Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - 6-4 - December 2019

vendredi 20 décembre 2019

1. Patry MB, Horn EM. Schema Development in Individuals with Autism : A Review of the Literature. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;6(4):339-355.

The purpose of this article was to synthesize the available research regarding the development of complex schemata in individuals with autism across its entire developmental process beginning with prototype formation, followed by categorization, and finally the development of schema. Specific research questions addressed the quality of research across all available studies, characteristics of participants, and whether a difference exists in the ability of individuals with autism to form schema as it relates to all three steps of the developmental process. Through a search of articles published between 1980 and 2018, 23 articles were identified, and results indicated a difference in individuals with autism as compared to typically developing controls, with the most mixed results occurring in prototype research. Implications for future research are discussed.

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2. Martin C, Dillenburger K. Behavioural Water Safety and Autism : a Systematic Review of Interventions. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;6(4):356-366.

People with autism are approximately twice as likely to die from drowning than members of the general population. Drowning can take place in quite small bodies of water. Therefore, acquiring good water safety skills is of the utmost importance. A systematic review of research into effective behavioural interventions for water safety and swim skills was conducted. In total, 11 studies were identified. Findings suggest that behaviourally based interventions can improve a range of water safety and swim skills in individuals with autism.

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3. Alagoz M, Kherad N, Gavaz M, Yuksel A. New Genetic Approaches for Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;6(4):367-380.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by disruptions in social interactions, communication, and limitations in behavior. Early diagnosis is an important step to prevent progression of ASD. Recent developments in genetic technology provide useful tools to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in autism. Despite a number of noteworthy studies, there is not yet enough understanding of the genetic etiology of ASD. Research should focus on multidisciplinary approaches to improve early diagnosis and intervention of autism. It is important to study the combinatorial effects of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. This review focuses on current research in ASD, highlighting the importance of identifying new approaches, such as next generation sequencing (NGS) and microRNA (miRNA) technologies, to introduce possible ways for developing new biomarkers and drugs.

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4. Tupou J, van der Meer L, Waddington H, Sigafoos J. Preschool Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : a Review of Effectiveness Studies. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;6(4):381-402.

Early intervention is widely recommended for young children with autism spectrum disorder, but the effectiveness of interventions when implemented in inclusive preschool settings needs to be considered. To this end, we identified 16 studies that provided early intervention to children with autism spectrum disorder who were attending inclusive preschools. Effectiveness studies, that is, studies evaluating interventions that were implemented under real-world conditions, were targeted, provided they met the pre-determined inclusion criteria. Included studies were summarized in terms of (a) participant characteristics, (b) intervention procedures, (c) procedures for training teachers, (d) study design, (e) outcomes, (f) study quality, and (g) social validity. A range of intervention procedures were implemented, and positive outcomes for children and/or teachers were reported in most studies. However, methodological limitations were identified for most of the included studies, indicating the need for additional higher-quality research. Still, the present review suggests that teachers may be able to effectively deliver early intervention to young children with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive preschool settings.

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5. Schlosser RW, Hemsley B, Shane H, Todd J, Lang R, Lilienfeld SO, Trembath D, Mostert M, Fong S, Odom S. Rapid Prompting Method and Autism Spectrum Disorder : Systematic Review Exposes Lack of Evidence. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;6(4):403-412.

This systematic review is aimed at examining the effectiveness of the rapid prompting method (RPM) for enhancing motor, speech, language, and communication and for decreasing problem behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multi-faceted search strategy was carried out. A range of participant and study variables and risk and bias indicators were identified for data extraction. RPM had to be evaluated as an intervention using a research design capable of empirical demonstration of RPM’s effects. No studies met the inclusion criteria, resulting in an empty review that documents a meaningful knowledge gap. Controlled trials of RPM are warranted. Given the striking similarities between RPM and Facilitated Communication, research that examines the authorship of RPM-produced messages needs to be conducted.

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6. Novack MN, Dixon DR. Predictors of Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover in Behavior Technicians Working with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;6(4):413-421.

Frequent turnover of behavior technicians working with individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have negative impacts on organizations, staff, and patients. The current paper set out to conduct a systematic review of predictors of staff retention in behavior technicians. Two databases were searched to identify studies relating to retention, turnover, burnout, and job satisfaction across samples of behavior technicians working with individuals with ASD. Of the 33 articles identified, 5 studies met inclusion criteria. A number of employee and organizational factors were identified as predictors of burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to turnover in behavior technicians. These findings are informative for hiring practices, ongoing supervision, and support of behavior technicians working with individuals with ASD.

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7. Nicholas DB, Orjasaeter JD, Zwaigenbaum L. Correction to : Considering Methodological Accommodation to the Diversity of ASD : A Realist Synthesis Review of Data Collection Methods for Examining First-Person Experiences. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ;2019 (2019/12/01) ;6(4):422-422.

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