Pubmed du 20/12/19

vendredi 20 décembre 2019

1. Benson PR. Examining the Links Between Received Network Support and Marital Quality Among Mothers of Children with ASD : A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Dec 18)

Employing a cohort sequential design and multilevel modeling, the direct and indirect effects (via depressed mood, emotional wellbeing, and perceived support) of received network support on marital quality were assessed over a 7-year period (child age 7-14) on 96 married or cohabiting mothers of children with ASD. Findings indicated several significant direct and indirect effects affecting change within mothers over time, with effects varying by whether the support source was a spouse or partner, family members, or friends. In addition, one moderated mediation effect was noted, with the indirect effect of received spousal support on marital quality via perceived spousal support retaining significance only at low and moderate levels of child problem behavior severity. Study strengths, limitations, and clinical implications are discussed.

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2. Bourque KS, Goldstein H. Expanding Communication Modalities and Functions for Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorder : Secondary Analysis of a Peer Partner Speech-Generating Device Intervention. J Speech Lang Hear Res ;2019 (Dec 19):1-16.

Purpose This study reports a secondary analysis of the nature of communicative functions and modalities used in initiations and responses of minimally verbal preschoolers with severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from a previously published study (Thiemann-Bourque, Feldmiller, Hoffman, & Johner, 2018). This analysis focused on the final cohort (n = 6) from a group design study (N = 45) that examined a peer mediation and speech-generating device (SGD) intervention compared to an SGD-only condition. Method After teaching peers to use an iPad as an SGD within a modified stay-play-talk approach, school staff implemented SGD instruction in child-peer dyads during typical preschool activities. To investigate individual differences among children who demonstrated increased communication acts in the peer + SGD condition, changes in reciprocity, modalities used, and communicative functions were examined using a multiple-baseline design across children. Fidelity of implementation and social validity data were also collected. Results Six children with ASD and their peers demonstrated more balanced reciprocity, with individual differences in how and why children communicated during exchanges. That is, all children with ASD increased in SGD use as their primary communication mode ; 3 children used different modalities including more speech, and 3 children used primarily gestures and SGD. The most frequent function expressed was requests for objects. More modest increases were observed in comments and requests for actions, with negligible changes in gaining attention. Social validity reports by naive judges reflected clear improvements in communication interactions. Conclusion Findings are promising for a preschool SGD intervention that can expand children’s modalities and communicative functions to engage in balanced exchanges with peer partners. Supplemental Material

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3. Boxhoorn S, Bast N, Super H, Polzer L, Cholemkery H, Freitag CM. Pupil dilation during visuospatial orienting differentiates between autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ;2019 (Dec 18)

BACKGROUND : Previous research demonstrated atypical attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regarding visual orienting, findings suggest a differential impairment : Atypical orienting to relatively unexpected targets in ASD, and atypical processing of alerting cues in ADHD. The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system plays an important role in exploiting alerting cues to increase attention and task performance. The present study’s aim was to examine differential subcortical processes underlying visual orienting in ASD and ADHD with pupil dilation (PD) as index of LC activity. METHODS : Pupil dilation (PD) progression metrics during visual orienting were calculated for task-evoked PD locked to cue, stimulus onset, and behavioral response. Group differences in PD and reaction time (RT) were compared between children with ASD without ADHD (ASD-) (N = 18), ADHD without ASD (ADHD-) (N = 28), both disorders (ASD + ADHD) (N = 14), and typically developing children (TD) (N = 31) using linear mixed models (LMM). To further explore the modulatory role of the LC-NE system group differences in the effect of task-evoked PD metrics on RT were examined exploratively. RESULTS : ASD (+ADHD) showed slower orienting responses to relatively unexpected spatial target stimuli as compared to TD, which was accompanied by higher PD amplitudes relative to ADHD- and TD. In ADHD-, shorter cue-evoked PD latencies relative to ASD-, ASD + ADHD, and TD were found. Group differences in the effect of cue- and stimulus-evoked PD amplitudes on RT were found in ASD- relative to TD. CONCLUSIONS : Study findings provide new evidence for a specific role of the LC-NE system in impaired reflexive orienting responses in ASD, and atypical visual processing of alerting cues in ADHD.

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4. Castelbaum L, Sylvester CM, Zhang Y, Yu Q, Constantino JN. On the Nature of Monozygotic Twin Concordance and Discordance for Autistic Trait Severity : A Quantitative Analysis. Behav Genet ;2019 (Dec 18)

The characterizing features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are continuously distributed in nature ; however, prior twin studies have not systematically incorporated this knowledge into estimations of concordance and discordance. We conducted a quantitative analysis of twin-twin similarity for autistic trait severity in three existing data sets involving 366 pairs of uniformly-phenotyped monozygotic (MZ) twins with and without ASD. Probandwise concordance for ASD was 96% ; however, MZ trait correlations differed markedly for pairs with ASD trait burden below versus above the threshold for clinical diagnosis, with R(2)s on the order of 0.6 versus 0.1, respectively. Categorical MZ twin discordance for ASD diagnosis is rare and more appropriately operationalized by standardized quantification of twin-twin differences. Here we provide new evidence that although ASD itself is highly heritable, variation-in-severity of symptomatology above the diagnostic threshold is substantially influenced, in contrast, by non-shared environmental factors which may identify novel targets of early ASD amelioration.

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5. Chien YL, Hsieh MH, Gau SS. P50-N100-P200 sensory gating deficits in adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ;2019 (Dec 20) ;95:109683.

Sensory symptoms are common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Altered sensory gating may cause sensory overload. However, whether ASD individuals have P50 gating deficits is controversial in childhood and lacks evidence in adulthood. Beyond P50, fewer studies have examined N100 or P200, although N100 is considered to be more reliable than P50. Also, the clinical correlates of these parameters are mostly unknown. This study aimed to investigate P50, N100, and P200 sensory gating in adolescents and young adults with ASD and examine their clinical correlates. In a sample of 34 ASD participants (mean age 20.6+/-4.1, female 5.9%) and 34 sex- and age-matched typically-developing controls (TDC, mean age 20.4+/-3.1), we investigated P50, N100, and P200 sensory gating by a paired-click paradigm, which generated the data of S1 amplitude after the first click and S2 amplitude after the second click. We found that compared to TDC, ASD participants had significant N100 suppression deficits reflected by a larger N100S2 amplitude, smaller N100 ratio of S2 over S1, and the difference between the two amplitudes. N100S2 amplitude was significantly associated with sensory sensitivity independent of the diagnosis. Although there was no group difference in P50 suppression, S1 amplitude was negatively associated with social deficits in ASD. P200 gating parameters were correlated with attention switching difficulty. Our findings suggest N100 gating deficit in adolescents and young adults with ASD. The relationships between P50 S1 and social deficits and between N100S2 and sensory sensitivity warrant further investigation.

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6. Cook ML, Zhang Y, Constantino JN. On the Continuity Between Autistic and Schizoid Personality Disorder Trait Burden : A Prospective Study in Adolescence. J Nerv Ment Dis ;2019 (Dec 17)

Although widely conceived as distinct conditions, higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizoid personality disorder (schizoid PD) share similar clinical symptomatology. This study explored the relationship between the two disorders by collecting extensively validated measures of autistic trait burden (Social Responsive Scale, Second Edition) and schizoid PD affectation (Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies) from clinically ascertained verbal males with and without autism ages 12 to 25 years (N = 72) via parent, teacher, and self-report. Although only a small minority of adolescents with ASD met full diagnostic criteria for schizoid PD, participants with ASD endorsed a continuous distribution of schizoid PD traits that reflected a pronounced pathological shift in comparison with those in the control group, with one half of ASD males experiencing three or more Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition schizoid PD criterion items "often" or "almost always." Results suggest significant amplification of schizoid PD trait burden in adolescents with ASD. ASD-specific interventions should be considered for patients with schizoid PD with premorbid histories of ASD.

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7. Kovarski K, Malvy J, Khanna RK, Arsene S, Batty M, Latinus M. Reduced visual evoked potential amplitude in autism spectrum disorder, a variability effect ?. Transl Psychiatry ;2019 (Dec 18) ;9(1):341.

Atypical sensory behaviours represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Investigating early visual processing is crucial to deepen our understanding of higher-level processes. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to pattern-reversal checkerboards were recorded in ASD children and age-matched controls. Peak analysis of the P100 component and two types of single-trial analyses were carried out. P100 amplitude was reduced in the ASD group, consistent with previous reports. The analysis of the proportion of trials with a positive activity in the latency range of the P100, measuring inter-trial (in)consistency, allowed identifying two subgroups of ASD participants : the first group, as control children, showed a high inter-trial consistency, whereas the other group showed an inter-trial inconsistency. Analysis of median absolute deviation of single-trial P100 (st-P100) latencies revealed an increased latency variability in the ASD group. Both single-trial analyses revealed increased variability in a subset of children with ASD. To control for this variability, VEPs were reconstructed by including only positive trials or trials with homogeneous st-P100 latencies. These control analyses abolished group differences, confirming that the reduced P100 amplitude results from increased inter-trial variability in ASD. This increased variability in ASD supports the neural noise theory. The existence of subgroups in ASD suggests that the neural response variability is not a genuine characteristic of the entire autistic spectrum, but rather characterized subgroups of children. Exploring the relationship between sensory responsiveness and inter-trial variability could provide more precise bioclinical profiles in children with ASD, and complete the functional diagnostic crucial for the development of individualized therapeutical projects.

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8. Lau BY, Leong R, Uljarevic M, Lerh JW, Rodgers J, Hollocks MJ, South M, McConachie H, Ozsivadjian A, Van Hecke A, Libove R, Hardan A, Leekam S, Simonoff E, Magiati I. Anxiety in young people with autism spectrum disorder : Common and autism-related anxiety experiences and their associations with individual characteristics. Autism ;2019 (Dec 19):1362361319886246.

Anxiety is common in autism spectrum disorder. Many anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorder are consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) anxiety disorders (termed "common" anxieties), but others may be qualitatively different, likely relating to autism spectrum disorder traits (herein termed "autism-related" anxieties). To date, few studies have examined both "common" and "autism-related" anxiety experiences in autism spectrum disorder. We explored caregiver-reported Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale-Parent version data from a multi-site (United Kingdom, Singapore, and United States) pooled database of 870 6- to 18-year-old participants with autism spectrum disorder, of whom 287 provided at least one written response to the optional open-ended Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale-Parent item 39 ("Is there anything else your child is afraid of ?"). Responses were thematically coded to explore (a) common and autism-related anxiety presentations and (b) their relationship with young people’s characteristics. Nearly half of the responses were autism-related anxieties (mostly sensory, uncommon, or idiosyncratic specific phobias and worries about change and unpredictability). The other half described additional common anxieties not covered in the original measure (mostly social, weather and environmental disasters, and animals). Caregivers of participants who were more severely affected by autism spectrum disorder symptoms reported more autism-related, as compared to common, additional anxieties. Implications for the assessment and understanding of anxiety in autism are discussed.

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9. Lei J, Ashwin C, Brosnan M, Russell A. Differences in anxieties and social networks in a group-matched sample of autistic and typically developing students transitioning to university. Autism ;2019 (Dec 19):1362361319894830.

Transitioning to university can be anxiety-provoking for all students. The relationship between social anxiety, autistic traits and students’ social network structure, and perceived support is poorly understood. This study used a group-matched design where autistic students (n = 28) and typically developing students (n = 28) were matched on sex, age (17-19 years), ethnicity, pre-university academic performance and degree subject at university. Autistic students reported greater transition to university worries, and a smaller social network size compared to typically developing students, though perceived similar levels of support from their social networks. Autistic and typically developing students showed differential patterns of association with both autistic traits and social anxiety. Broader clinical and practical implications of findings are discussed.

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10. Lopata C, Donnelly JP, Rodgers JD, Thomeer ML, Booth AJ. Reliability and validity of teacher ratings on the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist for children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism ;2019 (Dec 19):1362361319894824.

This study assessed the reliability and criterion-related validity of teacher ratings on the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist for a sample of 133 children, aged 6-11 years, with autism spectrum disorder (without intellectual disability). Internal consistency for the total sample was 0.93. For a subsample, test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.74 ; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85) at a 9-month interval. Child age, intelligence quotient, language abilities, and sex were not associated with the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist total score. The Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist total score was inversely and strongly related to teacher ratings of autism spectrum disorder symptom severity. Significant positive correlations (moderate-to-high) were found between the Adapted Skillstreaming Checklist and prosocial skills scales and significant negative correlations (low-to-moderate) with problem behavior scales on a broad measure of child functioning. Implications and suggestions for future study are discussed.

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11. Maxeiner S, Sester M, Krasteva-Christ G. Novel human sex-typing strategies based on the autism candidate gene NLGN4X and its male-specific gametologue NLGN4Y. Biol Sex Differ ;2019 (Dec 18) ;10(1):62.

BACKGROUND : Since the early days of PCR techniques, sex identification, "sex-typing," of genomic DNA samples has been a fundamental part of human forensic analysis but also in animal genetics aiming at strategic livestock breeding. Most analyses are employing the AMELX/AMELY gene loci on the X and Y chromosomes present in most mammals. We hypothesize that sex-typing in humans is also possible based on the genes NLGN4X and NLGN4Y, which represent X and Y chromosome-specific copies of a common ancestral neuroligin-4 orthologue. METHODS : Genomic DNA was isolated from human blood and buccal cell samples (total n = 111) and submitted to two different strategies : (a) a traditional two-primer PCR approach detecting an insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism immediately upstream of the translational start on exon 1 and (b) detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, on the translational stop carrying exon 7. The SNP detection was based on a quantitative PCR approach (rhAMP genotyping) employing DNA/RNA hybrid oligonucleotides that were blocked and which could only be activated upon perfect annealing to the target DNA sequence. RESULTS : All indel PCR-tested human DNA samples showed two bands for males representing X- and Y-specific copies of NLGN4 and a single band for female samples, i.e., homozygosity of NLGN4X and absence of NLGN4Y, in accordance with the self-reported sex of the donors. These results were in perfect agreement with the results of the rhAMP-based SNP-detection method : all males were consequently positive for both alleles, representing either SNP variant, and females were interpreted as homozygous regarding the SNP variant found in NLGN4X. Both methods have shown reliable and consistent results that enabled us to infer the sex of donor DNA samples across different ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS : These results indicate that the detection of human NLGN4X/Y is a suitable alternative to previously reported methods employing gene loci such as AMELX/Y. Furthermore, this is the first report applying successfully the rhAMP-genotyping strategy as a means for SNP-based sex-typing, which consequently will be applicable to other gene loci or different species as well.

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12. Shvarts S, Jimenez-Gomez C, Bai JYH, Thomas RR, Oskam JJ, Podlesnik CA. Examining stimuli paired with alternative reinforcement to mitigate resurgence in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and pigeons. J Exp Anal Behav ;2019 (Dec 19)

In two laboratory experiments, we examined whether stimuli paired with alternative reinforcers could mitigate resurgence of a previously reinforced target response with pigeons (Experiment 1) and children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Experiment 2). In Phase 1, we arranged food reinforcement according to a variable-ratio schedule for engaging in a target response. In Phase 2, we arranged extinction for target responding and differentially reinforced alternative responding according to a fixed-ratio schedule, with every alternative-reinforcer delivery paired with a change in keylight color (Experiment 1) or automated verbal (praise) statement (Experiment 2). In Phase 3, we assessed resurgence during extinction of target and alternative responding in the presence versus absence of continued presentation of the paired stimulus. Despite variation across sessions, resurgence on average was lower when continuing to present the paired stimuli in all pigeons and children while maintenance of alternative responding did not differ between assessments. These findings indicate that stimuli paired with alternative reinforcement can modestly decrease resurgence, but further examination of their efficacy and a better understanding of the underlying processes are necessary before they can be recommended for clinical use in reducing resurgence of clinically relevant problem behavior.

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13. Yamamoto S, Isawa S. Effects of textual prompts and feedback on social niceties of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in a simulated workplace. J Appl Behav Anal ;2019 (Dec 19)

Previous research demonstrates the efficacy of behavioral skills training with a textual prompt to establish greetings and conversational skills. This study examined the efficacy of a brief intervention of textual prompts with performance feedback for increasing social niceties of adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder in a simulated workplace. Target social niceties included "Do you have a minute ?" when a participant initiated an interaction and "Thank you for your time" when a participant ended the interaction. Results revealed this intervention was effective for 7 of 9 participants. This study expands upon previous studies by showing the efficacy of a resource-efficient training on acquisition and generalization of social niceties by people with autism spectrum disorder.

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