Pubmed du 26/12/19

jeudi 26 décembre 2019

1. Karhu E, Zukerman R, Eshraghi RS, Mittal J, Deth RC, Castejon AM, Trivedi M, Mittal R, Eshraghi AA. Nutritional interventions for autism spectrum disorder. Nutr Rev ;2019 (Dec 26)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with considerable clinical heterogeneity. With no cure for the disorder, treatments commonly center around speech and behavioral therapies to improve the characteristic social, behavioral, and communicative symptoms of ASD. Gastrointestinal disturbances are commonly encountered comorbidities that are thought to be not only another symptom of ASD but to also play an active role in modulating the expression of social and behavioral symptoms. Therefore, nutritional interventions are used by a majority of those with ASD both with and without clinical supervision to alleviate gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms. Despite a considerable interest in dietary interventions, no consensus exists regarding optimal nutritional therapy. Thus, patients and physicians are left to choose from a myriad of dietary protocols. This review, summarizes the state of the current clinical and experimental literature on nutritional interventions for ASD, including gluten-free and casein-free, ketogenic, and specific carbohydrate diets, as well as probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and dietary supplements (vitamins A, C, B6, and B12 ; magnesium and folate).

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2. McAuliffe D, Zhao Y, Pillai AS, Ament K, Adamek J, Caffo BS, Mostofsky SH, Ewen JB. Learning of skilled movements via imitation in ASD. Autism Res ;2019 (Dec 26)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consists of altered performance of a range of skills, including social/communicative and motor skills. It is unclear whether this altered performance results from atypical acquisition or learning of the skills or from atypical "online" performance of the skills. Atypicalities of skilled actions that require both motor and cognitive resources, such as abnormal gesturing, are highly prevalent in ASD and are easier to study in a laboratory context than are social/communicative skills. Imitation has long been known to be impaired in ASD ; because learning via imitation is a prime method by which humans acquire skills, we tested the hypothesis that children with ASD show alterations in learning novel gestures via imitation. Eighteen participants with ASD and IQ > 80, ages 8-12.9 years, and 19 typically developing peers performed a task in which they watched a video of a model performing a novel, meaningless arm/hand gesture and copied the gesture. Each gesture video/copy sequence was repeated 4-6 times. Eight gestures were analyzed. Examination of learning trajectories revealed that while children with ASD made nearly as much progress in learning from repetition 1 to repetition 4, the shape of the learning curves differed. Causal modeling demonstrated the shape of the learning curve influenced both the performance of overlearned gestures and autism severity, suggesting that it is in the index of learning mechanisms relevant both to motor skills and to autism core features. Autism Res 2019. (c) 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : Imitation is a route by which humans learn a wide range of skills, naturally and in therapies. Imitation is known to be altered in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but learning via imitation has not been rigorously examined. We found that the shape of the learning curve is altered in ASD, in a way that has a significant impact both on measures of autism severity and of other motor skills.

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3. Tromans S, Yao GL, Kiani R, Alexander R, Al-Uzri M, Brugha T. Study protocol : an investigation of the prevalence of autism among adults admitted to acute mental health wards : a cross-sectional pilot study. BMJ Open ;2019 (Dec 23) ;9(12):e033169.

INTRODUCTION : Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are associated with difficulties in social interaction, communication and restricted, repetitive behaviours. Much is known about their community prevalence among adults, data on adult inpatients within an acute mental health setting is lacking.This pilot study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ASDs among adults admitted to acute mental health wards and to examine the association between ASDs and psychiatric and physical comorbidities within this group. METHODS AND ANALYSIS : A multiple-phase approach will be used. Phase I will involve testing of 200 patients and corresponding informants, using the autism quotient (AQ), the informant version of the Social Responsiveness Scale, second edition-Adult, the self and informant versions of the Adult Social Behaviour Questionnaire and the EuroQol-5D-5L. Patients with intellectual disability (ID) will bypass Phase I.Phase II will involve diagnostic testing of a subgroup of 40 patients with the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule version 2 and the ASD interview within the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry version 3. 25+/-5 patients will not have ID and be selected via stratified random sampling according to AQ score ; 15+/-5 patients will have ID. Phase II patients will be interviewed with the Physical Health Conditions and Mental Illness Diagnoses and Treatment sections of the 2014 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.Prevalence estimates will be based on the proportion of Phase II participants who satisfy the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Diagnostic Criteria for Research (ICD-10-DCR) and the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for ASD, adjusting for selection and non-response. Univariate analysis will be conducted for comorbidities to identify the level of their association with an ASD diagnosis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION : Study oversight is provided by the University of Leicester. The National Health Service Health Research Authority have provided written approval. Study results will be disseminated via conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER : ISRCTN27739943.

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