Autism in Adulthood - 1-4 - December 2019

vendredi 20 décembre 2019

1. Nicolaidis C. Building an Academic Home for Research on the Most Pressing Issues Affecting Autistic Adults : Reflections on Our Journal’s First Year. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;1(4):239-240.

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2. Singhal N, Nicolaidis C, Ratazzi A, Corrons T, Hossain SW, Azeem QF, Panesar P, Vaidya S, Muriuki K. An Expert Discussion on Autism in Adulthood in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;1(4):241-247.

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3. Joyce A. Breaking Barriers : How I Found My Voice. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;1(4):248-249.

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4. DeBrabander KM, Morrison KE, Jones DR, Faso DJ, Chmielewski M, Sasson NJ. Do First Impressions of Autistic Adults Differ Between Autistic and Nonautistic Observers ?. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;1(4):250-257.

Background : Autistic adults receive unfavorable first impressions from typically developing (TD) adults, but these impressions improve when TD adults are made aware of their diagnosis. It remains unclear, however, how autistic adults form first impressions of other autistic adults, and whether their impressions are similarly affected by diagnostic awareness. Methods : In this study, 32 autistic and 32 TD adults viewed brief videos of 20 TD and 20 autistic adults presented either with or without their diagnostic status and rated them on character traits and their interest in interacting with them in the future. Results : Findings indicated that autistic raters shared the TD tendency to evaluate autistic adults less favorably than TD adults, but these judgments did not reduce their social interest for interacting with autistic adults as they did for TD raters. Furthermore, informing raters of the diagnostic status of autistic adults did not improve first impressions for autistic raters as they did for TD raters, suggesting that autistic raters either already inferred their autism status when no diagnosis was provided or their impression formation is less affected by awareness of a person’s diagnosis. Conclusions : Collectively, these results demonstrate that autistic observers make trait inferences about autistic adults comparable with those made by TD observers ?suggesting a similar sensitivity to perceiving and interpreting social signifiers that differ between TD and autistic presentation styles ?but unlike their TD counterparts, these trait judgments are not perceived as an impediment to subsequent social interaction and are relatively consistent regardless of diagnostic disclosure. Lay summary Why was this study done ? Typically developing (TD) adults often form negative first impressions of autistic adults and report less of a desire to interact with them. These biases affect the social experiences of autistic adults and can contribute to their social disability. More optimistically, however, first impressions of autistic adults improve when TD adults are more knowledgeable about autism and are made aware of their diagnostic status, suggesting that familiarity and understanding can promote acceptance of autistic differences. One group that has high familiarity with autism is autistic adults themselves, but no study to date has examined how autistic adults form impressions of TD adults and other autistic adults. What was the purpose of this study ? The purpose of this study was to examine whether first impressions of, and social interest in, autistic adults differ between autistic and TD raters, and determine whether disclosure of a person’s diagnosis affects these patterns differently for autistic and TD raters. What did the researchers do ? A total of 32 TD and 32 autistic adult raters viewed videos of 40 unfamiliar adults (20 TD and 20 autistic individuals) and rated each person on six traits (awkwardness, attractiveness, assertiveness, likeability, trustworthiness, and intelligence) and four items assessing their social interest in future interaction with the person in the video. Videos were presented either with or without the person’s diagnosis to see whether this information affects impressions formed by autistic and TD raters. What were the results of the study ? Consistent with prior work, TD raters formed more negative first impressions of autistic adults than TD adults. Meanwhile, autistic raters formed more positive impressions overall, but shared the TD pattern of rating autistic adults less favorably than TD adults on several traits. However, contrary to theories about reduced social motivation in autism, autistic raters expressed greater interest than TD raters in future interaction with people in the videos and this social interest was largest for other autistic people. Finally, diagnostic disclosure improved impressions of autistic adults made by TD raters but not by autistic raters. What do these findings add to what was already known ? These findings provide empirical evidence that autistic adults detec and interpret autistic social differences similarly to TD adults, but they express greater inclusivity and less discriminatory attitudes about these differences. These results add to a growing literature about how autistic people are perceived, how these perceptions affect their social experiences, and how similarity between social partners can support social connection. What are potential weaknesses in the study ? The included sample was predominantly Caucasian and male, and did not include participants with intellectual disability. Future studies should examine whether the patterns here extend to more diverse samples. How will these findings help autistic adults now or in the future ? This study provides additional evidence that social opportunities for autistic adults are affected by the perceptions and biases of potential social partners. Autistic observers may share the TD bias toward less favorable trait evaluation of autistic adults, but this did not lessen their social interest in interacting with autistic adults the way it did for TD observers. Opportunities for autistic adults to interact with other autistic adults may facilitate relationship development in this population who often struggle to have their social needs met. In addition, findings suggest that acceptance of autistic people increases with familiarity of autism itself. Improving attitudes about autism among TD people may be one effective way to improve the social experiences of autistic people within neurotypical environments.

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5. Stevenson JL, Mowad TG. Explicit Associations with Autism and Disability. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;1(4):258-267.

Objectives : Autistic people call for greater acceptance even though the general public has greater awareness of the autism spectrum. This study investigated explicit or conscious attitudes toward the autism spectrum and disability in college students and the general population. We hypothesized that both samples would associate ?a person on the autism spectrum ? with more negative attributes than other types of people except for ?a person with a disability.? Methods : In Phase 1, participants generated 10 word associations for 8 labels : a person on the autism spectrum, a person not on the autism spectrum, a person with a disability, a person without a disability, a college student, a professor, a child, and a parent. In Phase 2, participants rated the 10 most common words for each label (type of person) in Phase 1 on a 7-point Likert scale from extremely negative to extremely positive. Ninety-nine undergraduate students and 106 adults recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk completed Phase 1. One hundred twenty-two undergraduate students and 101 adults recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk completed Phase 2. Results : Only ?a person with a disability ? in the general population sample was rated as having significant negative associations. However, the associations of ?a person with a disability ? were rated more negatively than all other labels in both samples, and the associations of ?a person on the autism spectrum ? were rated as second most negative in the general population sample. Conclusion : Explicit associations toward disability and autism were somewhat mixed. Adults in the general population tended to have more negative explicit associations with disability, and to a lesser extent autism. These results underscore the need to examine attitudes in samples more representative of the general population. Furthermore, evidence of possible explicit negative associations is concerning and highlights the imperative need to confront ableism. Lay summary Why was this study done ? The general public claims to be aware of the autism spectrum and recent research suggests that they have greater knowledge about the autism spectrum than they did in the past. However, as autistic individuals have articulated, autism awareness is not the same as autism acceptance. In order for autistic individuals to be fully included into society, we must move to autism acceptance. One way researchers examine potential discrimination is by studying attitudes. What was the purpose of this study ? This study examines people’s explicit attitudes toward the autism spectrum and to disability. Explicit attitudes are attitudes that are conscious and controllable. What did the researchers do ? Two groups of adults participated in the study : a group of college students and a noncollege sample of adults designed to better represent the general population of adults. Participants completed an online study wherein they were asked to list word associations for different types of people including ?a person on the autism spectrum ? and ?a person with a disability.? In a second study, participants then rated the most common associations from extremely negative to extremely positive. What were the results of the study ? The results were somewhat mixed. Only the set of associations of ?a person with a disability ? were rated by participants in the noncollege group as negative. However, the associations of ?a person with a disability ? were rated more negatively than all other types of people in both groups, and the associations of ?a person on the autism spectrum ? were rated as second most negative in the noncollege sample. What do these findings add to what was already known ? The majority of research on explicit attitudes toward autism has focused on children, including how interventions may improve attitudes toward autistic children. Therefore, this research provides much needed information on the state of attitudes toward autistic individuals more generally. This research also provides a comparison of attitudes toward autism, disability, and other groups. Furthermo e, research assessing attitudes toward autism in adults has largely focused on college students, whereas this research considered both college students and a noncollege sample. What are the potential weaknesses in the study ? These findings may not extend to a more diverse population as both groups had relatively high education levels, were primarily White non-Hispanic and were living in the United States. Furthermore, participants may have generated more positive associations for ?a person on the autism spectrum ? and ?a person with a disability ? because they wanted to be viewed in a favorable light. This is known as a social desirability bias. How will these findings help autistic adults now or in the future ? Unfortunately, possible explicit negative associations with the autism spectrum and with disability are concerning as they reflect people’s conscious and controllable attitudes. These results highlight a need for action and also support autistic individuals’ demand for actions toward autism acceptance.

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6. Frost KM, Bailey KM, Ingersoll BR. “I Just Want Them to See Me As…Me” : Identity, Community, and Disclosure Practices Among College Students on the Autism Spectrum. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;1(4):268-275.

Background : The purpose of this project was to understand how college students on the autism spectrum integrate their diagnosis into their identity, whether they connect with a broader ?autism community, ? and when and why they disclose their diagnosis to other people. Methods : Twenty participants completed semistructured interviews by phone, text message, or email. An inductive approach was used to generate codes, and results were synthesized via thematic analysis, theme counts, comparing and contrasting cases, and examining outliers. Results : Across participants and interview topics, the students in our study expressed a desire to be understood and known genuinely by other people. Interviews revealed that autistic identity is complex and variable across individuals. Most of the students in our study did not feel part of a broader autism community, although several reported that some of their close friends were on the spectrum as well. Our participants rarely disclosed their autism to other people, and this decision was often informed by whether the disclosure would support or inhibit understanding. Conclusions : Results suggest there is a need for neurotypical people to be more accepting, affirming, and empathetic in their interactions with neurodivergent people. In addition, our results suggest that autistic college students may not participate in services that explicitly connect groups of students on the spectrum or require disclosure of their diagnosis. College students with autism should be involved in the development of college supports and services that are consistent with their values and disclosure practices. Lay Summary What was the purpose of this study ? The purpose of this study was to understand how autistic college students integrate autism into their identity, whether they feel a part of a larger ?autism community ? and when and why they tell other people that they have autism. What did the researchers do ? The researchers in this study interviewed 20 autistic college students. Interviews included several topics : (1) how autism fits into students’ sense of identity, (2) whether they feel connected to an autism community, and (3) whether, when, and why the students tell others they are on the autism spectrum. Researchers read the interview transcripts and identified common themes based on what students said. What were the results of the study ? Overall, the college students in this study wanted to be genuinely understood by others. Some students identified strongly as autistic, whereas others felt it was not part of who they are. Most students in this study did not feel a part of a larger autism community, but several reported having friends on the spectrum. Most participants did not tell others about their autism diagnosis ; however, they felt comfortable sharing this information with close friends, romantic partners, and school personnel. In general, decisions about disclosing (or not disclosing) were related to being understood by other people. What do these findings add to what was already known ? This study focused on the experience of autistic college students from their own perspective and discussed relationships between disclosure practices, autistic identity, and connection to autism communities in a way other studies had not done before. This study’s findings suggest a need for neurotypical people to be more accepting, affirming, and empathetic toward people with autism. In addition, because college students on the autism spectrum may not use services that require disclosure of their diagnosis, colleges should allow autistic students to be involved in the development of services that meet this population’s unique needs. What are potential weaknesses in the study ? This study only recruited participants from disability resource centers of colleges in the midwestern United States, so results may not apply to other people. Students who had not registered with disability services could not be contacted for participation in this study. Furthermore, most participants in this study were white men from fam lies with a high level of education, so we have a limited ability to understand how being autistic might intersect with other facets of identity for members of other marginalized groups. How will these findings help autistic adults ? These findings help the autism community by informing the neurotypical population about the need to be more accepting of the unique perspectives of people on the autism spectrum. Although autism awareness in the United States has increased, our results suggest that awareness alone is not enough. Instead, our goal should be to promote acceptance, inclusion, and empowerment of autistic people.

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7. Angulo H, Chan M, DeThorne L. Life Is a Stage : Autistic Perspectives on Neurotypicality. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;1(4):276-285.

Background : Professional interventions for autistic people often encourage the development of neurotypical behavior. However, the pressure to appear or behave neurotypically has been associated with negative mental health outcomes. Consequently, autistic perspectives on the concept of neurotypicality are a critical area for empirical research. As a follow-up to a prior study on perceptions of autism, the present study examined the concept of neurotypicality as represented in 39 online video logs authored by YouTubers who self-identified as autistic. The study aimed to understand autistic perspectives on neurotypicality to guide professional service provision toward practices that support overall well-being. Methods : Consistent with procedures frequently implemented within narrative inquiry, we identified three exemplary videos that presented salient and consistent narratives about neurotypicality. We submitted transcripts of these three videos to inductive thematic analysis to establish their distinctive features and hence the features of the narratives they embodied. Afterward, we used the distinctive features of the exemplary videos to deductively analyze the remaining 36 videos in the data set. Findings : The three exemplary videos presented features that related to three divergent narratives about neurotypicality that were supported by the data set as a whole : neurotypicality as (1) an achievement ; (2) a masquerade ; and (3) a curse. These three narratives differed sharply in regard to the desirability and feasibility of neurotypical conduct. Across all narratives, neurotypical behavior was associated with significant effort. Conclusions : Implications for professionals serving the autism community include the need to be prepared to offer clients different narratives about neurotypical behavior, as presented in writings and media authored by autistic individuals. A second implication concerns the need to align intervention and educational goals with a client’s views and values. Finally, independent of the goals established between professionals and clients, the former must monitor the stress and effort associated with the enactment of neurotypicality and make changes accordingly. Lay summary Why was this study done ? Professionals often want to help autistic clients to behave like people who are not autistic (often called neurotypicals). However, we do not know much about how people on the autism spectrum feel about the idea of neurotypicality. In this study, we analyzed 39 videos from YouTubers who identified as autistic to learn more about what they think of neurotypicality. What was the purpose of this study ? Our goal was to learn directly from autistic individuals and to help professionals (e.g., psychologists and speech-language therapists) to provide better services to the autistic community. What did the researchers do ? We chose three of the videos that were good examples of different ways of thinking about neurotypicality. We analyzed the three videos to identify their unique features. Then we identified examples of those features in the other 36 videos in our data set. What were the results of the study ? We identified three ways of thinking about neurotypicality : neurotypicality as (1) an achievement ; (2) a masquerade or theatrical performance ; and (3) a curse. These ways of thinking about neurotypicality differed mostly in regard to the extent to which neurotypicality was desired and considered possible. A shared characteristic was that neurotypical behavior required a lot of effort from autistic individuals. What do these findings add to what was already known ? The findings of our study highlight the effort associated with neurotypical behavior and the connection between neurotypical behavior and mental health. The study can help professionals to better understand what behaving neurotypically feels like for autistic individuals. It also has the potential to increase discussions about neurotypicality by amplifying the autistic voices that are still underrepresented in scientific studies. What are potentia weaknesses in the study ? The ways of thinking about neurotypicality that we identified in our data may not be representative of all the autistic community because most of the vloggers in our data were white males who identified with Asperger’s syndrome. Also, our study included only videos recorded in English and uploaded to YouTubeTM between 2005 and 2015. Future studies should include individuals from all areas of the autism spectrum and more recent data presented in more varied formats and languages. How will these findings help autistic adults now or in the future ? The findings of our study suggest that professionals who serve the autistic community should be able to share with others different views of neurotypicality, help clients work toward goals that are important to them, and monitor signs of stress caused by the effort to behave neurotypically. This should in turn positively impact the quality of services provided to the autistic community and with it the overall well-being of people on the autism spectrum.

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8. Negri O, White RC, Remington A. A Friendly Article : The Qualitative Investigation of Anthropomorphism in Autistic and Nonautistic Adults. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;1(4):286-296.

Background : Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman agents. This common tendency is thought to be driven by a heightened motivation for social connection and may therefore be expected to be reduced in autistic individuals given that this group has been claimed to demonstrate reduced social motivation in some settings. However, the subject of anthropomorphism in autism has not been studied extensively, and online forums, autobiographical accounts, and recent research on the topic suggest that, contrary to this expectation, anthropomorphism is commonly experienced by autistic individuals. Methods : We conducted semi-structured interviews with eight autistic and eight nonautistic adults, all who reported a tendency to anthropomorphize. We recorded, transcribed, and analyzed the interviews according to the thematic analysis framework with the objective of identifying similarities and differences in the lived experiences of anthropomorphism in autistic and nonautistic individuals. Results : Individuals in both groups described anthropomorphism as comforting, promoting a sense of safety and friendship with, and feelings of empathy and sympathy toward, nonhuman agents. Autistic individuals stressed the important role anthropomorphized agents played in their life, particularly when growing up : easing loneliness and helping develop an understanding of emotions and relationships. Participants also expressed negative aspects of the phenomenon, with both autistic and nonautistic individuals worrying about anthropomorphized agents’ feelings and well-being. For some individuals, such thoughts and feelings caused distress and were experienced as intrusive due to their involuntary nature. Conclusions : Autistic and nonautistic adults showed very similar anthropomorphic patterns. Although preliminary in nature, our findings highlight characteristics of anthropomorphic experiences for autistic and nonautistic individuals, furthering our understanding of individual differences in social cognition. By illustrating the important role nonhuman agents may play in the lives of autistic individuals, our findings may also guide future research and practice. Lay summary Why was this study done ? ?Anthropomorphism ? is when you feel that non-human items have human characteristics, for example if you experience plants, animals, or household objects as having thoughts or feelings. Anthropomorphism is experienced by many people in many different ways. Researchers think it might happen when people have a strong desire for social connection. This has led some to suggest that autistic people will be less likely to anthropomorphise due to difficulties in social understanding and motivation. However, researchers have not examined this directly, and our prior research, together with comments in online forums and autobiographical accounts, indicated that autistic individuals may experience a special relationship with non-human items. What was the purpose of this study ? The purpose of the study was to speak directly to people who anthropomorphise and hear about their experiences. We could then compare patterns of anthropomorphism between autistic and non-autistic adults. What did the researchers do ? We interviewed 16 adults (8 autistic and 8 non-autistic) who told us they anthropomorphised, and asked about their personal experiences of anthropomorphism. What were the results of the study ? Autistic and non-autistic adults described very similar experiences of anthropomorphism. People in both groups described anthropomorphism as comforting, and said that it gave them a sense of safety and friendship. They also cared for, and experienced feelings of empathy toward, anthropomorphised items. Individuals in both groups worried about anthropomorphised items’ feelings and well-being and this caused some people considerable distress. Autistic individuals stressed the important role anthropomorphised items played in their life, particularly when growing up : reducing loneliness and helping them develop an understanding of emotions and r lationships. What do these findings add to what was already known ? Our findings show that there are many similarities in the experiences of anthropomorphism in autistic and non-autistic adults. The findings also show how, for some autistic adults, anthropomorphism was helpful in developing relationships with other people. What are potential weaknesses in the study ? The small number of participants means that we do not know whether the findings would apply to all people who experience anthropomorphism. How will these findings help autistic adults now or in the future ? By showing the various ways in which autistic individuals attach social meanings (such as feelings of caring or friendship) to anthropomorphised items, our findings add to a growing number of studies which challenge the commonly-held assumption that autistic individuals are less motivated to make social connections. Our work shows that autistic individuals may be highly motivated to connect socially, and that meaningful social connections and expressions of empathy need not be limited to human beings.

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9. Hayward SM, McVilly KR, Stokes MA. “I Would Love to Just Be Myself” : What Autistic Women Want at Work. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;1(4):297-305.

Background : Autistic individuals experience barriers obtaining and sustaining employment. In the general population, gender also impacts labor market experiences. Understanding the occupational aspirations and expectations of individuals disaggregated by autism diagnosis and gender may assist the development of tailored workplace policies and support strategies. Methods : We used inductive thematic analysis to understand the employment expectations of 89 participants (34 autistic women, 32 typically developing women, and 23 autistic men) who answered open-ended items in an online survey. Participants were ages 18 to 68 years. We identified themes and compared these by autism diagnosis and gender. Results : The first major theme emerging from the data was the desire for an opportunity to have a fulfilling career (i.e., fit), with associated minor themes of job-person and person-environment fit. With no associated minor themes, the second and third major themes were desire for stable employment and low hope for finding meaningful work. Differences were apparent by autism diagnosis and not gender. Conclusions : It is pertinent that autistic women have job-person and person-environment fit to thrive at work. Workplace policies and procedures influencing attitudinal, structural, and procedural change appear warranted to facilitate inclusion of autistic women in the labor market. Lay summary Why was this study done ? Autistic people have a lot of difficulties gaining and maintaining suitable work. Yet, no one has asked autistic women what they hope their future in the workforce could look like. Asking this question can highlight problems and possible solutions to help autistic women gain and maintain meaningful employment. What was the purpose of this study ? To help understand the aspirations of autistic women regarding their employment. What did the researchers do ? We asked autistic and nonautistic women, as well as autistic men, in Australia to answer open-ended questions in an online survey about work. One question was ?what do you hope for your future in the workforce ?? We organized people’s responses into categories, or themes, which described different aspects of participants’ answers. We then compared written responses of the autistic and nonautistic women, as well as the answers of autistic women and men. What were the results of the study ? Participants’ responses can be described with three major themes : (1) an opportunity to have a fulfilling career that matches interests and skills in a suitable environment ; (2) wanting stable employment ; and (3) having low hope for finding meaningful work. Finding a job that suits interests, skills, and work preferences within a supportive environment was mentioned as vital for sustained participation in the labor market by autistic women. Although these things were also mentioned by nonautistic women, they were much more important for autistic women. Furthermore, autistic women’s and men’s aspirations are similar, and of equal importance to each of them. What do these findings add to what was already known ? Much is already known about the experiences of autistic men in the workplace. This study addresses and builds on the little research about the occupational aspirations and expectations of autistic women. The results of this study suggest that autistic women want an opportunity to find meaningful and stable work where they ?fit in ? with the freedom to be themselves. Because some similarities were found between what autistic and nonautistic women (as well as autistic men) need in the workplace, if changes affecting businesses are made to help autistic women, more people would benefit. What are potential weaknesses in the study ? This research is limited by the way information was obtained from participants, and sample characteristics ; for example, the autistic women were diagnosed with autism at a younger age than the autistic men. It is a small, qualitative study from a single open-ended survey item. Obtaining participants using social media may mean people in metropolitan area more likely participated. Furthermore, the sample was from Australia only, looked at people who identified as women or men, and did not address racial or ethnic diversity. How will these findings help autistic adults now or in the future ? Understanding the aspirations of autistic women can suggest interventions that help them succeed in the workforce. The strong desire for job-person-environment fit by autistic women could, for example, suggest encouraging more flexible workplace practices supportive of career development. Or, it could suggest creating a free, or subsidized, support service to help autistic people of all ages find work that matches (or can be molded) to suit their skills, abilities, work preferences, and environmental (e.g., sensory) needs.

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10. Kinnaird E, Sedgewick F, Stewart C, Tchanturia K. Exploring Self-Reported Eating Disorder Symptoms in Autistic Men. Autism in Adulthood ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;1(4):306-310.

Background : Although research suggests a relationship between restrictive eating disorders (EDs) and autism, there is a lack of research in this area from the perspective of autistic men. Our aim was to explore whether ED symptoms are heightened in autistic men compared with nonautistic men. Methods : We recruited 103 autistic and nonautistic participants through an online study. We assessed ED symptoms, autistic features, anxiety, depression, and body mass index (BMI) using self-report measures. Results : Autistic men (n ?= ?54) exhibited significantly higher levels of ED symptoms in the areas of eating (p ? <?0.001), shape (p?=?0.005), and weight (p?=?0.001) concerns, and the global score (p?=?0.046) than nonautistic men (n?=?49). However, autistic men scored significantly lower in the area of dietary restraint (p?=?0.032). Global ED scores did not correlate with autistic traits, but did correlate with anxiety (p?<?0.001) and BMI (p?<?0.001) in the autistic group. Conclusions: This exploratory study suggests that heightened ED symptoms in autistic men may be related to heightened levels of anxiety and higher BMIs, rather than autistic traits. It also highlights that autistic men may experience symptoms not relating to dietary restraint. Future research should consider further exploring the relationship between anxiety, BMI, and disordered eating in autism. Lay Summary Why was this study done? There is a lot of interest in the relationship between autism and eating disorders (EDs). Research suggests that as many as one in four people with anorexia could be autistic. However, most research has been done (1) on women and (2) looking at autistic traits in women with anorexia. There is less research looking at the relationship from the perspective (1) of men and (2) looking at ED symptoms in autistic people. What was the purpose of this study? We aimed to explore whether autistic men experience more ED symptoms than nonautistic men. What did the researchers do? This was an online study. We asked participants to fill out self-report measures of autistic traits and ED symptoms. We also asked participants to self-report whether they were autistic, and whether they had been previously diagnosed with an ED. We included 54 autistic men and 49 nonautistic men. What were the results of the study? We found that although autistic men did experience higher levels of ED symptoms than nonautistic men, this did not appear to be related to autistic traits. Instead ED symptoms were related to anxiety and higher rates of being overweight or obese. In addition, autistic men in fact experienced significantly lower levels of ED symptoms associated with dietary restraint than nonautistic men. What do these findings add to what was already known? Our findings reflect some previous research findings that ED symptoms may be heightened in autistic people. They also suggest that these symptoms are related to higher levels of anxiety or body mass indexes (BMIs) in autistic people, rather than autistic traits themselves. Also, most previous research has focused on symptoms of restraint in EDs and autism, for example, limiting the amount you eat or not eating certain foods. In our study, restraint was not found to be heightened, suggesting that focusing on restraint symptoms might be less relevant to autistic men. What are potential weaknesses in the study? One key weakness is our use of self-report measures, particularly asking participants to self-report their autism diagnosis. An additional limitation is the small sample size, which makes it hard to generalize findings. How will these findings help autistic adults now or in the future? More research is needed to understand the relationship between anxiety, BMI, autism, and ED symptoms. Our findings could help our understanding of disordered eating in autistic adults as they suggest we need to pay more attention to autistic adults experiencing ED symptoms that are not related to dietary restriction, such as binge eating.

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Aucun évènement à venir d'ici la fin du mois

Annonces

Accès direct au catalogue en ligne !

Vous pouvez accéder directement au catalogue en ligne du centre de documentation du CRA Rhône-Alpes en cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous :

Cliquez pour consulter le catalogue


Formations pour les Familles et les Proches

le détail des programmes de formation à l’attention des familles et des proches de personnes avec TSA est disponible en cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous.

Formation pour les Aidants Familiaux {JPEG}


Sensibilisation à l’usage des tablettes au CRA !

Toutes les informations concernant les sensibilisations du CRA aux tablettes numériques en cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous :


1-Formation à l’état des connaissances de l’autisme

Plus d’information sur la formation gratuite que dispense le CRA en cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous :

Formation à l'état des connaissances de l'autisme {JPEG}


4-Accéder au Livret Autisme Auvergne Rhône-Alpes (LAARA)

Prenez connaissance du Livret Autisme Auvergne Rhône-Alpes, projet de répertoire régional des structures médico-sociales. En cliquant sur l’image ci-dessous :

Cliquer pour accéder au LAARA