Pubmed du 15/12/19

dimanche 15 décembre 2019

1. Foley KR, den Houting J. Occupational therapists use of autism terminology. Aust Occup Ther J ;2019 (Dec 15)

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2. Guo X, Simas T, Lai MC, Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Ruigrok ANV, Bullmore ET, Baron-Cohen S, Chen H, Suckling J. Enhancement of indirect functional connections with shortest path length in the adult autistic brain. Hum Brain Mapp ;2019 (Dec 15) ;40(18):5354-5369.

Autism is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by atypical brain functional organization. Here we investigated the intrinsic indirect (semi-metric) connectivity of the functional connectome associated with autism. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 65 neurotypical adults (33 males/32 females) and 61 autistic adults (30 males/31 females). From functional connectivity networks, semi-metric percentages (SMPs) were calculated to assess the proportion of indirect shortest functional pathways at global, hemisphere, network, and node levels. Group comparisons were then conducted to ascertain differences between autism and neurotypical control groups. Finally, the strength and length of edges were examined to explore the patterns of semi-metric connections associated with autism. Compared with neurotypical controls, autistic adults displayed significantly higher SMP at all spatial scales, similar to prior observations in adolescents. Differences were primarily in weaker, longer-distance edges in the majority between networks. However, no significant diagnosis-by-sex interaction effects were observed on global SMP. These findings suggest increased indirect functional connectivity in the autistic brain is persistent from adolescence to adulthood and is indicative of reduced functional network integration.

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3. Kaltenegger HC, Philips B, Wennberg P. Autistic traits in mentalization-based treatment for concurrent borderline personality disorder and substance use disorder : Secondary analyses of a randomized controlled feasibility study. Scand J Psychol ;2019 (Dec 15)

Autism is suggested to be a dimensional construct and often represents a comorbid state. However, research on the clinical implications of the presence of autistic traits is scarce. This study aimed to investigate the impact of subclinical autistic traits in mentalization-based treatment (MBT) for concurrent borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorder (SUD). Based on the data of a randomized controlled feasibility study by Philips, Wennberg, Konradsson, and Franck (2018), secondary analyses were conducted. It was tested, if patients’ (N = 46) levels of autistic traits were associated with treatment outcome measured in the course of and after treatment using interviews and self-report measures. Participants’ autistic traits were not associated with the change in the severity of BPD throughout and at the end of the treatment. However, results showed associations between autistic traits and the change in patients’ consumption of alcohol in the course of MBT. Furthermore, there was an association between autistic traits and the change in mentalizing capacity at the end of MBT, indicating that elevated autistic traits were associated with an improvement in mentalizing capacity. Autistic traits on a subclinical level do not appear to be a complicating factor in MBT for concurrent BPD and SUD. On the contrary, in terms of mentalizing capacity autistic traits might be associated with a larger potential for improvement or facilitate treatment outcome. Further research is needed to explore the role of higher autistic traits in treatment of this special patient group.

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4. Kordulewska NK, Kostyra E, Piskorz-Ogorek K, Moszynska M, Cieslinska A, Fiedorowicz E, Jarmolowska B. Serum cytokine levels in children with spectrum autism disorder : Differences in pro- and anti-inflammatory balance. J Neuroimmunol ;2019 (Dec 15) ;337:577066.

BACKGROUND : Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is a developmental and neurological disorder that affects all aspects of social communication, with limited and stereotypical interest, and atypical responses to sensory stimuli. Diagnosis of ASD is currently phenotype based with no reliable laboratory test available to assist clinicians. Researches have shown that individuals with autism often exhibit dysfunction of cytokines. METHODS : A total of 42 patients with ASD and 20 matched controls participants were recruited for the study. Diagnosis was conducted by medical specialists and based on the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders - ICD-10, DSM-5 and CARS sore. Whole blood samples were collected and serum IL’s and chemokin levels were made using ELISA kits. RESULTS : Results demonstrated that in comparison to the controls, the individuals with autism showed significantly higher concentration of IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-13. We also demonstrated significant correlations between the levels of cytokines which implies the presence of an interactive network between them. The results of ROC analysis indicated the 4-factors (IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-13) could be potential biomarkers in diagnosis of ASD. CONCLUSIONS : In this study, serum levels of cytokine differed among children with ASD. However, the findings of this support the possibility of using an appropriate selection of serum cytokine for the diagnosis ASD and emphasize the need to standardize quantitative methods for serum analysis.

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5. Liu TL, Wang PW, Yang YC, Shyi GC, Yen CF. Association between Facial Emotion Recognition and Bullying Involvement among Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder. Int J Environ Res Public Health ;2019 (Dec 15) ;16(24)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interaction, communication and restricted and repetitive behavior. Few studies have focused on the effect of facial emotion recognition on bullying involvement among individuals with ASD. The aim of this study was to examine the association between facial emotion recognition and different types of bullying involvement in adolescents with high-functioning ASD. We recruited 138 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with high-functioning ASD. The adolescents’ experiences of bullying involvement were measured using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. Their facial emotion recognition was measured using the Facial Emotion Recognition Task (which measures six emotional expressions and four degrees of emotional intensity). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between facial emotion recognition and different types of bullying involvement. After controlling for the effects of age, gender, depression, anxiety, inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and opposition, we observed that bullying perpetrators performed significantly better on rating the intensity of emotion in the Facial Emotion Recognition Task ; bullying victims performed significantly worse on ranking the intensity of facial emotion. The results of this study support the different deficits of facial emotion recognition in various types of bullying involvement among adolescents with high-functioning ASD. The different directions of association between bully involvement and facial emotion recognition must be considered when developing prevention and intervention programs.

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6. Moaaz M, Youssry S, Elfatatry A, El Rahman MA. Th17/Treg cells imbalance and their related cytokines (IL-17, IL-10 and TGF-beta) in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Neuroimmunol ;2019 (Dec 15) ;337:577071.

We aimed in this study to investigate a possible involvement of Th17/Treg cells imbalance in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using flowcytometry to determine circulating Th17 and Treg cells percentages, RT- PCR and ELISA for cytokine expression, we demonstrated that Th17/Treg balance in ASD children was significantly skewed toward a Th17 response compared to their control. Th17 cells and the ratio of Th17/Treg cells had a significantly positive correlation with disease severity whereas Treg cells had a negative correlation. The imbalance of Th17, Treg cells and their related cytokines may play a vital role in the progression of the disease.

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7. Nakamura M, Nagahata T, Miura A, Okada E, Shibata Y, Ojima T. Association between Dietary Intake and Autistic Traits in Japanese Working Adults : Findings from the Eating Habit and Well-Being Study. Nutrients ;2019 (Dec 9) ;11(12)

"Autistic traits" include a wide range of severity levels. They are often subclinical, and widely distributed in the general population. It is possible that food selectivity due to hyper- or hypo-reactivity to smell or texture, an autistic feature, may result in inadequate nutrient intakes even among non-clinical adults with autistic traits. However, dietary intake of adults with autistic traits has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate an association between dietary intake and autistic traits. We cross-sectionally analyzed data of 1440 men and 613 women extracted from the Eating Habit and Well-Being study. Autistic traits were assessed using the Japanese version of the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ), and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Iron and vitamin B12 intakes were marginally and inversely associated with the SATQ score in men. The SATQ score in women was positively associated with carbohydrate intake, but had an inverse association with protein, mineral, vitamin, and dietary fiber intakes. Low intakes of seaweed, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were observed in participants with severe autistic traits. Associations of autistic traits with food selectivity and low nutrient intakes should be further investigated to promote a new dietary strategy in the general population.

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8. Prosperi M, Guiducci L, Peroni DG, Narducci C, Gaggini M, Calderoni S, Tancredi R, Morales MA, Gastaldelli A, Muratori F, Santocchi E. Inflammatory Biomarkers are Correlated with Some Forms of Regressive Autism Spectrum Disorder. Brain Sci ;2019 (Dec 11) ;9(12)

Background : Several studies have tried to investigate the role of inflammatory biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and their correlations with clinical phenotypes. Despite the growing research in this topic, existing data are mostly contradictory. Methods : Eighty-five ASD preschoolers were assessed for developmental level, adaptive functioning, gastrointestinal (GI), socio-communicative and psychopathological symptoms. Plasma levels of leptin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2), tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were correlated with clinical scores and were compared among different ASD subgroups according to the presence or absence of : (i) GI symptoms, (ii) regressive onset of autism. Results : Proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and CCL2) were lower than those reported in previous studies in children with systemic inflammatory conditions. GI symptoms were not correlated with levels of inflammatory biomarkers except for resistin that was lower in ASD-GI children (p = 0.032). Resistin and PAI-1 levels were significantly higher in the group with "regression plus a developmental delay" onset (Reg+DD group) compared to groups without regression or with regression without a developmental delay (p < 0.01 for all). Conclusions : Our results did not highlight the presence of any systemic inflammatory state in ASD subjects neither disentangling children with/without GI symptoms. The Reg + DD group significantly differed from others in some plasmatic values, but these differences failed to discriminate the subgroups as possible distinct ASD endo-phenotypes.

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9. Robinson LA, Menezes M, Mullin B, Cook BL. A Comparison of Health Care Expenditures for Medicaid-Insured Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Asthma in an Expanding Accountable Care Organization. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Dec 13)

As value-based care continues to expand, more children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will be treated by accountable care organizations (ACOs), provider organizations seeking to improve population health while reducing costs. To inform ACO strategies for children with ASD, this study compared health care expenditures of children insured by a Medicaid managed care organization, empaneled to a safety net ACO, with ASD, asthma, and neither diagnosis. Compared to other study groups, children with ASD were more costly, had lower rates of acute care, and had higher rates of "leaked" care provided by home- and community-based mental health agencies outside of the ACO. These findings highlight the need for unique value-based strategies for children with ASD in a public sector ACO.

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10. Ryu DS, Shinn JK, Kim BW, Moon BJ, Ha Y, Lee JK, Kim KN, Chin DK, Yoon SH. Prospective Observational Cohort Study of Health-related Quality of Life : Marked Adult Sagittal Deformity (ASD) in Comparison With Mild to Moderate ASD. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ;2019 (Dec 15) ;44(24):1723-1730.

STUDY DESIGN : Retrospective analysis of prospective observational cohort OBJECTIVE. : This study assessed the difference in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between participants with a mild to moderate adult sagittal deformity (ASD) (sagittal vertical axis [SVA] 9.5 cm). We also evaluated predisposing factors for a marked deformity. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA : Sagittal imbalance is closely associated with HRQOL for the patient. However, how the effect changes depending on the degree of imbalance has not been fully evaluated. The understanding of the predisposing factor associated with marked deformity also lacks. METHODS : A total of 124 elderly persons with a stooping posture were enrolled. Questionnaires related to HRQOL were administered. Sagittal alignment parameters and pelvic parameters were measured with a whole spine x-ray. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the presence of pathologic conditions, muscle quality and quantity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze potential risk factors. RESULTS : Marked ASD was associated with female sex, lower height and weight, and osteoporosis (P < 0.05). Back pain (assessed by a visual analogue scale) and the Oswestry Disability Index were significantly higher in the marked deformity group (P = 0.012, 0.002, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed significant relationships between the following parameters and marked deformity : preexisting compression fracture (odds ratio [OR] = 7.793 ; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.527-39.768), severe L5/S1 Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade (OR = 1.916 ; 95% CI, 1.086-3.382), and lower quantities of multifidus and psoas muscles (OR = 0.994, 0.997 ; 95% CI, 0.991-0.998, 0.994-0.999, respectively). CONCLUSION : Participants with a marked ASD showed different features from those with a mild to moderate ASD. This study also implies that anatomical factors, including the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, and paraspinal muscles, synergistically contribute to progression into marked deformity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE : 3.

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11. Seghatol-Eslami VC, Maximo JO, Ammons CJ, Libero LE, Kana RK. Hyperconnectivity of social brain networks in autism during action-intention judgment. Neuropsychologia ;2019 (Dec 11):107303.

Deficits in social communication in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been documented using neuroimaging techniques such as functional MRI over the past decade. More recently, functional connectivity MRI has revealed altered connectivity in face processing, mentalizing, and mirroring brain networks, networks involved in the social brain in ASD. However, to our knowledge, previous studies have not examined these three networks concurrently. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the functional connectivity of the face processing, mentalizing, and mirroring networks (within each network and across networks) in ASD during an action-intention task in which participants were asked to determine the means and intention of a model’s actions. We examined : a) within-network connectivity of each network using an ROI-to-ROI analysis ; b) connectivity of each network hub to the rest of the brain using a seed-to-voxel analysis ; c) the between-network connectivity of each network hub using ROI-to-ROI analysis ; and d) brain-behavior relationships by correlating autism symptoms with brain connectivity. Task-fMRI data were used from 21 participants with ASD and 20 typically developing participants. The ASD group consistently showed significantly greater connectivity between networks and between hub regions to the rest of the brain. Hyperconnectivity in ASD may entail more and widespread resource utilization for accomplishing action-intention judgment.

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12. Trifonova EA, Klimenko AI, Mustafin ZS, Lashin SA, Kochetov AV. The mTOR Signaling Pathway Activity and Vitamin D Availability Control the Expression of Most Autism Predisposition Genes. Int J Mol Sci ;2019 (Dec 15) ;20(24)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a strong and complex genetic component with an estimate of more than 1000 genes implicated cataloged in SFARI (Simon’s Foundation Autism Research Initiative) gene database. A significant part of both syndromic and idiopathic autism cases can be attributed to disorders caused by the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent translation deregulation. We conducted gene-set analyses and revealed that 606 out of 1053 genes (58%) included in the SFARI Gene database and 179 out of 281 genes (64%) included in the first three categories of the database ("high confidence", "strong candidate", and "suggestive evidence") could be attributed to one of the four groups : 1. FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein) target genes, 2. mTOR signaling network genes, 3. mTOR-modulated genes, 4. vitamin D3 sensitive genes. The additional gene network analysis revealed 43 new genes and 127 new interactions, so in the whole 222 out of 281 (79%) high scored genes from SFARI Gene database were connected with mTOR signaling activity and/or dependent on vitamin D3 availability directly or indirectly. We hypothesized that genetic and/or environment mTOR hyperactivation, including provocation by vitamin D deficiency, might be a common mechanism controlling the expressivity of most autism predisposition genes and even core symptoms of autism.

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13. Wang T, Zhang T, Sun L, Li W, Zhang C, Yu L, Guan Y. Gestational B-vitamin supplementation alleviates PM2.5-induced autism-like behavior and hippocampal neurodevelopmental impairment in mice offspring. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ;2019 (Dec 15) ;185:109686.

Gestational exposure to PM2.5 is a worldwide environmental issue associated with long-lasting behavior abnormalities and neurodevelopmental impairments in the hippocampus of offspring. PM2.5 may induce hippocampus injury and lead to autism-like behavior such as social communication deficits and stereotyped repetitive behavior in children through neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of B-vitamin on PM2.5-induced deleterious effects by focusing on anti-inflammation, antioxidant, synaptic remodeling and neurodevelopment. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into three groups including control group (mice subject to PBS only), model group (mice subject to both 30muL PM2.5 of 3.456mug/muL and 10 mL/(kg.d) PBS), and intervention group (mice subject to both 30muL PM2.5 of 3.456mug/muL and 10 mL/(kg.d) B-vitamin supplementation (folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 with concentrations at 0.06, 1.14 and 0.02mg/mL, respectively)). In the current study B-vitamin significantly alleviated neurobehavioral impairment reflected in reduced social communication disorders, stereotyped repetitive behavior, along with learning and spatial memory impairment in PM2.5-stimulated mice offspring. Next, B-vitamin corrected synaptic loss and reduced mitochondrial damage in hippocampus of mice offspring, demonstrated by normalized synapse quantity, synaptic cleft, postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness and length of synaptic active area. Furthermore, significantly down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including NF-kappaB, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and lipid peroxidation were found. We observed elevated levels of oxidant-related genes (SOD, GSH and GSH-Px). Moreover, decreased cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive cells suggested inhibited PM2.5-induced apoptosis by B-vitamin. Furthermore, B-vitamin increased neurogenesis by increasing EdU-positive cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of offspring. Collectively, our results suggest that B-vitamin supplementation exerts preventive effect on autism-like behavior and neurodevelopmental impairment in hippocampus of mice offspring gestationally exposed to PM2.5, to which alleviated mitochondrial damage, increased anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity and synaptic efficiency, reduced neuronal apoptosis and improved hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute.

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14. Wijker C, Leontjevas R, Spek A, Enders-Slegers MJ. Process Evaluation of Animal-Assisted Therapy : Feasibility and Relevance of a Dog-Assisted Therapy Program in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Animals (Basel) ;2019 (Dec 9) ;9(12)

(1) Background : Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for evaluating a treatment. However, the results of an RCT may remain meaningless for clinical practice in cases of poor intervention feasibility or fidelity (the extent to which the protocol was executed), or when health care professionals or patients experience the intervention as irrelevant or unpleasant. Feasibility and relevance of psychosocial interventions are highly understudied in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In order to put the effects revealed in an RCT on an animal-assisted therapy (AAT) program in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) into the context of clinical practice and to formulate guidelines for potential improvements and further implementation of the therapy, the aim of this process evaluation was to gain insight into the relevance and feasibility of the intervention and barriers and facilitators to its implementation. (2) Methods : Data were collected from 27 participants with ASD and three therapists using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and treatment reports. Reach, adherence, program fidelity, and program appraisal were evaluated, and barriers and facilitators to recruitment and implementation of the AAT program were explored. (3) Results : The participants were satisfied with the program and evaluated it as feasible and relevant for adults with ASD. The participants documented improving self-insight, joy, relaxation, and physical contact with a therapy dog as the reason of their positive appraisal of the therapy. Documented aspects that may influence feasibility and appraised relevance were the participants’ therapy attitude, skills for generalization, and severity of contextual problems (e.g., problems at work, relationship problems). Regarding the sample quality, females and dog owners were slightly over-represented in the RCT. (4) Discussion : Considering the positive evaluation of the intervention and its positive effects revealed in the RCT, the AAT program can be added to the treatment repertoire to reduce stress and improve social communication in adults with ASD. More research in larger samples is needed for better understanding the generalization of the intervention effects, especially in male patients and those who do not have a dog at home.

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