistic Characters Improve Attitudes Towards Autistic Peers ?. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

This study aimed to assess the efficacy of two cartoons which depict autistic characters in improving attitudes towards autistic peers in two separate studies. Forty-six children participated in study 1 (4-7 years), and 47 children participated in study 2 (8-11 years). Both the conative (behavioural) component of attitudes and knowledge about autism were measured before and after the cartoon interventions. Knowledge of autism increased after watching the cartoons in both studies but attitudes to autism only improved in study 1. Knowledge was shown to correlate with change in some but not all attitude measures. The findings suggest that cartoons can improve attitudes to autism, but this may depend on how information is presented.

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6. Heald M, Adams D, Oliver C. Profiles of atypical sensory processing in Angelman, Cornelia de Lange and Fragile X syndromes. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2019.

BACKGROUND : There is growing evidence to suggest that children with neurodevelopmental disorders may evidence differences in their sensory processing. The aim of this study was to compare sensory processing patterns in three genetic syndromes associated with sensory difference. METHODS : Sensory processing in Angelman syndrome (n = 91), Cornelia de Lange syndrome (n = 28) and Fragile X syndrome (n = 40) was examined using the informant report measure the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ). RESULTS : All three groups were associated with a heightened prevalence of unusual sensory processing in comparison with normative data, evidenced in over 80% of all participants. Cross-syndrome comparisons highlighted syndrome-specific sensory processing profiles, with heightened hypo responsivity in Cornelia de Lange syndrome and sensory seeking in Angelman syndrome. CONCLUSIONS : The results have important implications for the understanding of sensory processing in genetic syndromes and the development of tailored behavioural interventions.

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7. Kent C, Cordier R, Joosten A, Wilkes-Gillan S, Bundy A. Can I join in ? Multiple case study investigation of play performance generalisation for children with autism spectrum disorder from dyad to triad. Australian occupational therapy journal. 2019.

INTRODUCTION : Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with play, social interaction with peers and generalisation of intervention outcomes. The Ultimate Guide to Play, Language and Friendship (PLF) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving play performance of children with ASD and their typically developing (TD) peers. The aim of this investigation was to examine the changes in play performance when an additional TD child is added to an existing dyad of a child with ASD and a TD playmate to inform future delivery and adaptations of the intervention. METHODS : Participants in this multiple case study design were five children with ASD and their TD peer who completed a dyad intervention as part of a randomised control trial investigation of the PLF and an additional TD peer who joined the play dyad. A trained occupational therapist delivered an adapted version of the PLF to the triad over four clinic sessions. An independent rater scored each child (N = 15) on The Test of Playfulness at pre- and post-triad intervention. Line graphs were used to examine case data and compare to dyad play performance and patterns of interaction. RESULTS : Four of the five children with ASD generalised their play performance from the dyad to the triad social environment. However, the triad intervention did not demonstrate improvements in play performance. The play performance scores for the children with ASD and their TD peers were variable and demonstrated changes in their play pattern from the dyad to the triad. CONCLUSION : This investigation delivered preliminary evidence of play performance generalisation from a dyad to a triad with TD peers for children with ASD. Careful consideration of characteristics of all playmates is recommended for delivering the intervention to support play performance of children with ASD.

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8. McClain MB, Harris B, Haverkamp CR, Golson ME, Schwartz SE. The ASKSP Revised (ASKSP-R) as a Measure of ASD Knowledge for Professional Populations. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

It is important for all professionals who work with individuals who have ASD to have sufficient knowledge of the disorder. The development of ASD knowledge may occur during preservice training and/or through professional development. Currently, there is no "gold standard" measure of ASD knowledge. A study focusing on the development of a reliable and valid measure of ASD knowledge for practitioners and preservice professionals is warranted. To address this need, the current study provides preliminary information on the development and preliminary validation of the Autism Spectrum Knowledge Scale Professional Version-Revised (ASKSP-R) with a sample of school-based professionals (N = 427). Results suggest the ASKSP-R is a univariate measure with good reliability. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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9. McDonnell CG, DeLucia EA, Hayden EP, Anagnostou E, Nicolson R, Kelley E, Georgiades S, Liu X, Stevenson RA. An Exploratory Analysis of Predictors of Youth Suicide-Related Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder : Implications for Prevention Science. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with significant mental health concerns, little is known about suicidality, particularly among youth. To address this critical gap in the literature, the current study examined the predictive validity of (1) demographics, (2) core autism symptoms, (3) cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior, (4) comorbid psychopathology, and (5) medical problems, for suicide-related behaviors among autistic youth (N = 481 ; Mage = 11.56 years). As indices of suicide-related behaviors, parents reported on whether the child had ever (1) talked about killing themselves, and (2) engaged in deliberate self-harm or attempted suicide. These two suicide-related outcomes had distinct clinical correlates, including child age, parental education, restricted and repetitive behaviors, IQ and adaptive behavior, affective and conduct problems, and medical concerns.

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10. Mizuno Y, Kagitani-Shimono K, Jung M, Makita K, Takiguchi S, Fujisawa TX, Tachibana M, Nakanishi M, Mohri I, Taniike M, Tomoda A. Structural brain abnormalities in children and adolescents with comorbid autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Translational psychiatry. 2019 ; 9(1) : 332.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share high rates of comorbidity, with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition now acknowledging the comorbid diagnosis of ASD and ADHD. Although structural abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia occur in both ASD and ADHD, no structural studies have focused exclusively on patients with comorbid ASD and ADHD. We thus aimed to clarify the structural features and developmental changes in patients with comorbid ASD and ADHD in a relatively large sample from two sites. Ninety-two patients were age-matched to 141 typically developing (TD) controls (age range : 5-16 years) and assessed for volumetric characteristics using structural magnetic resonance imaging (i.e. surface-based morphometry). While there were no significant differences in prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia volumes, patients with ASD and ADHD exhibited significantly lower left postcentral gyrus volumes than TD controls. We observed significantly lower postcentral gyrus volumes exclusively in children and preadolescents, and not in adolescents. Our findings suggest that abnormal somatosensory, attributed to delayed maturation of the left postcentral gyrus, leads to the core symptoms experienced by patients with comorbid ASD and ADHD.

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11. Morrison KE, DeBrabander KM, Jones DR, Faso DJ, Ackerman RA, Sasson NJ. Outcomes of real-world social interaction for autistic adults paired with autistic compared to typically developing partners. Autism. 2019 : 1362361319892701.

Differences in social communication and interaction styles between autistic and typically developing have been studied in isolation and not in the context of real-world social interaction. The current study addresses this "blind spot" by examining whether real-world social interaction quality for autistic adults differs when interacting with typically developing relative to autistic partners. Participants (67 autism spectrum disorder, 58 typically developing) were assigned to one of three dyadic partnerships (autism-autism : n = 22 ; typically developing-typically developing : n = 23 ; autism-typically developing : n = 25 ; 55 complete dyads, 15 partial dyads) in which they completed a 5-min unstructured conversation with an unfamiliar person and then assessed the quality of the interaction and their impressions of their partner. Although autistic adults were rated as more awkward, less attractive, and less socially warm than typically developing adults by both typically developing and autistic partners, only typically developing adults expressed greater interest in future interactions with typically developing relative to autistic partners. In contrast, autistic participants trended toward an interaction preference for other autistic adults and reported disclosing more about themselves to autistic compared to typically developing partners. These results suggest that social affiliation may increase for autistic adults when partnered with other autistic people, and support reframing social interaction difficulties in autism as a relational rather than an individual impairment.

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12. Nuntanee S, Daranee S. Effect of Motorized Elephant-Assisted Therapy Program on Balance Control of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Occup Ther Int. 2019 ; 2019 : 5914807.

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor balance, and this limitation has effects on their daily living activities. The purpose of this study was to create the motorized elephant-assisted therapy program (METP) and examine the effect of the METP on balance control improvement in individuals with ASD. Twenty participants, aged 8 to 19 years, were recruited from occupational therapy clinics around Chiang Mai city and were divided into 2 groups : control and experimental. Participants’ balance control was tested by measuring their postural sways in a bipedal stance by using a Swaymeter under four conditions : "floor-eyes open," "floor-eyes closed," "foam-eyes open," and "foam-eyes closed." Pretests were administered one week before participation in the METP, and then, posttests were administered one week after completing the METP. Each participant took a 1.5-hour session of the METP, twice a week for a 4-week duration. In one session, 2 participants were assigned to work with two motorized elephants in 4 activities : washing the elephant, climbing up and down the elephant, riding the elephant, and playing a game while riding the elephant. Results showed that the pretest control and experimental groups were not significantly different in their balance control, but at posttest, the postural sway of the experimental group was significantly different from that of the control group in two conditions : floor-eyes open and floor-eyes closed. Their lesser anteroposterior range of postural sway showed that the experimental group gained balance control improvement. In conclusion, the finding of this study showed that the METP could be an alternative treatment method to facilitate better balance control in individuals with ASD.

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13. Peterson JL, Earl R, Fox EA, Ma R, Haidar G, Pepper M, Berliner L, Wallace A, Bernier R. Trauma and Autism Spectrum Disorder : Review, Proposed Treatment Adaptations and Future Directions. Journal of child & adolescent trauma. 2019 ; 12(4) : 529-47.

Empirical investigations of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are lacking despite indications of increased risk for exposure to potentially traumatic events in this population. Research on the treatment of traumatic stress psychopathology in ASD is even more limited and suggests a critical need for guidance in the area of ASD-specific treatment adaptations. The current paper provides preliminary recommendations for adapting current evidenced-based, trauma-specific interventions, specifically trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), for individuals with ASD based on well-established and evidence-based practices for working with this population. These adaptations highlight the need to incorporate treatment goals related to ASD core symptoms and associated characteristics during treatment targeting traumatic stress symptoms. Future directions are discussed, including the development of instruments measuring trauma reactions in ASD, empirical investigations of modified trauma interventions for children with ASD to evaluate effectiveness, and collaboration between professionals specializing in ASD and trauma/PTSD to advance research and facilitate effective care for this community.

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14. South M, Beck JS, Lundwall R, Christensen M, Cutrer EA, Gabrielsen TP, Cox JC, Lundwall RA. Unrelenting Depression and Suicidality in Women with Autistic Traits. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019.

Understanding the cognitive and emotional mechanisms that link autistic traits and risk for suicide is a vital next step for research and clinical practice. This study included a broad sample of adult women (n = 74) who report finding social situations confusing and/or exhausting, and who score high on measures of autistic traits. Regardless of autism diagnostic status, these women reported high rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Depression symptoms were more associated with suicidality than were autistic trait measures of social communication. Measures of neurotypical "imagination" and of repetitive behavior likewise were associated with suicidality risk. Simultaneously feeling sad and feeling stuck or unable to imagine alternate strategies, may uniquely increase suicide risk in autism.

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15. Zhang YX, Cummings JR. Supply of Certified Applied Behavior Analysts in the United States : Implications for Service Delivery for Children With Autism. Psychiatr Serv. 2019 : appips201900058.

OBJECTIVE : The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) underscores the importance of access to evidence-based interventions such as applied behavior analysis (ABA). Anecdotal evidence suggests limitations in the supply of ABA providers, but data remain scarce. The authors provide the first known examination of the supply of certified ABA providers in the United States. METHODS : Using 2018 data from the Behavior Analyst Certification Board, the authors compared the per capita supply of certified ABA providers in each state with a benchmark established using the Board’s guidelines. Additionally, the authors examined state and regional variations in the supply of certified ABA providers. RESULTS : The per capita supply of certified ABA providers fell below the benchmark in 49 states and was higher in the Northeast than in other regions (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS : New workforce policies are needed to increase the supply of certified ABA providers to meet the needs of youths with ASD.

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16. Zhu JW, Zou MM, Li YF, Chen WJ, Liu JC, Chen H, Fang LP, Zhang Y, Wang ZT, Chen JB, Huang W, Li S, Jia WQ, Wang QQ, Zhen XC, Liu CF, Li S, Xiao ZC, Xu GQ, Schwamborn JC, Schachner M, Ma QH, Xu RX. Absence of TRIM32 Leads to Reduced GABAergic Interneuron Generation and Autism-like Behaviors in Mice via Suppressing mTOR Signaling. Cereb Cortex. 2019.

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling plays essential roles in brain development. Hyperactive mTOR is an essential pathological mechanism in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we show that tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32), as a maintainer of mTOR activity through promoting the proteasomal degradation of G protein signaling protein 10 (RGS10), regulates the proliferation of medial/lateral ganglionic eminence (M/LGE) progenitors. Deficiency of TRIM32 results in an impaired generation of GABAergic interneurons and autism-like behaviors in mice, concomitant with an elevated autophagy, which can be rescued by treatment embryonically with 3BDO, an mTOR activator. Transplantation of M/LGE progenitors or treatment postnatally with clonazepam, an agonist of the GABAA receptor, rescues the hyperexcitability and the autistic behaviors of TRIM32-/- mice, indicating a causal contribution of GABAergic disinhibition. Thus, the present study suggests a novel mechanism for ASD etiology in that TRIM32 deficiency-caused hypoactive mTOR, which is linked to an elevated autophagy, leads to autism-like behaviors via impairing generation of GABAergic interneurons. TRIM32-/- mouse is a novel autism model mouse.

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