Pubmed du 22/12/19

dimanche 22 décembre 2019

1. Bacon A, Beaman CP, Liu F. An Exploratory Study of Imagining Sounds and "Hearing" Music in Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2019 (Dec 20)

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly possess preserved or superior music-processing skills compared to their typically developing counterparts. We examined auditory imagery and earworms (tunes that get "stuck" in the head) in adults with ASD and controls. Both groups completed a short earworm questionnaire together with the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale. Results showed poorer auditory imagery in the ASD group for all types of auditory imagery. However, the ASD group did not report fewer earworms than matched controls. These data suggest a possible basis in poor auditory imagery for poor prosody in ASD, but also highlight a separability between auditory imagery and control of musical memories. The separability is present in the ASD group but not in typically developing individuals.

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2. Coussens M, Van Driessen E, De Baets S, Van Regenmortel J, Desoete A, Oostra A, Vanderstraeten G, Waelvelde HV, Van de Velde D. Parent’s perspective on participation of young children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and/or Developmental Coordination Disorder and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder : a systematic scoping review. Child Care Health Dev ;2019 (Dec 22)

BACKGROUND : During the early years of a child’s life, participation is essential for learning and development. Children with disabilities are at risk for decreased participation. The interplay between environment and participation is identified as one of the most important factors influencing successful participation. The objective of this scoping review was to synthesize peer-reviewed literature about barriers and facilitators of participation according to the perspective of parents of children younger than six years with Attention Developmental Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Developmental Coordination Disorder. METHODS : The scoping review followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework. Relevant studies were identified by a comprehensive search of scientific databases (PubMed and Web of Science). Studies describing perspectives of parents regarding their child’s participation, written in English, published between 2001 - September 2017 were included. RESULTS : A total of 854 articles were retrieved with 13 meeting the criteria. Elements contributing to perceived barriers and facilitators were identified and organized according to the International Classification of Functioning, Child-Youth (ICF-CY) framework. Concepts contained in these studies were linked to’activities and participation’ (general tasks and demands such as bedtime and dinner routines and social, civic life such as play and leisure). Environment-focused factors identified were situated on ’support and relationships’, ’attitudes’, ’services, systems and policies’. CONCLUSION : The review revealed guidelines focusing on family-centered care, communication with and providing information to parents with young children with Developmental Disabilities (ADHD, DCD and/or ASD).

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3. McKechanie AG, Campbell S, Eley SEA, Stanfield AC. Autism in Fragile X Syndrome ; A Functional MRI Study of Facial Emotion-Processing. Genes (Basel) ;2019 (Dec 17) ;10(12)

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, and among those with fragile X syndrome, approximately 1/3rd meet a threshold for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Previous functional imaging studies of fragile X syndrome have typically focused on those with fragile X syndrome compared to either neurotypical or autism spectrum disorder control groups. Further, the majority of previous studies have tended to focus on those who are more intellectually able than is typical for fragile X syndrome. In this study, we examine the impact of autistic traits in individuals with fragile X syndrome on a paradigm looking at facial emotion processing. The study included 17 individuals with fragile X syndrome, of whom 10 met criteria for autism as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Prior to the scan, participants rehearsed on a mock scanner to help acclimatize to the scanner environment and thus allow more severely affected individuals to participate. The task examined the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to fearful and neutral faces taken from the Ekman faces series. Individuals in the autism group had a region of significantly reduced activity centered on the left superior temporal gyrus, compared to those with FXS alone, in response to the fearful faces. We suggest that autism in individuals with fragile X syndrome is associated with similar changes in the neurobiology of facial emotion processing as seen in idiopathic autism.

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4. Pastor-Cerezuela G, Fernandez-Andres MI, Sanz-Cervera P, Marin-Suelves D. The impact of sensory processing on executive and cognitive functions in children with autism spectrum disorder in the school context. Res Dev Disabil ;2019 (Dec 17) ;96:103540.

BACKGROUND : Theoretical approaches propose a hierarchical organization of sensory and higher-order cognitive processes, in which sensory processing influence some cognitive and executive functions. AIMS : The main objective of this study was to analyze whether sensory processing dysfunctions can predict the cognitive and executive dysfunctions evaluated in a group of children with level 2 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the school context. METHODS AND PROCEDURES : Two groups of children participated : an ASD group (n = 40) and a group of children with typical development (the comparison group, n = 40). The children’s sensory processing was evaluated based on their teachers’ perceptions, and the children’s executive and cognitive functions were evaluated using direct performance measures. RESULTS : In the ASD group, the sensory processing difficulties predicted executive and cognitive dysfunctions in the specific domains of inhibitory control, auditory sustained attention, and short-term verbal memory, after controlling the possible effect of ASD severity. Moreover, the ASD group showed higher levels of sensory, executive, and cognitive dysfunction than the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS : Future research should investigate whether adequate sensory interventions in children with ASD in the school context can improve these specific executive and cognitive functions.

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5. Simonoff E, Kent R, Stringer D, Lord C, Briskman J, Lukito S, Pickles A, Charman T, Baird G. Trajectories in Symptoms of Autism and Cognitive Ability in Autism From Childhood to Adult Life : Findings From a Longitudinal Epidemiological Cohort. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ;2019 (Dec 18)

OBJECTIVE : For the first time, we use a longitudinal population-based autism cohort to chart the trajectories of cognition and autism symptoms from childhood to early adulthood and identify features that predict the level of function and change with development. METHOD : Latent growth curve models were fitted to data from the Special Needs and Autism Project cohort at three timepoints : 12, 16 and 23 years. Outcome measures were IQ and parent-reported Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) autism symptoms. Of the 158 participants with an autism spectrum disorder at 12 years, 126 (80%) were re-assessed at 23 years. Child, family and contextual characteristics obtained at 12 years predicted intercept and slope of the trajectories. RESULTS : Both trajectories showed considerable variability. IQ increased significantly by a mean of 7.48 points from 12 to 23 years while autism symptoms remained unchanged. In multivariate analysis, full-scale IQ was predicted by initial language level and school type (mainstream/specialist). Those with a history of early language regression showed significantly greater IQ gains. Autism symptoms were predicted by Social Communication Questionnaire scores (lifetime version) and emotional and behavioral problems. Those attending mainstream schools showed significantly fewer autism disorder symptoms at 23 than those in specialist settings ; this finding was robust to propensity score analysis for confounding. CONCLUSION : Our findings suggest continued cognitive increments for many across the adolescent period, but a lack of improvement in autism symptoms. Our finding of school influences on autism symptoms requires replication in other cohorts and t settings before drawing any implications for mechanisms or policy.

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